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Atari 8-Bit Computers FAQ

               Welcome to the comp.sys.atari.8bit newsgroup!

                           Atari 8-Bit Computers

                      Frequently Asked Questions List
    ___________                                             _______________
   | ///////// |               _____________               |  |||||||||||  |
   |___________|              |             |              |  ||_______||  |
   |______/////|              |____[---]____|              | / _________ \ |
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | LLLLLLLLLLL L |
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | LLLLLLLLLLL L |
   |__[_____]__|              |__[_____]____|              |___[_____]_____|
       130XE                       800XL                          800
    ___________                                             __---------__   
   | ///////// |                                           | /  _____  \ |
   |___________|               _____________               | / |_____| \ |
   |______/////|              |____[---]____|              | ___________ |
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | ========== =|
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | ========== =|
   |__[_____]__|              |__[_____]____|              |___[_____]___|
        65XE                       600XL                         400
    ___________                                             _____________
   | ///////// |         ___________                       |             |
   |___________|        |/// /      |                      |             |
   |______/////|        |// /       |  /\___________       |=============|  
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|        |/O\        |\/ |LLLLLLLLLLL|      | LLLLLLLLLLL | 
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|        |-----------|   |LLLLLLLLLLL|      | LLLLLLLLLLL |  
   |__[_____]__|        |____O_O_O_O|   |__[_____]__|      |___[_____]___|
       800XE                        XE                          1200XL
             
Additions/suggestions/comments/corrections are needed!  Please send to:

                  Michael Current, michael@mcurrent.name

Copyright (c) 1992-2010 by Michael D. Current, and others where noted.  Feel
free to reproduce this file, in whole or in part, so long as the content of
that portion reproduced is not modified, and so long as credit is given to
this FAQ list or its Maintainer, or the author of that section reproduced
when given.

This document is in a constant state of development and comes with no
guarantees.  If you see any problems, I need to hear from you!

The latest version of this document is posted to the following Usenet
newsgroups every 60 days:
   comp.sys.atari.8bit, comp.answers, news.answers

Known mirrors of the latest version of this document:
   ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/faqs/atari-8-bit/faq
   http://faqs.cs.uu.nl/na-dir/atari-8-bit/faq.html

You may also request my latest working version at: michael@mcurrent.name

    **********************************************************************
    *  For other 8-bit Atari related FAQs please see the "Welcome FAQ":  *
    *    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/faqs/atari-8-bit/welcome                 *
    *    http://faqs.cs.uu.nl/na-dir/atari-8-bit/welcome.html            *
    **********************************************************************

UPDATES SINCE PREVIOUS POSTING:
2010.11.29 6.8 CX419 details added
2010.11.28 6.8 CX405, CX414, CX415 details added
2010.11.28 6.8 CX404 details, thanks Laurent Delsarte
2010.11.28 3.9, 4.5 added The Critical Connection
2010.11.26 7.6.2 MyPicoDos V4.05
2010.11.26 3.4.3 added Bit-Writer, reformatted rest of US upgrades section
2010.11.26 3.4.4 added two additional titles reported incompatible
2010.11.26 10.2 ADCM BBS section added
2010.11.26 6.2 XEP80 was made in Taiwan
2010.11.26 5.1 835 made in U.S.A.; SX212 made in Taiwan
2010.11.21 1.11 added lists of additional systems utilizing Atari custom
           chips, thanks Laurent Delsarte for inspiration and list of arcades
           with POKEY
2010.11.21 11.1, 1.5 Exidy Max-A-Flex info added
2010.11.14 6.7 1200XL seems to have shipped with 2 different power supplies
2010.11.11 8.6 Amiga mouse programs list
2010.11.10 6.8 expanded to list all CXnnn "kits".  Details needed!
2010.11.03 8.9 additional Koala programs verified, thanks Andreas Koch
2010.10.27 3.4.2 CX408 and other specifics, thanks Laurent Delsarte
2010.10.13 removed G1 Light Gun (2600/7800)--never really shipped
2010.10.13 11.1 1988-1989 Atari promotions
2010.10.12 7.5 DOS I disk label: "Disk File Manager Master Copy"

------------------------------

Subject: 0.1) Table of contents

 0.1) Table of contents

     The Computers
 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer?
 1.2) What is the Atari 400?
 1.3) What is the Atari 800?
 1.4) What is the Atari 1200XL?
 1.5) What is the Atari 600XL?
 1.6) What is the Atari 800XL?
 1.7) What is the Atari 65XE?
 1.8) What is the Atari 130XE?
 1.9) What is the Atari 800XE?
 1.10) What is the Atari XE video game system?
 1.10.5) What were the Atari 1400XL, 1450XLD, 65XEM, and 65XEP?
 1.11) What are SALLY, ANTIC, CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA, POKEY, and FREDDIE?
 1.12) Why do the ANTIC Modes start with "Mode 2", what about 0 or 1?
 1.13) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari?
 1.14) Who designed the Atari 8-bit computers?
 1.15) What issues surround NTSC vs. PAL vs. SECAM computer versions?
 1.16) What are the pinouts for the various ports on the Atari?

     Video Display and Sound Speakers
 2.1) What video display devices and speakers can I use with my Atari?
 2.2) What is artifacting?

     Mass Storage
 3.1) What are the Atari 410, 1010, XC11, and XC12 Program Recorders?
 3.2) What other cassette recorders can I use with my Atari?
 3.3) How do I run a program from cassette?
 3.4.1) What is the Atari 810 Disk Drive?
 3.4.2) What was the Atari 815 Dual Disk Drive?
 3.4.3) What is the Atari 1050 Disk Drive?
 3.4.4) What is the Atari XF551 Disk Drive?
 3.5) What other floppy disk drives can I use with my Atari?
 3.5.5) What is the Percom configuration block?
 3.6) What kinds of 5.25" floppy disks can I use with my Atari drives?
 3.7) What can I do to extend the life of my floppy disks?
 3.8) What hard drives were designed for my Atari?
 3.9) How can my Atari utilize my other computer's storage drives?
 3.10) How can I use SD/MMC cards with my Atari?
 3.11) How can I use a USB flash drive with my Atari?

     Printers
 4.1) What are the Atari 820, 822, and 825 Printers?
 4.2) What are the Atari 1020, 1025, 1027, and 1029 Printers?
 4.3) What are the Atari XMM801 and XDM121 Printers?
 4.4) What other printers can I use with my Atari?
 4.5) How can my Atari utilize my other computer's printer?

     MODEMs and networking hardware
 5.1) What are the Atari 830, 835, 1030, XM301, and SX212 Modems?
 5.2) What other modems can I use with my Atari?
 5.3) How can I my Atari utilize my PC's modem/network?
 5.4) What networking hardware is there for the Atari?
 5.5) How can I connect my Atari to a high-speed/Ethernet network?

     Hardware interfaces
 6.1) What is the Atari 850 Interface Module?
 6.2) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module?
 6.3) How can I use a SCSI/SASI device with my Atari?
 6.4) How can I use an IDE device with my Atari?
 6.5) Can I attach an ISA card to my Atari?
 6.6) How can I use a USB device with my Atari?

     More hardware
 6.7) What are the power requirements for my Atari components?
 6.8) What accessories/kits did Atari make for their 8-bit computers?
 6.9) What preventative maintenance can I do on my Atari system?
 6.10) What graphics tablets were produced for the Atari?
 6.11) What light pens were produced for the Atari?
 6.12) What light guns were produced for the Atari?
 6.13) What paddles were produced for the Atari?
 6.14) What voice/sound synthesis hardware was produced for the Atari?
 6.15) What sound-digitizers/samplers were produced for the Atari?
 6.16) What sound-enhancement upgrades were produced for the Atari?
 6.17) What MIDI enhancements are there for the Atari?
 6.18) What graphics enhancements are there for the Atari?
 6.19) What types of memory upgrades are there for the Atari?

     Core software: OS, BASIC, DOS, Modem handlers
 7.1) What versions of the Atari Operating System (OS) are there?
 7.1.5) What other operating systems have been produced for the Atari?
 7.2) What is the ATASCII character set?
 7.2.1) How can my program detect keypresses directly?
 7.2.5) How is the Input/Output subsystem of the Atari OS organized?
 7.3) What is Attract mode?
 7.4) What is Atari BASIC?
 7.5) What is Atari DOS, and what versions did Atari release?
 7.6.1) What are RealDOS, SpartaDOS X, and XDOS?
 7.6.2) What are MyPicoDOS and Micro-SpartaDOS?
 7.6.3) What other 3rd-party DOS versions were released for the Atari?
 7.7) How do I modify Atari DOS to support more than two drives?
 7.8) Are there Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) for the Atari?
 7.9) What should I know about modem device handlers?

     Software
 8.1) What programming languages are available for the Atari?
 8.2) What cartridges were released for the Right Slot of the 800?
 8.3) What games support 4 or more simultaneous players?
 8.4) What programs run only on the 400 and 800 models, and why?
 8.5) What programs use a light pen or a light gun?
 8.6) What programs have a trackball mode or support a mouse?
 8.7) What programs use paddle controllers?
 8.8) What programs have a CX85 Numerical Keypad mode?
 8.9) What programs use: Touch Tablet or KoalaPad/Animation Station?
 8.10) What kinds of extra RAM and RAMdisks can be installed?
 8.11) What programs support more than 64K RAM?
 8.12) What programs require more than 64K RAM?
 8.13) What voice/sound synthesis software is there for the Atari?
 8.14) What programs support stereo and upgraded sound?
 8.15) What games support online action via modem?
 8.16) What programs support Atari computer networking?

     Working with Atari files: Compression, File formats, Copying
 9.1) How can I work with .arc files on my 8-bit Atari?
 9.2) What file formats for entire disks/tapes/cartridges are there?
 9.3) How can I copy my copy-protected Atari software?

     Interoperating with "modern" computers
 10.1) What programs can log in to other computers via modem?
 10.2) What programs can I use to host a BBS on the Atari?
 10.3) How can I read/write Atari disks on an MS-DOS PC?
 10.4) How can I read/write MS-DOS PC disks on my Atari?
 10.5) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable?
 10.6) How can my PC utilize my Atari disk drive?
 10.7) What about interoperating with the Apple Macintosh?
 10.8) Are there 8-bit Atari tools for the Commodore Amiga?

     Timeline
 11.1) What is the history of Atari's 8-bit computers platform?

------------------------------

Subject: 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer?

Based in Silicon Valley in the U.S.A., the company known as Atari produced
a line of home computers from 1979 to 1992 often referred to collectively as
the "Atari 8-bits," the "8-bit Ataris," the "400/800/XL/XE series," etc.

The computers included the 400, 800, 1200XL, 600XL, 800XL, 65XE, 130XE, 800XE,
and the XE video game system.

