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Real "Pong" FAQ

                         The REAL "PONG" F.A.Q. 
                             Version 1.06
                               ??? 1999 
                      Creator & Maintainer: Sly D.C. 


O.K.,Here's the legal stuff: 
Copyright (c) 1997-1999, Sylvain De Chantal

All rights reserved.  This document may be copied, in whole or in part,
by any means provided the copyright and contributors sections remain
intact and no fee is charged for the information.  Contributors
retain the copyright to their individual contributions.

The data contained here in is provided for informational purposes
only.  No warranty is made with regards to the accuracy of some

You can find this FAQ on this newsgoup:
        - REC.GAMES.VIDEO.CLASSIC        

Or you can find it at: 

        - Game FAQs ""
        - Digital Press ""
        - my Home Page ""

Additional contributions IS welcome! (really badly needed!!)  
Please mail additional information,
opinions, and comments to : mailto --> ""
                                or --> ""

I hope that anybody will like it, It took me at least a year just
trying to find information of anykind about pongs...and in between,
my damn harddisk crashed and i lost precious data forever...

Many THANKS to all the persons who sent me comments, corrections
or informations! Please go see chap#6 for the credits roaster.

              Welcome to the REAL FAQ about "PONGS"

                      TABLE OF CONTENTS
              1.0) PONG: The controversy of videogame history
              2.0) Pong systems specs
              3.0) PONGS LIST (far from complete!)
              3.5) More Details of Pongs Units
              4.0) Computer Space: first arcade game
              4.5) The ODYSSEY: first home system
              5.0) Pong in the Arcades
              6.0) Credits (in alphabet order)

Dear Readers, this FAQ is now dedicated to William A. Higinbotham 
since the 10th November of 1997 for the honor of his memory.


                  May the Gods be with you! 

And for more information about William A. Higinbotham, PLEASE visit this
site: ""

1.0) PONG: The controversy of videogame history

                         History Lesson 101:

Many people out there thinks that the ATARI PONG was the first system
and that NOLAN BUSHNELL is THE FATHER of video games.........WRONG !! 

Instead of doing the usual recap of history, i'm going to tell about 
the history of each person responsible of what we call "Video Games".

Let start by -->"THE CREATOR"<-- of the "First Video Game" ever !!! 

It's all began in 1958, a person by the name of "Willy Higinbotham",
who was a physicist, made a WORKING model and not even with a single
transistor, but with vacuum tubes! (of course, transistors did existed at 
that time, the transistor was created by William Shockley, John Bardeen, 
and Walter Brattain of Bell Labs in 1947). 

His "Tennis" game-type was exposed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory 
for almost TWO years, and his game was more sophisticated than the ATARI 
PONG itself !! (yes-that's true! don't believe me? Ask EGM magazine or 
the Brookhaven National Laboratory!)

Now, please remember that "Willy Higinbotham" is THE FATHER that created 
the first video game, i hope that many of you will correct any history 
about video games. Almost anybody don't know about his work and he didn't 
get any credit for inventing the TRULY first video game, but in my book, 
he is THE creator !

Here's the story that Danny Monaghan sent me and i thought that it was
special that i had to share it with all of you readers: 
I just came across your Pong FAQ and was delighted to see your tribute 
to Mr. HIGINBOTHAM, the REAL inventor of Video Games! Believe it or not, 
I live on the same street where Mr. H lived (North Howell's Pt. Rd., 
Bellport, New York) and I'm only 8 houses away! I've got to tell you, 
when I was a little kid growing up he was the coolest guy on the block! 
He used to let all the kids in the neighborhood play baseball in his 
huge back yard... and even when we hit a ball off the side of his house, 
or broke a window, he didn't care!

It wasn't until 10 years ago when I was a senior at Bellport High School 
that I found out Mr. H invented Pong at Brookhaven National Laboratory 
(just a few miles away), and I couldn't believe it!  I had grown up on 
the first video game systems of the 70's, and by the time I was in High 
School was writing my own games for the Apple and Commodore 64. So it 
was a real shock when I found out that, all along, I had been living 
next to the almighty creator himself!  Unfortunately he passed away in 
'95 and I never got a chance to thank him, but his son Willy Jr. moved 
into his house, so I'm thinking about stopping by someday.  I don't know 
if you know this, but he also worked on the first Atom bomb... a stark 
contrast to his harmless Pong! I just wish more historians would note his 
awesome achievement! [Thanks for the letter Danny ! If anybody has any 
insight stories related to the 4 creators of Pongs, please do !]

Now the SECOND most important person, his name is "Steve Russell".

MIT student in 1961, creates "Spacewar"(the second video game), is the 
first interactive computer game on a Digital PDP-1 computer. 

The game is to control two tiny spaceships, one called the "WEDGE" and
the other called the "NEEDLE" ,they battles around a tiny dot in the
middle of the screen that represent the Sun. The game featured an 
accurate portrait of physics in outer space. Another student even 
corrected the star fields in the background to the scale !!          