Notable home computers that were introduced before the Atari 400/800:
1977: Apple II, Tandy Radio Shack TRS-80 (Model I), Commodore PET

Notable home computers that were introduced after the Atari 400/800:
1979: Texas Instruments TI-99/4
1980: Commodore VIC-20, TRS-80 Color Computer, Osborne 1
1981: Texas Instruments TI-99/4A, IBM PC, Sinclair ZX81 / TS 1000, BBC Micro
1982: Kaypro II, Sinclair ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64
1983: Coleco Adam, MSX
1984: Apple Macintosh, Amstrad CPC
1985: Atari ST, Commodore Amiga
1987: Acorn Archimedes

In marketing their computers to the public, Atari always had to contend with
their company history and reputation as a maker of video games.  While the
8-bit Atari computers in their heyday were technically quite comparable if not
superior in the worlds of home and business personal computing, they also live
up to the name "Atari" with a huge library of video games which were often
outstanding for their time.

The 8-bit Atari computers do not use the same cartridges or floppy disks as
any other Atari platforms, such as the 2600 Video Computer System (VCS), the
5200 SuperSystem, the 7800 ProSystem, or the ST/TT/Falcon computers.  All of
these but the 5200, however, do share the same joystick/controller hardware
port.

The 5200 SuperSystem is actually nearly identical to the 8-bit computers
internally, yet cartridges for the 5200 and the 8-bit computers cannot be
exchanged, primarily due to the physically different cartridge ports.

Here are some of the performance specifications of the 8-bit Atari computers:

CPU:
      6502B (most 400/800 machines)
      Atari SALLY 6502 (late 400/800 machines and all XL/XE machines)

CPU CLOCK RATE:
      1.7897725 MHz (NTSC machines)
      1.7734470 MHz (PAL/SECAM machines)

FRAME REFRESH RATE:
      59.94 Hz (NTSC machines)
      49.86 Hz (PAL/SECAM machines)

MACHINE CYCLES per FRAME:
      29859 (NTSC machines) (1.7897725 MHz / 59.94 Hz)
      35568 (PAL/SECAM machines) (1.7734470 MHz / 49.86 Hz)

SCAN LINES per FRAME
      262 (NTSC machines)
      312 (PAL/SECAM machines)

MACHINE CYCLES per SCAN LINE
      114     (NTSC machines: 29859 cycles/frame / 262 lines/frame)
         (PAL/SECAM machines: 35568 cycles/frame / 312 lines/frame)

COLOR CLOCKS per MACHINE CYCLE
      2

COLOR CLOCKS per SCAN LINE
      228  (2 color clocks/machine cycle * 114 machine cycles/scan line)

MAXIMUM SCAN LINE WIDTH = "WIDE PLAYFIELD"
      176 color clocks

MAXIMUM RESOLUTION = GRAPHICS PIXEL
      0.5 color clock

MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL FRAME RESOLUTION
      352 pixels (176 color clocks / 0.5 color clock)

MAXIMUM VERTICAL FRAME RESOLUTION
      240 pixels (240 scan lines per frame)

GRAPHICS MODES:
ANTIC  GTIA    CIO/BASIC     Display     Resolution        Number of
Mode # Mode #  Graphics #    Type        (full screen)     Colors/Hues
----------------------------------------------------------------------
  2               0          Char         40 x 24            1 *
  3               -          Char         40 x 19            1 *
  4              12 ++       Char         40 x 24            5
  5              13 ++       Char         40 x 12            5
  6               1          Char         20 x 24            5
  7               2          Char         20 x 12            5
  8               3          Map          40 x 24            4
  9               4          Map          80 x 48            2
  A               5          Map          80 x 48            4
  B               6          Map         160 x 96            2
  C              14 ++       Map         160 x 192           2
  D               7          Map         160 x 96            4
  E              15 ++       Map         160 x 192           4
  F               8          Map         320 x 192           1 *
 +F       1       9          Map          80 x 192           1 **
 +F       2      10          Map          80 x 192           9
 +F       3      11          Map          80 x 192           16 ***
  * 1 Hue, 2 Luminances
 ** 1 Hue, 16 Luminances (GTIA); or, 1 Hue, 8 Luminances (FGTIA)
*** 16 Hues, 1 Luminance
  + require the GTIA/FGTIA chip. (1979-1981 400/800s shipped with CTIA.)
 ++ Not available via the BASIC GRAPHICS command in 400/800 version of OS.

(See a separate section in this FAQ list for a discussion of the "missing"
ANTIC Modes 0 and 1.)

GRAPHICS INDIRECTION (COLOR REGISTERS AND CHARACTER SETS):
Nine color registers are available.  Each color register holds any of 16
luminances x 16 hues = 256 colors.  (Four registers are for player-missile
graphics.

Character sets of 128 8x8 characters, each with a normal and an inverse
video incarnation, are totally redefinable.

PLAYER-MISSILE GRAPHICS:
    Four 8-bit wide, 120 or 240 byte high single color players, and four
    2-bit wide, 120 or 240 byte high single color missiles are available.
    A mode to combine the 4 missiles into a 5th 8-bit wide player is also
    available, as is a mode to OR colors or blacken out colors when players
    overlap (good for making three colors out of two players!)  Players
    and missiles have adjustable priority and collision detection.

DISPLAY LIST:
    Screen modes can be mixed (by lines) down the screen using the Display
    List - a program which is executed by the ANTIC graphics chip every
    screen refresh.

DISPLAY LIST INTERRUPTS (DLIs):
    Other screen attributes (color, player/missile horizontal position,
    screen width, player/missile/playfield priority, etc.) can be adjusted
    at any point down the screen via DLIs.

SCROLLING:
    Fine scrolling (both vertical and horizontal) can be enabled on any
    line on the screen.

SOUND:
    Sound is monaural/monophonic (one channel output).

    Up to 4 separate simultaneous voices can be produced, configured as one of
    the following:
     - 4 voices, each with one of 256 unique frequencies/pitches
     - 2 voices, each with one of 65,536 unique frequencies/pitches
     - 1 voice with one of 65,536 pitches and 2 voices with one of 256 pitches

    Each voice may be produced with one of 8 available "noise" settings/
    polynomial-counter combinations, commonly called "distortion" settings.
      (There are actually only 6 distinct combinations of 3 poly-counters
      offered, but one of the poly-counters has 2 available settings itself,
      resulting in 2 additional noise settings for the total of 8 available.)

    Each voice may be produced at one of 16 volumes.

    Direct control of the position of the speaker cone is also available, with
    4-bit (16 position) resolution.  Known as "volume only mode" on the Atari.

    A fifth "voice" is produced as a separate signal by the internal speaker
    on the Atari 400/800.  This is typically used only for keyclick and
    buzzer.  In XL/XE systems these sounds are output as part of the normal
    monaural audio output signal.

VERTICAL BLANK INTERRUPTS (VBIs):
    A software routine may be designed to execute as a VBI.  There are two
    varieties of VBI: Immediate and Deferred.  An Immediate VBI completes 
    execution within the vertical blank time, which is the time allotted for a
    CRT display to shut the electron beam off at the lower-right of the 
    display and reposition it back on the top-left of the display to commence
    drawing of the next frame.  A Deferred VBI routine completes execution
    between the initiation of one vertical blank and the next.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.2) What is the Atari 400?

Released along with the 800 in 1979, the 400 was the low-end model of the two.
The only 8-bit Atari with a membrane keyboard rather than a full-stroke
keyboard.  One of the few 8-bit Ataris lacking a composite monitor port.
Originally released with just 8K RAM, but most were sold with 16K RAM.

Atari sold the 48K RAM Expansion Kit for the 400, which required a little
soldering, to dealers only.

Most Atari 400 machines include a standard 6502 microprocessor, but late-
production units use a revised CPU Board that features Atari's SALLY 6502.

On the 400, joystick controller port #4 is the only port that supports a light
pen or light gun.

Features unique to the 400/800 models:
  - Four controller (joystick) ports
  - Internal speaker for keyclicks and system buzzer
  - Memo Pad mode
  - +12 volts on pin 12 of the SIO port

Boot options:
   Memo Pad
      - Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive.
   Cartridge
      - Turn on computer with cartridge inserted.
   Cassette
      1. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer.
         (System buzzer sounds.)
      2. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder.
      3. Press [RETURN] to load and run cassette program.
   Disk
      - Turn on computer with disk inserted in powered disk drive.

Versions of the Atari 400:

  o  NTSC (North America) version
     - TV Channel switch: (2 - 3)
     - CTIA (early production) or GTIA (most)

  o  PAL (Europe) version
     - TV Channel switch (channels vary by country)
     - GTIA

Rare variation of the 400:
  o  At least some of the few Atari 400 units (PAL) sold by Atari in France
have been reported to include a built-in peritel cable.  PICTURES, ANYONE???
http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=62346&st=25

Atari marketing used the trademark, The Basic Computer, as an alternative name
for the 400 from 1981-1982.

The 400 was made in the USA (early production) and Hong Kong (later
production).

Production of the 400 ended in May 1983.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.3) What is the Atari 800?

Released along with the 400 in 1979, the 800 was the high-end model of the
two.  The 800 is the only 8-bit Atari with a Right Cartridge slot, in addition
to the Left Cartridge slot as present on all 8-bit Ataris.  Originally
released with just 8K RAM, many were sold with 16K, later on 48K was standard.

The 800 is also the only 8-bit Atari with a four-slot modular design, where
the first slot holds the CX801 (NTSC) or CX801-P (PAL) 10K ROM module, and
the other three slots hold combinations of CX852 8K or CX853 16K RAM modules.
Slots must be filled from front to back.  And, if both 8K and 16K modules are
to be used, the 16K module(s) must be used in front of the 8K module(s).

Jason Harmon writes: (12 Feb 2004)
"..the early ones had plastic cases on the ROM and RAM modules, and had two
thumb tabs to remove the cover to access the modules.  Later model 800s had
48K standard, and to improve cooling Atari installed them without the cases
but put a small plastic strip across the tops of the cards to hold them in
position.  These machines also lost the thumb tabs and have regular screws to
secure the cover over the memory slots."

Most Atari 800 machines include a standard 6502 microprocessor, but late-
production units use a revised CPU Board that features Atari's SALLY 6502.

Features unique to the 400/800 models:
  - Four controller (joystick) ports
  - Internal speaker for keyclicks and system buzzer
  - Memo Pad mode
  - +12 volts on pin 12 of the SIO port

Boot options:
   Memo Pad
      - Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive.
   Cartridge
      - Turn on computer with cartridge inserted.
   Cassette
      1. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer.
         (System buzzer sounds.)
      2. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder.
      3. Press [RETURN] to load and run cassette program.
   Disk
      - Turn on computer with disk inserted in powered disk drive.

Versions of the Atari 800:

  o  NTSC (North America) version
     - TV Channel switch: 2 - 3
     - CTIA (early production) or GTIA (most)

  o  PAL (Europe) version
     - TV Channel switch (channels vary by country)
     - GTIA

Rare variation of the 800:
  o  At least some of the few Atari 800 units (PAL) sold by Atari in France
have been reported to include an 8-bit DIN monitor port.  PICTURES, ANYONE???
http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=62346&st=25

The 800 was made in the USA.

Production of the 800 ended in May 1983.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.4) What is the Atari 1200XL?

Introduced as a big brother to the 400/800 in 1982 and shipped in 1983, the
1200XL was the biggest single step forward in development of the 8-bit Atari
platform.  Innovations in comparison to the 400/800 include a full 64K of RAM
and a newly revised and expanded 16K Operating System.

The 1200XL is the only Atari to feature two LED indicator lights (L1, L2).
Normally they are both .  L1  means the keyboard is disabled.
L2  means the new International Character Set is selected.

Keyboard enhancements introduced with the 1200XL include the new [HELP] key as
well as four programmable functions keys ([F1], [F2], [F3], [F4]).  Clicks and
system beeps output through the built-in speaker on the 400/800 are heard from
the television or monitor speaker on the 1200XL.

  1200XL Function key effects, redefinable:
     [F1] Cursor up          [SHIFT]+[F1] Cursor to upper-left corner
     [F2] Cursor down        [SHIFT]+[F2] Cursor to lower-left corner
     [F3] Cursor left        [SHIFT]+[F3] Cursor to start of physical line
     [F4] Cursor right       [SHIFT]+[F4] Cursor to end of physical line

  1200XL Function key effects, non-redefinable:
     [CONTROL]+[F1] Keyboard enable/disable (console keys unaffected)
     [CONTROL]+[F2] Screen display enable/disable
     [CONTROL]+[F3] Key click sound enable/disable
     [CONTROL]+[F4] Domestic/International character set toggle

A few features from the 400/800 are lacking in the 1200XL.  Most prominently,
the 1200XL has only 2 controller ports, and no Memo Pad mode.  Also, the
1200XL lacks the chrominance video signal on pin 5 on the Monitor port, and
lacks the +12 volts on pin 12 of the SIO port.  Furthermore, the 1200XL is the
only Atari that lacks the +5 volts on pin 10 of the SIO port.

Boot options:
   "ATARI" rainbow logo/graphics demo screen
      - Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive.
      - Press [HELP] from the "ATARI" logo screen to access Self Test program.
   Cartridge
      - Turn on computer with cartridge inserted.
   Cassette 
      1. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer.
         (System buzzer sounds.)
      2. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder.
      3. Press [RETURN] to load and run cassette program.
   Disk
      - Turn on computer with disk inserted in powered disk drive.

Box: "A Step Into the Future" or "The Next Logical Step"

The 1200XL was only produced in an NTSC version for North America.

The 1200XL was made in the USA from January 1983 to May 1983, and in Taiwan
from April 1983 to July 1983.

By analyzing 1200XL serial numbers, Karl Heller estimates that fewer than
120,000 units total were produced, and possibly fewer than 100,000.  See the
"1200XL Owners List" thread on AtariAge:
   http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=107234

Scott Stilphen mentioned this 1200XL easter egg on 10 Feb 2006:
   On 1200XLs, if you select 'all tests', when it gets to the keyboard test
   it'll type out the programmer's name.

1200XL visual tour: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/1200xl/

------------------------------

Subject: 1.5) What is the Atari 600XL?

Released in 1983 as a replacement for the 400, the 600XL is the low-end
version of the 800XL.  The 600XL/800XL include most of the features of the
1200XL, minus the 4 Function keys, the 2 LED lights, and the "ATARI" logo
screen.  But both the 600XL and 800XL have the Atari BASIC language built-in.
In addition, these two systems offer the Parallel Bus Interface (PBI),
providing fast parallel access to the heart of the computer.  The 600XL has
16K RAM.

The Atari 1064 Memory Module expands the 600XL from 16K to 64K RAM.

Boot options:
   Atari BASIC (Rev. B)
      - Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive.
   Self Test program
      - Hold down [OPTION] while turning on the computer with no cartridge
        installed and no powered disk drive.
   Cartridge
      - Turn on computer with cartridge inserted.
   Cassette 
      1. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer.  
         (System buzzer sounds.)
      2. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder.
      3. Press [RETURN] to load and run cassette program.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled
      - Turn on computer with disk inserted in powered disk drive.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled
      - Hold down [OPTION] while turning on computer with disk inserted in
        powered disk drive.

Box: "Feature For Feature, Your Best Value"

Versions of the Atari 600XL:

  o  NTSC (North America) version, produced fall 1983 to summer 1984 by
     Atari, Inc.
     - No Monitor port
     - TV Channel switch: 2 - 3

  o  PAL (Europe) version, produced fall 1983 to summer 1984 by Atari, Inc.
     - Includes Monitor port, but this lacks the separate luminance and
       chrominance video signals
     - No TV channel switch

Rare variations of the 600XL:
  o  Some late-model 600XLs were sold with 64K RAM.  These may have only
appeared in Canada.  The box had a round gold foil sticker reading:
"64k Memory -- Now with a full 64k of memory built-in."

5 different types of 600XL/800XL keyboards were nicely documented by Beetle
here: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=105170

The Atari 600XL was utilized by Exidy as an embedded system in their
Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system (configurable to play:
Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, or Flip and Flop).  See:
http://www.myatari.co.uk/issues/jan2003/maxaflex.htm

The 600XL was made in Hong Kong and Japan.

Production of the 600XL was discontinued by July 1984.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.6) What is the Atari 800XL?

Released in 1983 as a replacement for the 800 and 1200XL, the 800XL is the
high-end version of the 600XL.  The 600XL/800XL include most of the features
of the 1200XL, minus the 4 Function keys, the 2 LED lights, and the "ATARI"
logo screen.  But both the 600XL and 800XL have the Atari BASIC language
built-in.  In addition, these two systems offer the Parallel Bus Interface
(PBI), providing fast parallel access to the heart of the computer.  The 800XL
contains 64K RAM.

Boot options:
   Atari BASIC (Rev. B or Rev. C, see below)
      - Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive.
   Self Test program
      - Hold down [OPTION] while turning on the computer with no cartridge
        installed and no powered disk drive.
   Cartridge
      - Turn on computer with cartridge inserted.
   Cassette 
      1. Hold down [START] while turning on the computer.  
         (System buzzer sounds.)
      2. Press [PLAY] on the program recorder.
      3. Press [RETURN] to load and run cassette program.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled
      - Turn on computer with disk inserted in powered disk drive.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled
      - Hold down [OPTION] while turning on computer with disk inserted in
        powered disk drive.

Box: "More Memory Means More Power"

Versions of the Atari 800XL:

  o  NTSC (North America) version, produced fall 1983 to summer 1984 by
     Atari, Inc.
     - Monitor port lacks the chrominance video signal on pin 5
     - TV Channel switch: 2 - 3
     - Atari BASIC Revision B
     - Made in Hong Kong and Taiwan.
     - Some internal pics:
       http://atarinside.dyndns.org/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=74

  o  PAL (Europe) version, produced fall 1983 to summer 1984 by Atari, Inc.
     - Monitor port lacks the chrominance video signal on pin 5
     - No TV channel switch
     - Atari BASIC Revision B (rare late production: Revision C)
     - Visual tour: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/800xlpal/
     - More internal pics:
       http://atarinside.dyndns.org/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=73
     - Made in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

  o  PAL (Europe) version, produced fall 1984 by Atari Corp.
     - "800XLF" motherboard
     - FREDDIE memory management chip
     - Earlier production: Monitor port lacks the chrominance signal on pin 5
       Later production: chrominance signal is present on Monitor port pin 5
     - No TV channel switch
     - Atari BASIC Revision C
     - Made in Taiwan.

  o  SECAM (France) version, produced fall 1984 by Atari Corp.
     - "SECAM ROSE" motherboard
     - FREDDIE memory management chip
     - FGTIA, paired with the PAL ANTIC
     - Monitor port has unique pinout, 6 pins instead of 5;
       includes composite video but not chrominance nor luminance signals
     - No TV jack
     - No TV channel switch
     - Internal color/monochrome switch 
     - Atari BASIC Revision C
     - Visual tour: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/800xlsecam
     - More internal pics: 
       http://atarinside.dyndns.org/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=15
     - Made in Taiwan.

5 different types of 600XL/800XL keyboards were nicely documented by Beetle
here: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=105170

Production of the 800XL was discontinued by 1985.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.7) What is the Atari 65XE?

Introduced in 1985 as a direct replacement for the 800XL, the 65XE is a low-
end version of the 130XE.

The 65XE offers 64K RAM, and includes the FREDDIE memory management chip.

The 65XE does not include the PBI port as on the 600XL/800XL, but many 65XE
machines include the similar (though physically incompatible) Enhanced
Cartridge Interface (ECI).

Boot options:
   Atari BASIC (Rev. C)
      - Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive.
   Self Test program
      - Hold down [Option] while turning on the computer with no cartridge
        installed and no powered disk drive.
   Cartridge
      - Turn on computer with cartridge inserted.
   Cassette 
      1. Hold down [Start] while turning on the computer.  
         (System buzzer sounds.)
      2. Press [Play] on the program recorder.
      3. Press [Return] to load and run cassette program.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled
      - Turn on computer with disk inserted in powered disk drive.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled
      - Hold down [Option] while turning on computer with disk inserted in
        powered disk drive.

Versions of the Atari 65XE:

  o  NTSC (North America) without ECI port (common production)
     - TV Channel switch: 2 - 3

  o  NTSC (North America) with ECI port (uncommon/rare late production)
     - NTSC 130XE motherboard
     - TV Channel switch: 2 - 3

  o  PAL (Europe) version without ECI port (uncommon early production)
     - No TV channel switch

  o  PAL (Europe) version with ECI port (common later production)
     - (Identical to 800XE)
     - PAL 130XE motherboard
     - No TV channel switch
     - Reports of some 65XE machines previously labeled as 800XE machines
       and vice versa.

  o  PAL (Arabia) version
     - "65XEN" motherboard
     - ECI port
     - No TV channel switch
     - Arabic localized OS
     - More info: http://www.savetz.com/vintagecomputers/arabic65xe/
     - Visual tour: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/65xearab

The 65XE computer was also marketed (Mexico?) as the XE Video Game System,
with Light Gun and Joystick: http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/65xepack.JPG 

(The 65XE was not marketed in France.)

The 65XE was made in Taiwan (common) and China (late production).

------------------------------

Subject: 1.8) What is the Atari 130XE?

Released in 1985, the 130XE is the high-end version of the 65XE/800XE.

The 130XE offers 128K RAM, and includes the FREDDIE memory management chip.

The 130XE does not include the PBI port as on the 600XL/800XL, but it does
include the similar (though physically incompatible) Enhanced Cartridge
Interface (ECI).

Boot options:
   Atari BASIC (Rev. C)
      - Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive.
   Self Test program
      - Hold down [Option] while turning on the computer with no cartridge
        installed and no powered disk drive.
   Cartridge
      - Turn on computer with cartridge inserted.
   Cassette 
      1. Hold down [Start] while turning on the computer.  
         (System buzzer sounds.)
      2. Press [Play] on the program recorder.
      3. Press [Return] to load and run cassette program.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled
      - Turn on computer with disk inserted in powered disk drive.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled
      - Hold down [Option] while turning on computer with disk inserted in
        powered disk drive.