But Russell made a mistake, he never filed for a copyright. He thought
that it cost too much to try to market his game, he was right about this.
Only few computers could run his game in this time, and at a cost of 
$120,000 for a PDP-1, it was too much to put in arcades. 
His game almost faded away forever if it wasn't for the employees of 
Digital Equipment who used it to test their computers while installing 
them for customers. Customers received the game as a gift. (Notice how
FATE is unpredicable ? First Willy's game was unheard of, and Steve's
game almost dissapeared to nothingness if not "Nolan Bussnell" who
later [in 1962] becomes addicted to the game...we almost didn't get
video games, if it wasn't for Nolan who craved "Spacewar" so much,
and for his ideas and his visions; you, me and many people wouldn't had 
the pleasure to discover a new invention called "Video Games", and 
you wouldn't be reading this FAQ as a matter of fact !!)           

The THIRD most important person's name is "Ralph Baer".

Working for a military contractor called Sanders Associates, in New 
Hampshire in 1966, he had an idea for a new use for televisions. He 
decided to create a console that would enable people to play electronic 
games on their television sets.

Baer's first game was about putting out fires. The game involved a red 
box representing a house that was on fire. Players controlled the game 
with a lever that represented a water pump. If they pumped the lever fast 
enough, the box turned blue, meaning the fire was extinguished. 

In 1967, Baer added a fun-loving engineer named Bill Rusch to his team. 
Rusch, came up with a better concept. In his game, players used "paddles" 
to catch and toss a dot across the screen. Rusch eventually modified the 
paddles so that they rejected the ball. Instead of playing catch, Rusch's 
game now played tennis. 

Eventually, in 1971, Baer sold his game machine to Magnavox. 
Magnavox accepted Baer's technology but ignored his vision. Baer wanted 
to create a simple device that could retail for under $20; Magnavox 
programmed 12 games into the system, dressed it up with playing cards 
and plastic overlays that players could put on their television screens, 
and charged $100. They called the system the Odyssey.             

The first prototypes of the Odyssey were finished in early 1972. In May, 
Magnavox started demonstrating them around the country at private showings. 
Toward the end of the month, the Odyssey was shown at a trade show in 
Burlingame, Calif., just outside of San Francisco. One of the people who 
attented at the show was a young engineer named Nolan Bushnell, he saw
the Odyssey and the games that it could played, and ONE of those game
cought Bushnell's eyes...

Now for the FORTH and not the least, "Nolan Bushnell".

Student at the University of Utah in 1962, became addicted to "Spacewar"
Russell's game. He liked the game so much that in 1970, two years after 
his graduation, took his daughter's bedroom and converted it into a 
workshop in which he could create an arcade version of the game. 

His firts idea was to use a computer, prices of computers had dropped 
sharply by this time but they still cost far too much to use in arcades. 
But Instead of using a computer, he built a device that could only play 
"Spacewar" with cruder graphics which he recalled it "Computer Space". 

Later in 1971, he sold the idea to Bill Nutting, owner of Nutting 
Associates. Nutting hired Bushnell to oversee the creation of Computer 
Space while working on other engineering projects. They began to ship
the game by the end of 1971, but Computer Space was a failure. They
sold about 500 to 1,500 machines. 

Bushnell left Nutting Associates, formed a partnership with a friend 
named Ted Dabney and opened a new company called Syzygy but saw that the 
name already belonged to another company, so he chose - Atari.  

Atari's first product was a game called PONG, an electronic tennis match 
in which players batted a square ball back and forth with rectangular 
paddles. Created by engineer Al Alcorn(and NOT by Nolan Bushnell but 
helped with the game since he saw the "Tennis" game the Odyssey only a
few weeks ago at the trade show in Burlingame.)
It was a simple game with minimal instructions: "Avoid missing ball 
for high score." Bushnell and Alcorn placed a prototype of their game in 
Andy Capp's Tavern, a Sunnyvale, California bar. 

Two weeks after installing the game, Alcorn got a late-night phone call 
from the manager of the bar. The game had broken down, and he wondered if 
he could fix it. When Alcorn went to check the machine, he found a most 
unusual problem. There were so many quarters jammed into the coin drop 
that the game had stopped working. Within a few months, Ramtek, Nutting, 
and several other companies released imitations of Pong. Magnavox sued 
Atari for infringing on Baer's patents and ended up paying Magnavox 
$700,000 !!!(This is it,the FIRST VIDEOGAME COURT BATTLE !!)

In 1973, Eight to ten thousand units are made, Pong is an unprecedented 
success. Ted Dabney panics about competition and sells half is share to
Bushnell. Bushnell forms Kee Games (named after Joe Keenan) to provide 
"competition" for Atari.

In 1974, Atari began work on Home Pong, proposed by Harold Lee, a consumer 
version of the popular arcade game that could be played on a television 
set. Lee, Alcorn, and an engineer named Bob Brown develop the product. 
Because of the Odyssey's poor sales record, no retailers are interested 
in carrying the Atari Pong console, a tiny black and white box with two 
mounted paddle controller dials.

In 1975, After being turned down by toys, electronics and department stores, 
an Atari executive reached Tom Quinn, from Sears, Roebuck. After several 
meetings with Bushnell, he ordered 150,000 Home Pong consoles for Christmas,
and the console is badged with the Sears Tele-Games logo. 