Versions of the Atari 130XE:

  o  NTSC (North America) version
     - TV Channel switch: 2 - 3

  o  PAL (Europe) version
     - No TV channel switch

  o  SECAM (France) version
     - FGTIA; PAL ANTIC
     - No TV jack
     - No TV channel switch
     - Color/Monochrome switch
     - a distant image of the rear of the unit, middle unit pictured here:
     http://www.silicium.org/oldskool/images/catalog/atari/atari_3xe_culs.jpg

The 130XE was made in Taiwan (common) and China (late production).

------------------------------

Subject: 1.9) What is the Atari 800XE?

Introduced in 1985 in markets including Germany and Eastern Europe as a
direct replacement for the 800XL, the 800XE is a low-end version of the 130XE.

The 800XE offers 64K RAM, and includes the FREDDIE memory management chip.

The 800XE does not include the PBI port as on the 600XL/800XL, but it does
include the similar (though physically incompatible) Enhanced Cartridge
Interface (ECI).

Boot options:
   Atari BASIC (Rev. C)
      - Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk drive.
   Self Test program
      - Hold down [Option] while turning on the computer with no cartridge
        installed and no powered disk drive.
   Cartridge
      - Turn on computer with cartridge inserted.
   Cassette 
      1. Hold down [Start] while turning on the computer.  
         (System buzzer sounds.)
      2. Press [Play] on the program recorder.
      3. Press [Return] to load and run cassette program.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled
      - Turn on computer with disk inserted in powered disk drive.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled
      - Hold down [Option] while turning on computer with disk inserted in
        powered disk drive.

The 800XE was produced in a PAL (Europe) version only:
     - Identical to common PAL 65XE version with ECI port:
       - PAL 130XE motherboard
       - TV channel switch: some include it, some do not
     - Reports of some 800XE machines previously labeled as 65XE machines
       and vice versa.

Some images of the 800XE:
http://www.silicium.org/oldskool/atari/800xe.htm

Jindrich Kubec writes, "The problematic Chinese 800XEs with GTIA problems were
manufactured in 1992."

The 800XE was made in Taiwan (common) and China (late production).

The 800XE was last manufactured in 1992.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.10) What is the Atari XE video game system?

In a change of marketing strategy, Atari introduced the new XE video game
system in 1987.  The XE System is a true 8-bit Atari computer system.  It
offers the convenience of a detachable keyboard and built-in Missile Command
game, while offering 64K RAM and full compatibility with the XL/XE computers.
FREDDIE memory management chip included.

The components of the XE game system were sold by Atari in several different
packages.

USA:
  o  XE4001 XE Game System
     XE Console + Keyboard + Light Gun + Joystick + Flight Simulator II
     cartridge + Bug Hunt cartridge
     http://www.mr-atari.com/afbeeldingen/systems/xegamesystem.jpg

Europe (outside France):
  o  XE Console + Joystick
     http://www.mr-atari.com/afbeeldingen/hardwarediv/xesystem1.jpg

  o  XE Keyboard + Flight Simulator II cartridge
http://www.mr-atari.com/afbeeldingen/hardwarediv/xesystem3toetsenbord.jpg

  o  XG-1 Light Gun + Bug Hunt cartridge
     http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari/C100449.html

France:
  o  XE Console + Light Gun + Joystick + Bug Hunt cartridge
     http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari/XE1.html

  o  XE Keyboard + XC12 + Flight Simulator II cartridge
     http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari/XEkeyboard.html

Mexico?:
  o  XE Video Game System: 65XE compter + Light Gun + Joystick
     http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/65xepack.JPG

XE System boot options:
   Missile Command
     (a) With XE keyboard not connected: 
         - Turn on computer with no cartridge inserted and no powered disk
           drive.
     (b) With XE keyboard connected:
         - Hold down [Select] while turning on the computer with no cartridge
           inserted and no powered disk drive.
   Self Test program
      - Hold down [Option] while turning on the computer with no cartridge
        installed and no powered disk drive.
   Cartridge
      - Turn on computer with cartridge inserted.
   Cassette 
      1. Hold down [Start] while turning on the computer.  
         (System buzzer sounds.)
      2. Press [Play] on the program recorder.
      3. Press [Start] on the XE console to load and run cassette program.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC enabled
     (a) With XE keyboard not connected:
         - Hold down [Select] while turning on computer with disk inserted in
           powered disk drive.
     (b) With XE keyboard connected:
         - Turn on computer with disk inserted in powered disk drive.
   Disk, with Atari BASIC disabled
      - Hold down [Option] while turning on computer with disk inserted in
        powered disk drive.

Versions of the Atari XE System produced:

  o  NTSC (North America) version
     - TV Channel switch: 2 - 3

  o  PAL (Europe) version
     - No TV channel switch

  o  SECAM (France) version
     - FGTIA; PAL ANTIC
     - No TV channel switch

The XE System Console was made in Taiwan.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.10.5) What were the Atari 1400XL, 1450XLD, 65XEM, and 65XEP?

Atari publicly introduced several computers in the tradition of the
400/800/XL/XE series that ultimately never shipped.

The 1400XL was introduced by Atari, Inc. alongside the 600XL, 800XL, and
1450XLD at the June 1983 Summer Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago.
Resembling the 1200XL in appearance, the 1400XL was to provide the features of
the 800XL plus a built-in 300 baud modem and a built-in speech synthesizer.
Prototype units exist, but the 1400XL never shipped.
http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/XL/1400xl/1400.html

The 1450XLD was introduced by Atari, Inc. alongside the 600XL, 800XL, and
1400XLD at the June 1983 Summer Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago.  The
1450XLD was to provide the features of the 1400XL plus a built-in double
sided, dual/enhanced density 260K 5.25" floppy disk drive, with expansion
space for a second disk drive.  Atari continued to promote the 1450XLD through
June 1984.  Prototype units exist, but the 1450XLD never shipped.
http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/XL/1450xld/1450xld.html

The 65XEM was introduced by Atari Corp. alongside the 65XE, 65XEP, and 130XE
at the January 1985 Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.  The 65XEM
was to provide the features of the 65XE, plus advanced sound/voice synthesis
capabilities thanks to the addition of the AMY Sound Processor chip.  The
65XEM never shipped, and no working prototypes are known to exist.
http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8bits/xe/xe_protos/65xem.html

The 65XEP was introduced by Atari Corp. alongside the 65XE, 65XEM, and 130XE
at the January 1985 Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.  The
portable 65XEP was to provide the features of the 65XE, plus built-in 5"
monochrome CRT display and 360K 3.5" disk drive.  The 65XEP never shipped, and
no working prototypes are known to exist.
http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/atari65xep.jpg

------------------------------

Subject: 1.11) What are SALLY, ANTIC, CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA, POKEY, and FREDDIE?

Portions of this section are based on the "System Overview" Section, written
by Atari's Cris Crawford, of Atari's De Re Atari (Atari#APX-90008).  The full
text of De Re Atari: http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/

The internal layout of the Atari 8-bit computer is very different from other
systems.  It of course has a microprocessor (a 6502), random-access memory
(RAM), read-only memory (ROM), and a peripheral interface adapter (PIA,
CO12298/CO14795, a standard 6520).  However, it also has three special-purpose
large-scale integration (LSI) chips known as ANTIC, one of CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA,
and POKEY.  These chips were designed by Atari engineers primarily to take
much of the burden of housekeeping off of the 6502, thereby freeing the 6502
to concentrate on computations.  While they were at it, they designed a great
deal of power into these chips.  Each of these chips is almost as big (in
terms of silicon area) as a 6502, so the three of them together provide a
tremendous amount of power.  Mastering the Atari 8-bit computers is primarily
a matter of mastering these three chips.


6502/SALLY  Central Processing Unit (CPU)  --  6502B (400/800,most):CO14377
==========                     SALLY 6502 (400/800,late)(XL/XE,all):CO14806
The Microprocessor Unit (MPU), typically (and less-precisely) described as the
Central Processing Unit (CPU), in most Atari 400/800 computers is a standard
40-pin 6502 microprocessor.  More specifically, most Atari 400/800 computers
use a 6502B, which is a standard 6502 rated for a maximum operating frequency
of 3 MHz.  The 6502 was designed by Chuck Peddle and Bill Mensch for 
MOS Technology in 1975.  In addition to MOS Technology, the 6502B has also
been produced by Synertek and Rockwell.

Late production 400/800 computers and all of the Atari XL/XE computer models
contain Atari's customized version of the 6502 chip, known as SALLY.  The
innovation of the Atari SALLY 6502 is the addition of the HALT' signal on pin
35.  The SALLY 6502 also has a second R/W' signal on pin 36 (in addition to
pin 34).  Pins 35 and 36 are not connected on a standard 6502.

The Atari's second microprocessor, ANTIC, must routinely interrupt the 6502 in
order to utilize the processor bus for itself for direct memory access (DMA).
HALT' on the SALLY 6502 facilitates this system design.  Atari's earlier
implementation of the same functionality in the 400/800 with the standard 6502
requires a series of 4 additional chips that are unnecessary in computers
designed for the SALLY 6502.  

Note that some Atari technical documentation refers to the Atari SALLY 6502 by
the name, "6502C".  The Atari "6502C" is not to be confused with the standard
6502C, which is a standard 6502 rated for a maximum operating frequency of
4 MHz.

Other systems utilizing the Atari SALLY 6502 chip:
 - Atari 5200
 - Exidy Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system
   (embedded Atari 600XL): Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop
 - Atari 7800

6502.org "the 6502 microprocessor resource": http://www.6502.org/


ANTIC --  400/800/1200XL,NTSC:CO12296        400/800,PAL:CO14887
=====     600XL/800XL/XE,NTSC:CO21697          XL/XE,PAL:CO21698
(The XL/XE PAL ANTIC is also used in SECAM XL/XE machines.)
ANTIC ("AlphaNumeric Television Interface Controller" --FD100001 Rev.02 p.1-8)
is a microprocessor dedicated to the television display.  It is a true
microprocessor; it has an instruction set, a program (called the display
list), and data.  The display list and the display data are written into RAM
by the 6502.  ANTIC retrieves this information from RAM using direct memory
access (DMA).  It processes the higher level instructions in the display list
and translates these instructions into a real-time stream of simple
instructions to CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA.