By January 1976, Home Pong had become the new champion. Attracted by 
Atari's success, several companies release home video game consoles. 
Because of a rush on circuits, only Coleco receives its full order in time. 
Based on technology largely similar to the Pong machine, Coleco's Telstar 
Pong machine debuts. And a new menace for pongs systems is born: the 
Fairchild Channel F, the first programmable home game console, and not 
long after the RCA Studio 2 made it's appearence. 

By 1977, Atari released a game system that change videogames forever: 
the Atari 2600vcs. Bally released the Astrocade in 1978. By the end
of '78, pongs became boring to play and companies ended producing and 
marketing them since people wasn't bying them anymore. The fate of Pong
has been sealed and "died" without remorse.....fate can be cruel.

***** Here's what Glenn Saunders wrote: *****

When looking at history it's a subjective thing as to who was more or less
important in the history of videogames.  But if it were not for the true
visionary entreprendeurs, the inventors would probably not even be
footnotes in history, because their ideas would never leave the garage or 
the PDP-1 computer-room.

Revising history regarding Pong is fine, but also realize that Nolan
Bushnell really wound up building a better mousetrap and he had a much
better idea of how to start a videogame company than Magnavox.

I think it is unfair to take away his throne of being the father of
videogames simply because he didn't invent Space War or Pong.  And
lawsuits are common in Silicon Valley.  Other companies have settled with
Atari over THEIR intellectual copyrights, including Activision.  Whatever
lack of innovation Nolan had at the start by making a raster version of
Space War and a clone of Pong was definitely made up for by the time the
2600 was sweeping the floor with Magnavox's Odyssey^2 and the arcades
were filled almost exclusively with Atari/Kee Games product. 

The house that Nolan built had a solid foundation of talented engineers
and programmers who, to me, were far more influential in popularizing
arcade and home videogaming than anything Ralph Baer or Magnavox did.

##Do you think i was to harsh on Mr.Bushnell or that i was right ??

I can more or less agree with Glenn input but everybody has his or her 
own way at looking at things, life, history, and so on...

I agree that was a wee-bit hard on Mr.Bushnell case, that i didn't 
acknowledge more on Nolan Bushnell since he brought us the Atari 2600
and all the Classics !! But since it's a F.A.Q. and History about "Pongs"
(and not the whole video game industry history), i only wrote what i 
needed for this F.A.Q. (sorry! but that that's!) 


2.0) Pong system specs
Well, to tell you the truth, there isn't really much specification about
"PONG" systems, the Odyssey 1 has no microchip, it was made with transis-
tors. A microchip called the "AY-3-8500", made by General Instrument in 
1975?, was THE chip that Coleco installed in their "PONG" system and that 
many manufactuers did based their systems on this chip, more than 75 other 
companys had issued similar video game units. 

Thanks to Ramon Martinez, here's is the schematic of the AY-3-8500,
this info is greatly appreciated!!

                  NC -|*(pin #1)       #28|- NC 
            Vss (GND)-|                   |- shotgun input (pointer)
        Sound Output -|                   |- trigger input
                 Vcc -|                   |- reset game input
   ball angle switch -|                   |- playfield and scores output
         ball output -|                   |- practice
   ball speed switch -|     AY-3-8500     |- squash
 manual serve button -|                   |- hockey
 right player output -|                   |- tennis
  left player output -|                   |- shotgun game II
  right paddle input -|                   |- shotgun game I
   left paddle input -|                   |- CLOCK input
         paddle size -|                   |- SYNC output
                  NC -|#14             #15|- NC

Mainly, "PONG" systems has :
- power ON/OFF
- 2 "paddles"(turning knobs, levers, sliders...)- up to 4
- RESET button
- SELECT GAME button or switch
- BAT SIZE (small/large) switch (may or not)
- BALL SPEED (slow/fast) switch (may or not)
- SLICE (min/max) switch (may or not)
- SERVE button or switch(manual/auto)(may or not)
- Color or Black&White
- 2 player generally (but can be 1 to 4 players)
- PISTOL or GUN (may or not)

and usually has those type of games:

and some has those type of games:


This list is very, very far from complete !
Any informations, inputs, contributions, descriptions or anything
related to PONG systems will be GREATLY appreciated !!!!!
They may be errors in this list, but trying to list pong systems
that are outdated between 20 & 25 years ago isn't easy !!!

# of NORTH AM Systems: 114
# of EUROPEAN Systems: 047          Total for Now: 191                   
# of JAPANESE Systems: 030                    

NORTH AM Systems (U.S. & CANADA)    Company                  YEAR     
Adversary 370                       National Semiconductor   1976 
APF TV FUN Model 401                APF Electronics
APF TV FUN Model 402                APF Electronics
APF TV FUN Model 405                APF Electronics
APF TV FUN Model 442                APF Electronics
APF TV FUN Model 444                APF Electronics
APF TV FUN Model 500                APF Electronics
Apollo 2001                         Entreprex                1978
Bag-A-Tel                           Calfax
Colorgame                           Intercon Marketing Corp.
Compu-Vision                        Bentley                  1983?
Conic model TVG 101-4               Conic
Conic model TVG 102-4               Conic
DIGITEK 2001                        Digitek Electronics      1976 
Face-Off Hockey/Soccer              Executive Games
Fantasia 101                        Fantasia
First Dimention Video System        Firts Dimention Corp.
Four-Way Video Game, model 1004     Concept 2000
Gamatic 7600                        Ridgewood
Gameroom Tele-Pong                  Entex
Glorytone                           Granada Electronics
Gorilla Game model TG-101           Santron
Gorilla Game model TG-102           Santron
Heatkit model GD-1999               Heath Co.
Hockey-Pong                         Atari
Name of the Game (??)               Allied Leisure Industries
Nose T' Nose, model 1006            Concept 2000
Odyssey ???, model 4305             Magnavox 
Odyssey [FIRST home video game]     Magnavox                 1972
Odyssey 100                         Magnavox                 1975 
Odyssey 200                         Magnavox                 1975
Odyssey 300, model 7500             Magnavox                 1976
Odyssey 400, model 7516             Magnavox 
Odyssey 500, model 7520             Magnavox 
Odyssey 2000, model 7510            Magnavox                 1977
Odyssey 3000, model 7511            Magnavox 
Odyssey 4000, model 7530            Magnavox                 1977
OLYMPIAN 2600                       Unisonic
Paddle IV                           Roberts
Pong video game, Model C-100        Atari                    1975  
PONG video game                     Atari                    1977
Quadtronics model Q376              Quadtronics
Quadtronics model Q476              Quadtronics
Rally IV                            Dyn Electronics
Rally IV                            Roberts
Ricochet, model mt1a                Microelectric Systems    1976
Ricochet Challenger, model mt3a     Microelectric Systems
Ricochet Champion, model mt2a       Microelectric Systems
Sands 2200 game                     ?????                    1977
SC 4000                             K-Mart
SC 8000                             Radolin
Stunt Cycle                         Atari
SuperColor Volley X                 Roberts
Super Pong, Model C-140             Atari
Super Pong 8000                     Visulex                  1976
Super Pong Ten, Model C-180         Atari
Superscore                          Videomaster
TANK                                Atari                    1977
Tele-Action Mini                    DMS
Tele-Games 80007                    Sears(made by Atari)
Tele-Games IV                       Sears(made by Atari)
Tele-Games Jokari                   Sears(made by APF)
Tele-Games Pinball Breakaway        Sears(made by Atari)
Tele-Games Pong Sports IV           Sears(made by Atari)     1977
Tele-Games Speedway IV              Sears(made by Atari)
Tele-Games Super Pong IV            Sears(made by Atari)
Tele-Games Tennis-Hockey            Sears(made by APF)
Tele-Match 4, model 7700            Magnavox
Tele-Match, model 3300r             Tele-Match
Tele-Match, model 4400              Tele-Match
Tele-Match, model 6600              Tele-Match
Tele-Match, model 7700              Tele-Match
Tele-Pong, model 3047               Entex 
Tele-Sports Mini                    DMS
Telecourt TV game                   Hometronics              1977
Telstar, model 6040                 Coleco                   1976
Telstar, model 6040(deluxe cabinet) Coleco                   
Telstar Alpha, model 6030           Coleco
Telstar Arcade (3 game in 1)        Coleco                   1975
Telstar Classic                     Coleco
Telstar Colormatic                  Coleco
Telstar Colortron                   Coleco                   1978
Telstar Combat                      Coleco
Telstar Galaxy                      Coleco
Telstar Gemini                      Coleco
Telstar Marksman                    Coleco                   1978
Telstar Ranger, Model 6046          Coleco                   1977
Telstar Ranger Colormatic           Coleco
Telstar Regent                      Coleco
Tournament model 101                Unisonic
Tournament 2000                     Lafayette 
Tournament-1000 TV game             Unisonic                 
Tournament-2000 TV game             Unisonic                 1976
TV PLUS 4 Four-Way Video Game       Concept 2000
TV Pong  Model EP-500               Nobility                 
TV Sports 77                        Olympus Electronics
TV Sports 802                       Lloyd's
TV Sports 812                       Lloyd's
TV Sports 813 Color                 Lloyd's
TV Sports 825                       Monteverdi (made by Lloyd's)
TV Scoreboard #60-3055              Radio Shack 
TV Scoreboard #60-3056              Radio Shack 
TV Scoreboard #60-3057              Radio Shack
TV Scoreboard #60-3061              Radio Shack
Ultra Pong, Model C-402             Atari
Video Action IV "Indy 500"          Universal Research Labs
Video Sport                         Granada
Video Sport                         Federal Transistor Co.
Video Sport, model TCR-104          TCR
Video Sports, model vsv-1           Venture Electronics
Video Pinball, Model C-380          Atari                    1977 
Video-Pro                           Unitrex          
Wonder Wizard Sharp Shooter(7702)   General Home Products    1976 
?? pong ??                          Radofin