Specific ANTIC functions include:
 - DMA (Direct Memory Access) control
 - NMI (Non-Maskable Interrupt) control.  3 types of NMI on the Atari are: 
     1) Display List Interrupt (DLI)
     2) Vertical Blank Interrupt (VBI)
     3) System Reset (key)
 - Vertical and Horizontal fine scrolling
 - Light pen horizontal and vertical position registers
 - Vertical line counter
 - WSYNC (wait for horizontal sync) command -- allows the microprocessor to
   synchronize itself to the TV horizontal line rate

Other systems utilizing the Atari ANTIC chip:
 - Atari 5200
 - Exidy Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system
   (embedded Atari 600XL): Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop

ANTIC(NTSC) C012296 techical documentation by Atari: 
http://www.retromicro.com/files/atari/8bit/antic.pdf


CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA  --  CTIA(NTSC):CO12295       GTIA,PAL:CO14889
===============       GTIA,NTSC:CO14805   FGTIA(SECAM):CO20120
CTIA = "Color Television Interface Adaptor" --FD100001 Rev.02 p.1-10
GTIA = "Graphics Television Interface Adaptor" --FD100001 Rev.02 p.1-10
FGTIA = "French Graphics Television Interface Adaptor" (mc's guess)

The CTIA, GTIA, or FGTIA is the television interface chip.  ANTIC directly
controls most of the operations of the CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA, although the 6502 can
also be programmed to intercede and control some or all of the functions of
the CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA.  The CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA converts the digital commands
from ANTIC (or the 6502) into the video signal output.

In addition to its basic television/video interface function, the
CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA performs color-luminance control for the entire video signal,
player-missile control, and both priority control and collision detection
among player-missiles and the background.  The CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA also reads the
controller port trigger inputs, it reads console keys (Start/Select/Option),
and it controls the built-in speaker in the 400/800.

Early North American NTSC 400/800 models shipped with CTIA.  Later NTSC
400/800 models, all PAL 400/800s, and all NTSC XL/XE and PAL XL/XE systems
include GTIA.  SECAM 800XL, 130XE and XE game systems include FGTIA.

The NTSC versions of CTIA/GTIA were designed to interface with the NTSC 
version of ANTIC.  The PAL version of GTIA and the FGTIA were designed to
interface with the PAL version of ANTIC.

Jerry Jessop adds:
  "The very first proto systems did have the GTIA, but it had some
  problems and was not released in the consumer version until 1981.  The
  GTIA was completed before the CTIA."

Robin Sherer of Santa Cruz Education Software as quoted in InfoWorld 3/15/82:
  "That had [GTIA] designed before the computer even went to market.  They
  had already ordered 100,000 of the CTIAs--that's the rumored number.  Not
  wanting to throw away chips, they introduced [computers] in this country
  with the CTIA."

The GTIA is backwards-compatible with the CTIA, with the GTIA simply making
available three additional graphics modes (GTIA Modes 1-3).

The FGTIA is software compatible with the GTIA.  However, in GTIA Mode 1 the
FGTIA can only display 8 distinct luminances, compared to the 16 distinct
luminances that can be displayed in GTIA Mode 1 by the GTIA.

Whether CTIA or GTIA/FGTIA is installed can be determined by observing what
happens as a result of trying to enter a GTIA graphics mode.  In Atari BASIC,
at the "READY" prompt, type POKE 623,64 [RETURN].  If the screen blackens, you
have the GTIA or FGTIA chip.  If it stays blue, you have the early CTIA chip.

Bill Wilkinson offers a technique whereby software can determine whether a
CTIA or a GTIA is installed in his "Insight: Atari" column in the January 1983
(#32) issue of Compute!, page 171, see:
http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue32/085_1_INSIGHT_ATARI.php

Other systems utilizing the Atari GTIA chip:
 - Atari 5200
 - Exidy Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system
   (embedded Atari 600XL): Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop

Technical documentation by Atari:
GTIA(NTSC) C014805: http://www.retromicro.com/files/atari/8bit/gtia.pdf
FGTIA:
http://ftp.pigwa.net/stuff/collections/nir_dary_cds/Tech%2520Info/FGTIA.PDF


POKEY  --  CO12294
=====
POKEY (name derived from POtentiometer and KEYboard) is a digital input/output
(I/O) chip.  It handles such disparate tasks as the serial I/O bus (SIO),
audio generation, keyboard scan, timers, and random number generation.  It
also digitizes the resistive paddle inputs and controls selected maskable
interrupt (IRQ) requests from peripherals (other IRQs are handled by the
PIA/6520).

Other systems utilizing the Atari POKEY chip:
 - 40 production coin-operated arcade games released by Atari or Atari Games,
   from Missile Command (June 1980) to Tetris and Vindicators Part II (both
   released February 1989).  (Thanks to Laurent Delsarte for the list.)
 - Centuri Tunnel Hunt, coin-operated arcade game licensed from Atari
 - Atari 5200
 - Exidy Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system
   (embedded Atari 600XL): Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop
 - Atari Ballblazer and Commando cartridges for the Atari 7800
  
POKEY Technical documentation by Atari:
http://www.retromicro.com/files/atari/8bit/pokey.pdf


FREDDIE  --  800XL(late),XE(all):CO61922/CO61991
=======
According to Atari's design specification, the "Freddie RAM" Memory Control
Unit (MPU) is a custom LSI chip providing dynamic RAM (DRAM) control
functions.  It replaces a number of small-scale integration (SSI) and medium-
scale integration (MSI) transistor-transistor logic (TTL) parts, including a
custom delay line.  FREDDIE multiplexes 16-bit RAM addresses from the
processor bus into 8-bit row and 8-bit column addresses for direct use in the
DRAM, and it generates row and column DRAM address timing strobes.

FREDDIE was initially designed by Atari Inc. in 1983 as chip that would cut
production costs for future XL computers.  FREDDIE was finally incorporated by
Atari Corp. into late-production 800XL computers and in all XE computers
systems.

"FREDDIE" or "FREDDY"?
Atari technical documentation consistently uses "FREDDIE" while Atari consumer
documentation (Owner's Manuals for all XE systems) consistently uses "FREDDY."
This FAQ List adopts the convention from Atari's technical documentation:
"FREDDIE"

FREDDIE technical documentation by Atari:
www.atarimuseum.com/ahs_archives/archives/pdf/computers/8bits/freddie-mcu.pdf

------------------------------

Subject: 1.12) Why do the ANTIC Modes start with "Mode 2", what about 0 or 1?

This section started by: Laurent Delsarte.  Thanks also to Alphasys.

Actually, the ANTIC graphic mode numbers are directly used as instructions
in Display Lists (DL), to request the display of several lines of a specific
text or graphic mode.  For instance, the instruction "2" (for "Mode 2") in an
ANTIC Display List requests 8 scan lines of "text 0".

But the instructions "0" and "1" already have other meanings in an ANTIC
Display List program:
  "0" means "display one blank line"
  "1" means "jump to location"

and to be comprehensive, 16 (hex: 10), also means something special:
  "16" means "display two blank lines"

Consequently, the first ANTIC mode is the "Mode 2", and the last one is
"Mode 15".

Here is the context of the full ANTIC display list instruction set:

 Instruction   BASIC   Scan   Pixels  Bytes  Comments
Decimal   Hex   mode   lines   line   line

Blank Line instructions
  0        0     --       1     --     --    1 blank line
 16       10     --       2     --     --    2 blank lines
 32       20     --       3     --     --    3 blank lines
 48       30     --       4     --     --    4 blank lines
 64       40     --       5     --     --    5 blank lines
 80       50     --       6     --     --    6 blank lines
 96       60     --       7     --     --    7 blank lines
112       70     --       8     --     --    8 blank lines

Character Mode instructions (text modes)
  2        2      0       8     40     40
  3        3     --      10     40     40    Not supported by OS
  4        4     12       8     40     40    400/800: Not supported by OS
  5        5     13      16     40     40    400/800: Not supported by OS
  6        6      1       8     20     20
  7        7      2      16     20     20

Map Mode instructions (graphics modes)
  8        8      3       8     40     10
  9        9      4       4     80     10
 10        A      5       4     80     20
 11        B      6       2    160     20
 12        C     14       1    160     20    400/800: Not supported by OS
 13        D      7       2    160     40
 14        E     15       1    160     40    400/800: Not supported by OS
 15        F      8       1    320     40

Jump instructions (three bytes long)
  1        1     --      --     --     --    JMP -- jump to location (creates
                                             one blank line on display)
 65       41     --      --     --     --    JVB -- jump and wait until end of
                                             next vertical blank (VBLANK)

Optional Modifiers to the above Character or Map Mode instructions:
                           add     add
                         decimal   hex   bit
Vertical scroll             16      10     4
Horizontal scroll           32      20     5
LMS Load Memory Scan        64      40     6

Optional Modifier to the above Blank Line or Jump instructions:
DLI Display List Interrupt 128      80     7

More details of ANTIC display list programming can be found in the book
"Mapping the Atari", Appendix 8
http://www.atariarchives.org/mapping/appendix8.php

and also in the book "De Re Atari", Chapters 2, 5 and 6
http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/chapt02.php ANTIC and the display list
http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/chapt05.php Display List Interrupts
http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/chapt06.php Scrolling

------------------------------

Subject: 1.13) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari?

ASCII art by Thomas Havemeister.

                  ->
+---------------------------------------+
|          +---------------+            |
|          |CPU/SALLY(6502)|        +-------+
|          +---------------+     <- |  I/O- |
|                  |     +----------|release|
|                 +-+    |          +-------+
| +---------+<-   |p|    |               |
| |   MMU   |-----| |    | <-+---------+-|----------+----------+
*-| memory- |     |r|    *---|   PIA   | | (trigger)|Controller|====\
| |managment|-----|-+--------| (6520)  | |+---------|   Ports  |====/
| +---------+<-   |o| -> |   +---------+-|-+  <-->  +----------+
|                 | |    |               |||           |    |
|   +-----+       |c|    | <-+---------+ |||           |(light pen/light gun)
|   | RAM |<-A/D  | |    *---|  ANTIC  | |||           |    |
*---|8-128|-------|e|----|---|(2nd CPU)|---------------+    |
|   |Kbyte|->D    | | -> |   +---------+ ||| +--------------+
|   +-----+       |s|    |       ||      ||| |
|                 | |    | <-+---------+-|||--------+(screen)
|  +-------+      |s|    *---|CTIA/GTIA|-|+| |      |
|  | Atari |<-A   | |----|---| /FGTIA  | | | | +----------+   +-----------+
|  | BASIC |------|o| -> |   +---------+ | | | | summary  |===| modulator |
*--|8 Kbyte|->D   | |    |               | | | |connection|===| ^^^^^^^^^ |
|  |  ROM  |      |r|    | <-+---------+ | | | +----------+   +-----------+
|  +-------+      | |    +---|  POKEY  |-|-|-+      |(sound)        |
|                 | |--------|         |-|-|--------+               |
|  +-------+      |b| ->     +---------+ | +----------+             |
|  |AtariOS|<-A   | |                 |  |            |             |
*--|10/16Kb|------|u|                 +--|----------+ |         tv/monitor
|  |  ROM  |->D   | +-----------------   |          | |         **********
|  +-------+      |s|              | |   |          | |
|                 | |              | |   |          | |
|                 +-+              +-+   |          | |
|                  |                |    |          | |
+--------------*---|------------*---|    |          | |
               |   |            |   |    |          | |
             +-----------+    +-----------+    +------------+
             |ParallelBus|    | Cartridge |    |   Serial   |
             |Interface/ |    |   Slot    |    |Input/Output|
             | Enhanced  |    |    ROM    |    |    (SIO)   |
             | Cartridge |    +-----------+    +------------+
             | Interface |          |                |
             +-----------+          |                |
                   |                |                |
        - memory expansion    -cartridge with   - disk drive
        - Z80 card             programs         - printer
        - 80 char card         (games , dos )   - modem

NOTES
 * RAM: 400: 8K or 16K standard
        800: 8K, 16K, or 48K standard
        600XL: 16K
        1200XL/800XL/65XE/800XE/XEgs: 64K
        130XE: 128K
 * ROM: 400/800: 10K (OS)
        1200XL: 16K (OS) 
        XEgs: 32K (16K OS + 8K Atari BASIC + 8K Missile Command)
        all other XL/XE: 24K (16K OS + 8K Atari BASIC)
 * CPU: 400/800(most): 6502B
        400/800(late),XL/XE: Atari SALLY 6502
 * 800 includes two Cartridge Slots, all others include one
 * CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA: Most: GTIA.  Early 400/800: CTIA.  SECAM XL/XE: FGTIA
 * 400/800 have 4 Controller Ports, all others have 2
 * PBI is on 600XL/800XL only
 * ECI is on 130XE/800XE/later 65XE only
 * Some late XE units use a 68B21 for PIA; PIA is 6520/6520A on all others

------------------------------

Subject: 1.14) Who designed the Atari 8-bit computers?