EUROPEAN Systems                    Company                  YEAR
6000 Colour TV Game                 Grandstand
Blackpoint                          ?????
BSS 01 (BildSchirmSpiel)            ????? [please see chap.3.5]
Color Video Game R10/9012           ?????
Compu-Vision                        Bentley
Colour Game                         Interstate
CVG A10 9012                        ????? 
Electronic TV Game 888G             Hanimex                  1977 
ES 2203                             Philips
ES 2204                             Philips
Gamatic 7706                        Gamatic
Kahrlich Telegame                   ?????
Mk4 Game System                     Binatone
Mk6 Game System                     Binatone
Mk8 Game System                     Binatone
Model 1000                          Tandy 
Model 1000 Sportsvision             Adman
Odyssey 2001                        Philips
SD-017f                             ITMC  
Sensor-10                           Monarch                  1977 
Super Tele-Sports                   Intel
Superlectron                        ?????
Superscore                          SEB
Tele-Match                          Palladium
Telespiel-Philetta 915              Philips
TEMCO 8000                          ?????
Tournament Ten Pong System          Prinztronic
TRQ                                 Talleres Radioelectricos
TV Color-Multi-Spiel                Universum
TV Spiel 1004                       Universum
TV Spiel 4010                       Universum
TV Spiel 4014                       Universum
TV Sport XY                         ?????
TV Sports                           Soundic
VC 3000                             Interton
Video 2400                          Interton 
Video 2501                          Interton 
Video 2800                          Interton 
Video 3000                          Interton 
Video 3001                          Interton
Video 4000-EX                       ?????
Video Stellar 5 Jeux                ????? 
Videojeu N20                        Philips
Videojeu N30                        Philips
?? pong ??                          Univox   
?? pong ??                          ReEL

JAPANESE Systems                    Company                  YEAR
AER-8700                            AER                      1977
CT-7600C                            ???                      1977
TVcolor model 7600                  ???                      1977
TV-FAN model 1301                   ???                      1977
TV-FAN model 1401                   ???                      1977
TV-FAN model 1501                   ???                      1977
TV-FAN model 1601                   ???                      1977
TV-FAN model 1602                   ???                      1977
TV-FAN model 1701                   ???                      1977
TV-FAN model 1801                   ???                      1977
TV-FAN model 1901                   ???                      1977
TV-FAN model 1902                   ???                      1977
TVGAME                              ???                      1977
TV-JACK 1000                        ???                      1977
TV-JACK 1200                        ???                      1977
TV-JACK 1500                        ???                      1977
TV-JACK 2500                        ???                      1977
TV-JACK 3000                        ???                      1977
TV-JACK 5000                        ???                      1978
TV-JACK 8000                        ???                      1978
TVmate BARON                        ???                      1977
TVmate CHAMPION                     ???                      1977
TVmate DUKE                         ???                      1977
TVmate KING                         ???                      1977
TVmate QUEEN (tvg8000)              ???                      1977
TVmate SUPER CAR                    ???                      1977
TY-TG40                             ???                      1977
Video Attack                        ???                      1977
Video Attack 7 (tg-7800)            ???                      1977


3.5) More Details of Pongs Units

* APF TV Fun Model 401: - 4 games:Practice, Squash, Hockey, Tennis.
                        - 6 "C" cell batteries or AC adaptor  

* APF TV FUN Model 402: - Light Gun(pistol)
                        - Color pong system
                        - 5 games:Handball, Tennis, Hockey, Target, Skeet.

* APF TV FUN Model 405: - 4 versions of PONG
                        - 1 or 2 player                

* BBS 01: The only Video Game system sold in East Greman until the fall
          of the Berlin Wall in 1989. BildSchirmSpiel means TV Game in
          German. It was sold in 1979 for 550 Mark. The BSS 01 was 
          basically a 4 game black and white Pong version with a GI AY-3 
          Chip in it. There are rumors that a BSS 02 was planned (maybe 
          a Pong with a rifle ??) but such a thing was never released.
          Thanks for Martin Buchholz for this info!!

* Compu-Vision: - Color pong system    
                - 4 games:Tennis, Soccer, Squash, Practice.    
                - 4AA batteries or 6V power supply.   

* ES 2204: - 5 Carts: - 2211 Badminton
                      - 2212 Pelota
                      - 2213 Skeet Shooting
                      - 2214 Racing
                      - 2215 Ghostchaser   

* First Dimention Video System: - 3 games:Tennis, Hockey, Robot(?).
                                - 1, 2 or 4 players.              

* Gamatic 7706: - 6 games:football (soccer), tennis, squash, pelota 
                  (classic pong), practice & skeet.                
                - Released in Italy.

* Hockey Pong(c-121): - 1 or 2 players
                      - 4 games 

* Name of the Game (??): - 4 players
                         - input for a light gun
                         - 4 games:Tennis, Hockey,Hhandball 
                           and Target
                         - tv/game switch built-in

* ODYSSEY 200: - Tennis, Hockey, Smash.
               - 6 c batteries.

* ODYSSEY 300: - 3 games:Tennis, Hockey, and Smash
               - 6 "C" batteries

* Odyssey 500: - 4 games:Smash, Hockey, Tennis, Soccer.
               - in Color
               - Internal speaker. 
               - 9VDC (no battery compartment).

* Odyssey 2000: - 4 games:tennis, hockey, smash, practice.
                - 1 or 2 player

* Odyssey 3000: - 4 Games
                - Runs on 6 "C" Batteries

* ODYSSEY 4000: - Color pong system    
                - 8 games:Soccer, Tennis, Hockey, Gridball, Smash,
                  Smash Practice, Basketball and Basketball Practice.
                - 1 or 2 players
                - in Color
                - AC adaptor included

* OLYMPIAN 2600: - Color pong system, with different colors for each game.      
                 - 10 games:Tennis, Hockey, Squash, Practice, Soccer,
                   Baskets, Hoops, Grid/ball, Shoot, and Shooting.

* Paddle IV: - 4 games:tennis, hockey, smash, practice.
             - Detachable Remotee Control.
             - Color or Black & White.

* Pong Sports IV: - 2 or 4 players
                  - 16 Games (pong, hockey, street tennis, street hockey)
                  - Color or Black & White.

* Pong video game(c-100): - Color or Black & White
                          - 4 size "D" batteries

* Rally IV(Roberts): - 4 games:Tennis, Hockey, Squash, Practice.

* SC Four Thousand: - 4 games:Practice, Squash, Hockey, Tennis.
                    - built-in sound
                    - 6 "C" cell batteries or AC adaptor 
                    - Detachable Remote Controls

* SC Eight Thousand: - 8 games:Target 1, Target 2, Tennis singles,
                       Tennis doubles, Squash singles, Squash doubles,
                       Hockey 2, Hockey 4.
                     - 4 Remote Controls
                     - Electronic Pistol
                     - 6 "D" cell batteries or AC adaptor 

* Super Pong(c-140): - 4 games:Catch,Handball, Super Pong, Pong
                     - Color or Black & White 

* Super Pong IV: - 1 To 4 players
                 - 5 games:Pong, Super Pong, Catch, Basketball & Handball.
                 - Color or Black & White 

* SuperColor Volley X: - 4 games
                       - Light Gun
                       - 4 controllers
                       - in Color
                       - built-in sound

* Tele-Action Mini TV Game: - 4 games

* Tele-Match, model 3300r: - 5 games:Tennis, Hole in Wall, Catch, 
                             Handball, Pitch.
                           - Six different ball speeds
                           - two Atari-like paddles
                           - 4 AA Batteries 

* Tele-Games Pong Sports IV: - 4 controllers  
                             - 2 to 4 Players   
                             - 16 games:Pong, Hockey, Street Tennis, 
                               Street Hockey, and Super, Maxi and Team 
                               versions of all four games. 
                             - 32 Variations
                             - Runs on 4 "C" Batteries
                             - Sound comes from Unit  
                             - in Color    

* Telegames Hockey-Tennis: - 4 games:Practice, Tennis, Hockey, Handball
                           - Cylindrical Paddles Detachable
                           - 2 players
                           - 6 C batteries or 9VDC

* Telegames Jokari: - 4 games:Tennis, Hockey, Jokari, Practice
                    - 2 players
                    - 6 C batteries or 9VDC

* Telegames Pinball Breakaway: - in Color
                               - 7 games:Pinball I, Pinpaddle I, 
                                 Pinball II, Pinpaddle II, Basketball
                                 Breakaway & Breakout.
                               - One player only
                               - Internal speaker
                               - 6 C batteries or 9VDC

* Tele-Action Mini(TV GAME-513): - 4 games:Tennis, Practice, Hockey,
                                 - Two players
                                 - 6 AA batteries or 9VDC

* Telstar Alpha: - 4 games
                 - built-in sound

* Telestar Arcade: - 3 Triangle carts:# 1-Road Race/Tennis/Quick Draw
                                      # 2-Hockey/Tennis/Handball/Target
                                      # 3-Bonus Pinball/Shooting Gallery/...
* Telstar Colortron: - 4 Games
                     - Runs on 2 9Volt batteries or AC Adapter
                     - Sound comes from Unit                 

* Telstar Marksman: - in Color
                    - 6 games with 2 moving target games.
                    - 3 in 1 gun included - pistol, target pistol & rifle.
                    - Two 9v batteries or AC adapter   

* Telstar Ranger: - 6 games:Tennis, Hockey, Handball, Jai Alai, Skeet
                  - Internal speaker
                  - 2 players. 
                  - Light gun
                  - Detachable controllers
                  - 6 C batteries or 9VDC

* Tournament 2000: - 6 games:Tennis/Table Tennis, Hockey/Soccer, Squash, 
                     Practive, Targets, Skeet.
                   - Light Gun (whole rifle you put together)
                   - 6 "C" cell batteries or AC adaptor 

* TV PLUS 4-Way:  TV+4 features automatic on-screen scoring and
                  sound plus all of these...
                  On/off power switch.
                  Reset button starts games.
                  Hand-held remote units are detachable from
                  console and feature slide controls for positive
                  bat action.
                  Ball speed selector for medium or high speed action.
                  Angle selector gives variable ball spin action.
                  Manual/auto serve selector.
                  Bat size selector changes size of racquet.
                  TV channel selector.
                  Game selector for table tennis, soccer/hockey,
                  or squash plus single-play practice handball.
                  It runs on 6 C cell batteries

* TV Pong: - Batteries or AC
           - 4 games:Tennis, Practice, Hockey, Squash.