Section credits: Jerry Jessop, Scott Emmons, http://www.digitpress.com/,
http://www.atarimuseum.com/
Special thanks: Mr. Doug Neubauer (via James Finnegan); Mr. Gregg Squires

Atari 400/800 ("Colleen") hardware engineers:
Steven T. Mayer     - early system design, overall plan
Joseph C. Decuir    - ANTIC logic design, early system design, overall plan
Jay G. Miner        - System architect (became manager of development of both
                      VLSI custom chips and OS software), overall plan
Douglas G. Neubauer - POKEY logic design (also wrote: Star Raiders)
George McLeod       - CTIA/GTIA logic design
Ronald E. Milner    - early system design
Francois Michel     - ANTIC design
Mark Shieu          - POKEY chip design
Steve Stone         - POKEY layout design
Steve Smith         - Technician for ANTIC and GTIA
Delwin Pearson      - Technician for POKEY
Kevin McKinsey      - 400/800 case design

Atari 400/800 Operating System software engineers:
David Crane         - OS design, programming
Larry Kaplan        - OS design, programming
                      (also wrote: Video Easel, Super Breakout)
Alan Miller         - OS design, programming (also wrote: Basketball)
Harry B. Stewart    - consultant, OS design
Gary Palmer         - worked on the I/O portion
Ian Shepard         - disk drive functions
Michael P. Mahar    - Revision B fixes
R. Scott Scheiman   - Revision B fixes

Atari 1200XL (Sweet-16/"Elizabeth"/"Liz") computer hardware engineers:
(Atari NY Lab, then W.C.I. Labs, 300 E 42nd St, New York NY)
Steven T. Mayer     - Head of NY Lab, then Chairman and CEO, WCI Labs, Inc.
Gregg Squires       - Project Manager (previously of Racal-Vikonics)
Robert (Bob) Card   - Principal Engineer (previously of Racal-Vikonics)
Steven Ray          - Critical Electronics Layout Designer
                      (previously of Racal-Vikonics)
Joel Moskowitz      - Mechanical Engineer
Philippe des Rioux  - project engineer
Glenn Boles         - project engineer 
Henry Dreyfuss Associates - Early case design concepts
Risa Rosenberg      - Secretary to Gregg Squires

Atari 1200XL computer hardware engineers: (California)
Regan Cheng         - XL case design

Atari 1200XL Operating System ("Z800" revs 10, 11) software engineers:
Harry B. Stewart    - External Reference Specification
Lane Winner         - ?
R. Scott Scheiman   - Handler Loader
Y. M. (Amy) Chen    - Relocating Loader; International Character Set
Mike W. Colburn     - Self Test
Richard K. Nordin   - ?

Atari 600XL/800XL ("Surely"/"Surely Plus") computer hardware engineers:
?                   - ?
Regan Cheng         - XL case design
?                   - FREDDIE
?                   - FGTIA

Atari 600XL/800XL Operating System ("Surely OS" Revs 1, 2) software engineers:
R. Scott Scheiman   \
Richard K. Nordin   --- Support PBI and on-board BASIC
Y. M. (Amy) Chen    /

Atari Corp. 800XL and XE systems hardware engineers:
Jose A. Valdes      - (at Atari from October 1979 - August 1989)
Ira Velinsky        - designer of the XE game system

Atari Corp. XE Operating System (Revisions 3, 3B, 4) software engineers:
?                   - ?

------------------------------

Subject: 1.15) What issues surround NTSC vs. PAL vs. SECAM computer versions?

Some quick definitions first:

NTSC: "National Television Standards Committee"
TV signal standard used in North America, Central America, a number of South
American countries, and some Asian countries, including Japan.
  o  525 lines per frame
  o  60 half-frames per second (interlaced) = 60 Hz
  o  Complete frame refreshed 30 times per second

PAL: "Phase Alternation by Line"
TV signal standard used in the United Kingdom, most of the rest of Europe,
several South American countries, some Middle East and Asian countries,
several African countries, Australia, New Zealand, and other Pacific island
countries.
  o  625 lines per frame
  o  50 half-frames per second (interlaced) = 50 Hz
  o  Complete frame refreshed 25 times per second.

SECAM: "Sequentiel couleur avec memoire"
TV signal standard still used in France, the former USSR, and some African
countries.  Until the 1980s SECAM was the standard in eastern Europe,
including East Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary.
  o  625 lines per frame
  o  50 half-frames per second (interlaced) = 50 Hz
  o  Complete frame refreshed 25 times per second.

While the above draws a clear distinction between NTSC and PAL/SECAM, a
further discussion of the NTSC/PAL/SECAM color encoding systems will help to
distinguish between all three standards.

=-=-=-=-=
This discussion by Laurent Delsarte (2008.12) (with minor edits by mc).

First of all, it is important to remind that NTSC, PAL and SECAM are all
color encoding systems.  They are used in conjunction with older standards
for the base monochrome signals--the old standards that were used when all
the TV sets were still black & white.

In other words, the first televisions standards, referenced with letters
(M/B/G/I/K/etc.), were used to broadcast pure monochrome, black & white
images.  The NTSC, PAL and SECAM standards were then introduced to add a
specific color signal to colorize this pure monochrome signal.

When the color was introduced, the idea was to remain compatible with the
existing old black & white TV sets, so that these old black & white TV sets
would still continue to be able to display the image (but in black & white,
obviously).

In the television world, the black & white image, also known as the
monochrome signal, is called the "luminance" ("Y" for short); whilst the
color information is called the "chrominance" ("C" for short).

For every dot defining the image, the "luminance" states how intense
(ranging from pure black to pure white) the dot is.  For every dot defining
the image, the "chrominance" states what is the color of the dot (within
the limit of the color palette that the color standard allows).

In the Atari 8-Bit world, the "luminance" notion can be understood if you
use the standard Graphics mode 9: you have just one color at your disposal
(say, white), and all you can do is draw graphics using 16 intensities of
white (ranging from pure black to pure white).  And the "chrominance" notion
can be understood if you use the standard Graphics mode 11: you have 16
colors at your disposal, but they all have the same intensity.  You control
the color, but not the brightness of the color.

To display a black & white image, the "luminance" ("Y") signal is enough.
To display a color image, the "luminance" ("Y") and the "chrominance"
("C") signals are needed.  When a black & white TV set receives a color
signal, it uses the "Y" signal as usual and remains unaware of the existence
of the "C" signal.  When a color TV set receives the same color signal, it
processes both "Y" & "C".

In practice, the chrominance ("C") is transmitted with two separate
signals, "U" and "V". Now you probably recognize the familiar "YUV" acronym
you've surely seen in discussions related to TV signals.

To simplify, PAL & SECAM signals are quite similar, except that they use a
different way to transmit the "U" & "V" signals ("chrominance").  PAL
transmits "U" & "V" together, then the same "U" & "V" information again but
slightly differently, to increase the accuracy.  SECAM transmits "U" then
"V".

The way that PAL vs. SECAM handle color is thus very different but since the
black & white TV standards were quite similar across Europe (625 lines / 50
Hz), a PAL TV set is very likely to be able to display a SECAM video signal
(and the other way around), but in black & white (because it can decode "Y"
but not "U" nor "V").  
 
The situation is totally different with NTSC vs. PAL.  Although they are very
similar in the way they handle color, they are based on totally different
black & white TV standards (625 lines/50 Hz for PAL, 525 lines/60 Hz for
NTSC).  You have to remember that, by design, the 50 & 60 Hz display refresh
frequencies were based on the mains (household electric power supply)
frequencies: 120v 60Hz in USA and 220-240v 50Hz in Europe.  Up to the mid-80s,
devices that were able to handle both 50 & 60 Hz video signals were very
expensive.

Nowadays (2009), almost any PAL TV set is able to display a 60 Hz NTSC video
signal.

While it often enough to distinguish between NTSC/PAL/SECAM, in practice each
color encoding system has been combined with multiple earlier monochrome
broadcast standards.  Thus, to fully specify the broadcast signal standard
used in any given country, both color system and base monochrome system is
indicated.  Common examples: NTSC M, PAL B/G, SECAM L.  A more complete list:

 NTSC M   : USA
 NTSC J   : Japan
  PAL B/G : Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, Netherlands,
            Italy, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Suisse, Algeria, Turkey, Ghana,
            India, Israel, New-Zealand, Australia, Malaysia, Thailand, etc. 
  PAL I   : United Kingdom, Ireland, Hong Kong. 
  PAL D/K : Romania, China, Burundi, Cameroun, etc. 
  PAL M   : Brazil. 
  PAL N   : Argentina, Uruguay. 
SECAM L/L': France, Monaco 
SECAM B/G : Greece, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, etc.
SECAM D/K : Bulgaria, C.E.I., DOM TOM, etc.