* TV Sports 825: - DC 9V 500MW 

* TV Scoreboard #60-3061: - 6 games:Target, Skeet, Tennis, Hockey, 
                            Squash, Practice.
                          - Two players
                          - Detachable left player controller
                          - Comes with Light gun 
                          - Internal speaker. 
                          - 6 AA batteries or 9VDC

* Ultra Pong(c-402): - 16 games:8 Pong & 8 Hockey 
                      - 1 to 4 players
                      - 4 "C" batteries or 6v power supply.             

* Video Sport(Granada): - 4 games: Hockey, Tennis, Squash and Practice
                        - 4 "C" batteries or 6v power supply.
                        - 1 or 2 players
                        - a plug for a remote controller (???)

* Video Sports(TRC): Four action games: Hockey, Tennis, Squash and Solo
                     Variable ball speed Amatuer and Pro
                     Three realistic sound effects for added excitement
                     Digital on-screen scoring 0-15
                     AC/DC operable using battery or optional AC Adapter 
                     (9-volt Battery or 9-volt Atari type power supply)
                     Automatic serve
                     Segmented paddles for automatic ball spin
                     Two Remote Controls

* Wonder Wizard Sharp Shooter: - Light Gun
                               - 5 games:Pistol, Tennis, Hockey, Handball 
                                 and Jai-Lai.

* ?? ReEl pong: - 4 games:football (soccer), tennis, squash & pelota. 
                - imported by ReEl (Italian distributor).

* ?? Univox pong: - 4 games:Hockey, Tennis, Squash et Practice.


4.0) Computer Space: first arcade game [Text by Roger Earl]

Considering that Computer Space was the world's first publically available 
video game, it may seem a bit strange that most people have never heard of 
it. Perhaps Computer Space is the ultimate example of how a video game needs
to be playable in order to be remembered. Pong captured the fame regardless 
of the advantages that Computer Space had.

First publically available video game, almost a full year before Pong. 
Futuristic looking fiberglass-molded cabinet. 
Computer Chip design (Pong was solid-state). 
Appeared in a popular Sci-Fi movie. 
An original design created by Nolan Bushnell 
(The Pong design was "borrowed"). 

Nolan Bushnell's pre-Atari company Syzygy (the name means: The Sun, Moon 
and Earth in total eclipse) designed Computer Space and was manufactured by 
Nutting Associates. To the best of my knowledge, Nutting never produced 
another video game. Although loosely based on Steve Russell's Spacewar game 
(1962), which Bushnell played on a PDP-1 computer at MIT, the game was 
changed significantly enough to make the relation between the two disputable. 
The game and cabinet were designed as an example of what future entertain-
ment would be like.

1.Insert quarter and press start; your rocket ship will appear.
2.There is no gravity in space; rocket speed can only be changed by engine 
3.Evade the saucers' missiles and use yours to score hits.
4.Outscore the saucers for extended play in hyperspace.

You controlled a rocketship around a starfield on the black & white 
screen with a shoot or be shot style of gameplay against "computer-guided" 
flying saucers. Actually, the flying saucers only tended to move up, down, 
or diagonally (a Z pattern). Like many games of the era, hitting the targets 
largely depending on mastering the phenomena known as "after-touch", meaning 
the bullets could be guided after you have shot them. The game was timed, 
with bonus (hyperspace level) time according to your performance. A switch 
setting inside the machine could allow two games on a single quarter. Two 
"games", not lives, because your score was completely reset at the end of a 
timed game. The controls consisted of four buttons: thrust, fire, rotate 
left and right. 

What is missing in my description is the fact that the game was incredibly 
slow. Computer ciruit technology just wasn't ready for the graphical 
intensity of video games, that is perhaps the main reason why Nolan Bushnell
went with a solid-state design on his next project. The other problem was 
the feeling of inevitable failure that came along with the time limit, 
cushioned only slightly by the promise of bonus time. Combining the 
frustration of turning ever so slowly on an inclosing invader.

With the clock ticking, giving you the kind of dread that a video game 
should never impose. After the game is over, you have an urge to push your 
nose high in the air and try to feel superior to a game that has only beaten
you because of its lack of technological prowess. 

So Computer Space didn't take off as a runaway hit, that was reserved for 
Pong the next year. At the most it was considered a novelty. 
Even so, it wasn't a complete disaster or at least the manufacturers had a 
bit of faith in it eventually catching on.  I say this because after the 
initial run of machines, they released a two player version with alternative
controls (strange joystick-dial combos). Both versions were available in 
three colors: candy-apple blue, candy-apple red, & candy-apple green. The 
candy-apple part meaning that they were painted in that metallic sparkling 
stuff that was so popular in the 1970's. The cabinets looked so much like 
a prop in a Buck Rogers film that one was featured in the Charlton Heston 
Sci-Fi cheeser Soylent Green, although they had painted it white to match 
the decor of the film. 