In France (Europe), in the early 80s, it was possible to buy "SECAM" devices
(TV set, VCR, etc...) or "PAL/SECAM" devices; the latter - being able to
process both SECAM and PAL signals - were more expensive.  For instance,
"PAL/SECAM" TV sets were popular among movies addicts (owning high end
equipment such as PAL LaserDisc players, etc) and for people living close to
a PAL-broadcasting country (at the Belgian border for instance, to receive
the PAL Belgian French-speaking programs).  Last but not least, some
companies did manufacture some PAL-to-RGB "video translators" devices, to
convert a PAL signal into a universal RGB signal, that most SECAM TV sets
were able to accept as video input.  These PAL-to-RGB "video translators"
were quite useful to display PAL signals (from various home computers,
including PAL Atari XL & PAL Commodore 64) on SECAM TV sets.  The models
manufactured by "CGV" (the company still exists, www.cgv.fr) were very
popular and widely available in the computer shops.
(actual pictures available: http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/cgv-pvp80.zip )

Consequently, in 1984, Atari France was not afraid to distribute PAL 600XL
& 800XL computers in a SECAM country (although it could increase the total
cost of the solution).  Indeed, it would have been dangerous to ignore this
market, where other US competitors were already present and successful
(Commodore 64, Apple II, etc).  The French owners of the PAL Atari XL
computers had two choices:
- Use a PAL/SECAM TV set
- Buy a PAL-to-RGB converter, and use a common SECAM TV set
A couple of months later (Q4, 1984), the SECAM Atari 800XL computers were
finally available.

It is worth noting that in the early 80s the Atari 400 and 800 models had
also both been officially distributed in France, but only the PAL models,
and only in specialized computers shops.  Consequently, they were more
difficult to acquire, very expensive and limited to wealthy amateurs.

=-=-=-=-=
Piotr Fusik writes (3/06):
   In Poland we had PAL Ataris, which was a problem in the time
   of SECAM.  You could connect a PAL Atari to a SECAM TV, but there was
   no color and (IIRC) no sound.  The solution was to buy an inexpensive
   converter mounted inside the TV, so the TV supported PAL in addition
   to SECAM.  This was quite popular, because the VCRs were PAL, too.

=-=-=-=-=
In some ways the specifications of the hardware in the 8-bit Atari computer
are closely linked to the specifications of the television signal standard
used in the market where the machine was designed to be used.  Thus there were
different versions of the Atari computers produced for different markets,
based on the TV standards used in those markets:

 NTSC versions: 400,800,1200XL,600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XEgs
PAL B versions: 400,800,600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XEgs
PAL I versions: 400,800,600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XEgs
SECAM versions: 800XL,130XE,XEgs

NTSC computers contain NTSC versions of the ANTIC and CTIA/GTIA chips;
PAL computers contain PAL versions of the ANTIC and GTIA chips;
SECAM computers contain a PAL version of the ANTIC chip, and the FGTIA chip.

=-=-=-=-=
So with all that out of the way...

What are the software compatibility issues surrounding all these different
NTSC/PAL-B/PAL-I/SECAM versions of the Atari 8-bit computers?

 -- PAL B and PAL I computers differ only in the TV channel frequencies used
by the RF signal produced.  So in terms of sofware compatibility, all PAL
Atari computers are indistinguishable.

 -- The FGTIA is designed to be 100% software compatible with the PAL GTIA.
This fact, along with the fact that SECAM computer models include a PAL ANTIC,
mean that the PAL and SECAM versions of the Atari computers are completely
software compatible, but with one practical exception: in GTIA Graphics Mode 1
(BASIC Graphics mode 9), while the GTIA can display 16 distinct luminances,
the FGTIA can only display 8 distinct luminances.

Thus the situation essentially simplifies down to just two sets of Atari
computers that may have potential software compatibility issues between them: 

NTSC computers vs. PAL/SECAM computers

=-=-=-=-=
What might happen if you run a software program designed with an NTSC Atari on
a PAL or SECAM Atari, or a program designed with a PAL or SECAM Atari on an
NTSC Atari?  There are a number of possibilities:

1) The program may run faster or slower than intended.

In order to work with the different timings of the NTSC and PAL/SECAM video
signal standards, components of the NTSC versions of the Atari computers run
at slightly different speeds than they due on PAL/SECAM Atari computers.

The CPU clock rate of the PAL/SECAM Atari computer is slightly slower than
that of the NTSC Atari:
       NTSC machines: 1.7897725 MHz
  PAL/SECAM machines: 1.7734470 MHz
Software timing that is based exclusively on the CPU clock rate would thus run
nearly 1% faster/slower on the opposite type of Atari.  This effect, while
small, can be significant in applications that are computation- or timing-
sensitive, such as music players, or in any programs designed to simulate real
time.

The screen refresh rate of the PAL/SECAM Atari computer is considerably slower
than that of the NTSC Atari:
       NTSC machines: 59.94 Hz
  PAL/SECAM machines: 49.86 Hz
Software that operates as a Vertical Blank Interrupt (VBI), that is, software
that is repeatedly executed during the times between screen frame refreshes,
is thus executed at considerably different frequencies on NTSC machines vs.
PAL/SECAM machines.  Based on this effect alone, a VBI programmed on an NTSC
machine would run 16.8% slower on PAL/SECAM machines.  Conversely, a VBI
programmed on a PAL/SECAM machine would run 20.2% faster on NTSC machines.
  (59.94Hz-49.86Hz=10.08Hz ; 10.08Hz/59.94Hz=16.8% ; 10.08Hz/49.86Hz=20.2%)
These calculations ignore the above-mentioned CPU clock rate differences,
which would also come into play.

2) The program may exhibit some sort of "screen flickering" effect.

The ANTIC display list is the software program responsible for the video
display, horizontal scan line by horizontal scan line.  There are 262 lines
available in the (non-interlaced) NTSC video signal, while there are 312 lines
available in the (non-interlaced) PAL/SECAM video signal.  If software written
on a PAL/SECAM machine sets up an ANTIC display list that is made up of more
scan lines than are available in the NTSC video standard, the program will
exhibit a "screen flickering" effect if run on the NTSC Atari.

3) The system may crash.

NTSC and PAL/SECAM machines have different numbers of machine cycles available
for execution of software routines designed as vertical blank interrupts
(VBIs). 

An Immediate VBI must complete execution within the number of machine cycles
available during the vertical blank time:

  NTSC: 2508 machine cycles 
    (262 NTSC scanlines - 240 Atari scanlines) * 114 cycles/scanline
  PAL/SECAM: 8208 machine cycles
    (312 PAL/SECAM scanlines - 240 Atari scanlines) * 114 cycles/scanline

  8208 - 2508 = 5700
  PAL/SECAM machines have a total of 5700 more machine cycles available for
  Immediate VBIs than are available on NTSC machines.
  
A Deferred VBI must complete execution within the number of machine cycles
available from one vertical blank to the next.  The number of machine cycles
available for a Deferred VBI depends upon the ANTIC Display List in use, but 
the upper limit may be derived from the total number of machine cycles per
frame:
       NTSC: 29859 machine cycles / frame
  PAL/SECAM: 35568 machine cycles / frame

  35568 - 29859 = 5709
  PAL/SECAM machines could have as many as 5709 more machine cycles available
  for Deferred VBIs than are available on NTSC machines.

If there are not enough machine cycles available on an NTSC machine to execute
a VBI that was developed on a PAL/SECAM machine, the NTSC system will crash.

4) The colors displayed by the program are not what was intended.

When utilizing ANTIC graphics modes 2, 3, or 15, NTSC Atari computers exhibit
unique color artifacting effects that are not present on PAL/SECAM Atari
computers.  (Artifacting is discussed elsewhere in this FAQ list.)  As a
result, software that utilizes one of these high-resolution graphics modes can
appear to be using very different colors on NTSC machines in comparison to
PAL/SECAM machines.

Also, the additional color frequency generation circuitry present in PAL/SECAM
machines produces a color palette that is similar to, though different from,
the color palette of NTSC Atari computers.  These differences are subtle
enough that they are generally not problematic.

5) The program may explicitly refuse to run on incorrect hardware.

Software may be designed to determine whether the Atari is NTSC or PAL/SECAM,
and refuse to run if the hardware present does not match what is expected.

6) The program may not load correctly at all.

This would mostly likely result from copy protection techniques based upon
precise hardware timing associated with disk drives, cassette recorders, or
components of the computer itself, where the timing was not anticipated to
vary depending upon NTSC vs. PAL/SECAM hardware.

According to Jindroush (2/26/02), two examples of programs that run on NTSC
machines but not PAL/SECAM machines as a result of timing-based copy
protection techniques (probably based on vblank timing) are Transylvania and
The Quest, both by Penguin Software.

7) The program may run fine on both NTSC and PAL/SECAM machines.

Either the differences are too slight to matter, or the software may be
sophisticated enough to detect NTSC vs. PAL/SECAM hardware, as described
above, and act accordingly.

An example of a program that alters its behavior depending upon detection of
NTSC versus PAL/SECAM is Ghostbusters by Activision (checks the GTIA type).

=-=-=-=-=-=-=
How can software determine whether it is running on NTSC or PAL/SECAM
hardware?

Several techniques are available to programmers, as follows:

(1) On XL/XE systems (not 400/800 systems), the OS provides a flag called
PALNTS at decimal memory location 98 (hex: $62).  PALNTS indicates whether the
CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA has reported itself to be NTSC or PAL/SECAM, where 0 means
NTSC, or 1 means PAL/SECAM.  In Atari BASIC, enter "? PEEK(98)" to determine
the value of the PALNTS flag.

(2) An approach which works on all 400/800/XL/XE systems is to use the same
method used by the XL/XE OS to set the value of the PALNTS flag described
above.  That is, to read and interpret the "PAL" memory flag, decimal location
53268 (hex: $D014).  The value of PAL is provided by the CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA chip
itself.  Meanings are:
  Bit 1-3 clear (xxxx000x) = PAL/SECAM
  Bit 1-3 set   (xxxx111x) = NTSC
(Proper interpretation of the value returned by PEEK(53268) in Atari BASIC
would thus be a bit of a programming challenge.  This is left to the reader!)

(3) Software may determine NTSC or PAL/SECAM by determining how many scan
lines are being generated by ANTIC.  This is done by monitoring the VCOUNT
memory register.  VCOUNT (54283 decimal, $D40B hex) is used by ANTIC to keep
track of which line is currently being generated on the screen.  Values
reflect the line count divided by two.  VCOUNT values range from zero to 130
for an NTSC ANTIC (131*2=262 scan lines), while VCOUNT values range from zero
to 155 for a PAL ANTIC (156*2=312 scan lines).

=-=-=-=-=-=-=
Bottom line:

Software written for NTSC machines (North America) will (almost) always work
on PAL/SECAM machines (Europe), but software designed on PAL/SECAM machines
sometimes won't work as intended on NTSC machines.

Replacing the NTSC ANTIC chip in an NTSC Atari with a PAL ANTIC changes the
screen refresh rate to 50Hz, allowing most of the PAL/SECAM-only European
software to run on a North American NTSC Atari.  However, make sure your
display device can support a 50Hz PAL signal first!

North American Atari users might also obtain and use real European PAL or
SECAM Atari machines, with the same caveat concerning the display device.

------------------------------

Subject: 1.16) What are the pinouts for the various ports on the Atari?