Computer Space has the same charm that the Ed Wood films do. It is a game 
so bad as to be a bit amusing. Collectors travel great distances to 
obtain one and with good reason. If I were to rate Computer Space as a 
piece of pop-art to place in your office or home, I would without a doubt 
give it a glorious 10 out of 10. As a piece of nostalgia it doesn't rate 
high for me because I don't remember it from it's original era. As a game, 
I doubt if it would score even a 1. So I'm doing something a bit strange 
with the score on this game, I'm compromising for which I can without a 
doubt say is the best coin-op cabinet ever made...

by Roger Earl from Electric Playground game reviews


4.5) The ODYSSEY: first home system

The Odyssey (AKA Odyssey I) Came Out In 1972 and was invented by Ralph Baer.
It played a game almost identical to pong as well as a number of additional 
games that required overlays and playing pieces. The Odyssey had two 
removable controllers that allowed the user to control their paddle in BOTH 
the x and y axis. In addition, the Odyssey came with 6 Cartridges that 
(along with a number of screen overlays, game boards and cards) allowed the 
user to play a number of different games. As an option, Odyssey owners could
buy the "Shooting Gallery" which included four more games and an electronic 
gun. The gun was simply light sensitive and a score can be racked up quite 
easily by pointing it at your local light bulb. 

Name of games:                          Cart #:    
Table Tennis                             01  
Ski/Simon Says                           02  
Tennis/Football/Hockey/Analogic          03  
Football/Cat And Mouse/Haunted House     04  
Submarine                                05  
Roulette/States                          06  

Add-On Games:
Volleyball                               07
Handball                                 08

Shooting Gallery Electronic Rifle Games:
Shootout, Dogfight & Prehistoric Safari  09
Shooting Gallery                         10

Complete Parts List:
* Odyssey console (of course !)
* Two plug-in controllers 
* Six Magnavox C-cells (when you buy it at the time) 
* Six Plug-In Game Cartridges (no# 1 through 6), 
* Original switchbox with two hooks and box, 
* 12 foot game cord, 
* 36 or 24 pages instruction manual 
* Eleven 18" TV overlays 
* Eleven 23" TV overlays 
* Game Field/Roulette Board 
* Stadium Scoreboard 
* Two football tokens 
* Two yardage markers
* 20 pass cards 
* 20 run cards 
* 10 kick off cards 
* 10 punt cards 
* 6 play cards
* 30 clue cards 
* 13 secret message cards 
* 48 plastic chips(sealed) 
* Two Dice 
* Play money 
* 50 state cards 
* Affairs of State (answer folder) 
* States study map 
* 28 Simon Says cards 
* Cat and Mouse stickers(25) sheet. 

It's interesting to note that future game cards were planned and there was 
an accessory port. If you look at its innards-- There are NO Integrated 
Circuits at all !! About 85,000 Odyssey's were sold in 1972 and about 
20,000 rifles (apparently people believed you had to own a Magnavox 
television for it to work which scared away some buyers). After that time, 
the Odyssey sales fell due to the outbreak of competition.

Want more information about the Company Magnavox from the "Odyssey 1"
to the "Odyssey 2" ??? Then please go see this new site:
         Inherent Mirth : ""

This site creator's name is "Shaun Gegan aka loomis" and he evens has
a "Odyssey 1 F.A.Q." that has a lot more information about this unit
that i have in this F.A.Q.!


5.0) Pong in the Arcades

This Pong list was taken from the KLOV list which is made by Mike Hughey,
Jeff Hansen & Jonathan Deitch.

* Computer Space - made by Nutting Associates in 1971 - B/W screen - 
  2 Players
* Dr.Pong - made by Atari in 197? - B/W screen - ? Players
* Elimination - made by Kee Games in 1973 - B/W screen - 4 Players
* Pin Pong - made by Atari in 197? - B/W screen - ? Players 
* Pong (what started Atari and the Video Game industries) - 
  made by Atari in 1972 - B/W screen - 2 Players
* Pong Doubles - made by Atari in 1973 - B/W screen - 2 Players   
* Quadra Pong - made by Atari in 1973 - B/W screen - 4 Players
  (plain copy of Elimination)
* Super Pong - made by Atari in 1973 - B/W screen - ? Players    


6.0) Credits

Many thanks to these guys !!! If it wasn't for them or for their info,
this FAQ wouln't exist !!

* Dennis Brown
* Martin Buchholz
* Randy Buss
* Greg Chance
* Steve Cooper
* Dean Dierschow
* Phillippe Dubois
* Roger Earl
* Eric Hamel
* Kevan Heydon
* Tom Howe
* Robert A. Jung
* Steven Kent       
* Corey Koltz
* Jeremy Larsen
* Harold A. Layer
* Ramon Martinez
* Dan Mazurowski
* Doug Manegre (DougM)          
* Rene Meyer
* Danny Monaghan
* David Orlikowski
* Fabrizio Pedrazzini
* Rico Quetzalcoatl
* Christopher Rodgers
* Glenn Saunders
* Joe Scoleri(the Maverick) 
* Lee K. Seitz
* Pieter Verhallen
* Alan Watkins
* Sam Z...?
* Jason "Kaotic Page" (???)
* EGM Magazine
* the Japanese Classic Videogame Station Odyssey
* the defunct Arton's Pong Page
* and some few people that i lost their name and some 
  info due to my harddisk crash.....(the first one)

Thanks and see you in the next version !!!
Copyright(c)1997-1999, Sylvain De Chantal, ""
or come visit my homepage at ""

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