Controller Port 1 (male jack)(all machines):
      1         5
       o o o o o
        o o o o
       6       9
1. 6520 PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 0.  OS Default:
    - Joystick #1 Input: Forward
2. 6520 PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 1.  OS Default: 
    - Joystick #1 Input: Back
3. 6520 PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 2.  OS Defaults:
    - Joystick #1 Input: Left
    - Paddle #1 Input: Trigger
4. 6520 PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 3.  OS Defaults:
    - Joystick #1 Input: Right
    - Paddle #2 Input: Trigger
5. Potentiometer Scan 1 (analog to digital input)(POKEY).  OS Default:
    - Paddle #2
6. Trigger Input 0 (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA).  OS Default: 
    - Joystick #1: Trigger
7. +5V
8. Ground
9. Potentiometer Scan 0 (analog to digital input)(POKEY).  OS Default: 
    - Paddle #1

Controller Port 2 (male jack)(all machines):
      1         5
       o o o o o
        o o o o
       6       9
1. 6520 PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 4.  OS Default:
    - Joystick #2 Input: Forward
2. 6520 PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 5.  OS Default:
    - Joystick #2 Input: Back
3. 6520 PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 6.  OS Defaults:
    - Joystick #2 Input: Left
    - Paddle #3 Input: Trigger
4. 6520 PIA Port A Input/Output Bit 7.  OS Defaults:
    - Joystick #2 Input: Right
    - Paddle #4 Input: Trigger
5. Potentiometer Scan 3 (analog to digital input)(POKEY).  OS Default:
    - Paddle #4
6. Trigger Input 1 (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA).  OS Default:
    - Joystick #2: Trigger
7. +5V                                      
8. Ground
9. Potentiometer Scan 2 (analog to digital input)(POKEY).  OS Default:
    - Paddle #3

Controller Port 3 (male jack)(400/800 only):
      1         5
       o o o o o
        o o o o
       6       9
1. 6520 PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 0.  OS Default:
    - Joystick #3 Input: Forward
2. 6520 PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 1.  OS Default:
    - Joystick #3 Input: Back 
3. 6520 PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 2.  OS Defaults:
    - Joystick #3 Input: Left
    - Paddle #5 Input: Trigger
4. 6520 PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 3.  OS Defaults:
    - Joystick #3 Input: Right
    - Paddle #6 Input: Trigger
5. Potentiometer Scan 5 (analog to digital input)(POKEY).  OS Default:
    - Paddle #6 
6. Trigger Input 2 (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA).  OS Default:
    - Joystick #3: Trigger
7. +5V                                      
8. Ground
9. Potentiometer Scan 4 (analog to digital input)(POKEY).  OS Default:
    - Paddle #5 

Controller Port 4 (male jack)(400/800 only):
      1         5
       o o o o o
        o o o o
       6       9
1. 6520 PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 4.  OS Default:
    - Joystick #4 Input: Forward
2. 6520 PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 5.  OS Default:
    - Joystick #4 Input: Back
3. 6520 PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 6.  OS Defaults:
    - Joystick #4 Input: Left
    - Paddle #7 Input: Trigger
4. 6520 PIA Port B Input/Output Bit 7.  OS Defaults:
    - Joystick #4 Input: Right
    - Paddle #8 Input: Trigger
5. Potentiometer Scan 7 (analog to digital input)(POKEY).  OS Default:
    - Paddle #8 
6. Trigger Input 3 (CTIA/GTIA/FGTIA).  OS Default:
    - Joystick #4: Trigger
7. +5V                                      
8. Ground
9. Potentiometer Scan 6 (analog to digital input)(POKEY).  OS Default:
    - Paddle #7

Serial I/O (SIO)/Peripheral port (male jack)(all machines):
         2           12
          o o o o o o
         o o o o o o o
        1             13
1. computer Clock In         8. Motor Control
2. computer Clock Out        9. Proceed'
3. computer Data In         10. +5V/Ready (1200XL lacks +5V thanks to current
4. Ground                       limit resistor R63.  Replace R63 with a jumper
5. computer Data Out            wire to enable +5V on this pin on the 1200XL.)
6. Ground                   11. computer Audio In
7. Command'                 12. 400/800: +12V ; XL/XE: Not Connected
                            13. Interrupt'
  Some features of the proprietary Atari SIO bus:
      (some of this from the OS User's Manual, pp. 145-148)
      - The Atari computer has one SIO port (managed by POKEY).  
      - Most Atari-specific peripherals include 2 identical SIO ports.
      - Multiple SIO devices may be connected to the Atari via the SIO bus
        "daisy-chain" -- that is, a second SIO device is connected to one of
        the 2 identical SIO ports of the first SIO device, and the first SIO
        device is connected to the computer via its other SIO port.  Any Atari
        SIO device that only has one SIO port must be connected to the system
        at the end of the SIO daisy chain.
      - There are no pin reassignments made in the Serial bus cable, so pin 3,
        the computer's Data In line, is the peripheral's data output line; and
        similarly for pin 5.
      - Atari SIO devices pass along signals on the SIO bus whether or not the
        peripheral is powered on.
      - The Atari OS supports asynchronous SIO communication at 19,200 baud
      - Data is transmitted and received as 8 bits of serial data preceded by
        a logic zero start bit and succeeded by a logic one stop bit.
      - All bus commands must originate from the computer;
        Peripherals will present data on the bus only when commanded to.
      - Every bus operation will go to completion before another bus operation
        is initiated (no overlap).
      - An error detected at any point in the command sequence will abort the
        entire sequence.
      - Three types of SIO bus protocol commands:
        1) Data send, 2) Data receive, 3) immediate (no data -- command only)

Monitor port (female jack): (all but 400, NTSC 600XL, SECAM 800XL,
3 o     o 1                  SECAM 130XE, XEgs)
   o   o
 5   o   4
     2
1. Composite Luminance (except PAL 600XL: Not Connected)
2. Ground
3. Audio Output
4. Composite Video
5. Composite Chrominance (except 1200XL: Not Connected; PAL 600XL: Ground;
                          all but very late-production 800XL: Not Connected)

Monitor port (female jack)(SECAM 800XL, SECAM 130XE):
THIS PINOUT REMAINS QUESTIONABLE.  STILL LOOKING FOR DOCUMENTATION FROM A
NON-WEB SOURCE.
   5       1     1. +12V 5mA max (Select - held at +5V to cause the TV to
    o  6  o                       switch to this video source)
       o         2. Audio (High Level - amplitude about 6 x regular Audio -
    o     o                unused by Atari-distributed Peritel cable)
   4   o   2     3. Audio
       3         4. Composite Video
                 5. Ground (common for audio & video)
                 6. +5V 100mA max (UHF power modulator - 
                                   unused by Atari-distributed Peritel cable)

     The standard video cable provided by Atari France with every
     SECAM 800XL (? and 130XE ?) has the male 6-pin DIN on one end, and a
     standard male Peritel connector on the other end, with this pinout:

     2. Audio (right channel, from port pin #3)       _20_________________2_
     4. Ground (for audio, from port pin #5)          \ o o o o o o o o o o |
     6. Audio (left channel, from port pin #3)     (21)\ o o o o o o o o o o|
     8. +5V (Select, from port pin #1)                  19------------------1 
     17. Ground (for video, from port pin #5)            
     20. Composite video (from port pin #4)

Power (female jack)(all but 400,800,1200XL):
    7     6        1. +5V
     o   o         2. Shield
  3 o     o 1      3. Ground
     o   o         4. +5V
   5   o   4       5. Ground
       2           6. +5V
                   7. Ground

Cartridge Slot (present on all machines; Left Cartridge Slot on 800):
     A  B  C  D  E  F  H  J  K  L  M  N  P  R  S
     o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
     o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
     1                                         15
 1. S4' Chip Select--$8000 to $9FFF  A. RD4 ROM present--$8000 to $9FFF
 2. A3 CPU Address bus line          B. GND Ground
 3. A2 CPU Address bus line          C. A4 CPU Address bus line
 4. A1 CPU Address bus line          D. A5 CPU Address bus line
 5. A0 CPU Address bus line          E. A6 CPU Address bus line
 6. D4 CPU Data bus line             F. A7 CPU Address bus line
 7. D5 CPU Data bus line             H. A8 CPU Address bus line
 8. D2 CPU Data bus line             J. A9 CPU Address bus line
 9. D1 CPU Data bus line             K. A12 CPU Address bus line
10. D0 CPU Data bus line             L. D3 CPU Data bus line
11. D6 CPU Data bus line             M. D7 CPU Data bus line
12. S5' Chip Select--$A000 to $BFFF  N. A11 CPU Address bus line
13. +5V                              P. A10 CPU Address bus line
14. RD5 ROM present--$A000 to $BFFF  R. R/W' CPU read/write
15. CCTL' Cartridge control select   S. B02,Phi2 CPU Phase 2 clock

Right Cartridge Slot (800 only):
     A  B  C  D  E  F  H  J  K  L  M  N  P  R  S
     o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
     o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
     1                                         15
 1. R/W' CPU read/write late         A. B02,Phi2 CPU Phase 2 clock
 2. A3 CPU Address bus line          B. GND Ground
 3. A2 CPU Address bus line          C. A4 CPU Address bus line
 4. A1 CPU Address bus line          D. A5 CPU Address bus line
 5. A0 CPU Address bus line          E. A6 CPU Address bus line
 6. D4 CPU Data bus line             F. A7 CPU Address bus line
 7. D5 CPU Data bus line             H. A8 CPU Address bus line
 8. D2 CPU Data bus line             J. A9 CPU Address bus line
 9. D1 CPU Data bus line             K. A12 CPU Address bus line
10. D0 CPU Data bus line             L. D3 CPU Data bus line
11. D6 CPU Data bus line             M. D7 CPU Data bus line
12. S4' Chip Select--$8000 to $9FFF  N. A11 CPU Address bus line
13. +5V                              P. A10 CPU Address bus line
14. RD4 ROM present--$8000 to $9FFF  R. R/W' Read/write
15. CCTL' Cartridge control select   S. B02,Phi2 CPU Phase 2 clock

Parallel Bus Interface (PBI) (600XL and 800XL only):
 1                                                                       49
 o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
 o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o
 2                                                                       50
  1. GND Ground                    2. EXTSEL' External Select
  3. A0 CPU Address bus line       4. A1 CPU Address bus line
  5. A2 CPU Address bus line       6. A3 CPU Address bus line
  7. A4 CPU Address bus line       8. A5 CPU Address bus line
  9. A6 CPU Address bus line      10. GND Ground
 11. A7 CPU Address bus line      12. A8 CPU Address bus line
 13. A9 CPU Address bus line      14. A10 CPU Address bus line
 15. A11 CPU Address bus line     16. A12 CPU Address bus line
 17. A13 CPU Address bus line     18. A14 CPU Address bus line
 19. GND Ground                   20. A15 CPU Address bus line
 21. D0 CPU Data bus line         22. D1 CPU Data bus line
 23. D2 CPU Data bus line         24. D3 CPU Data bus line
 25. D4 CPU Data bus line         26. D5 CPU Data bus line
 27. D6 CPU Data bus line         28. D7 CPU Data bus line
 29. GND Ground                   30. GND Ground
 31. B02,Phi2 CPU Phase 2 clock   32. GND Ground
 33. NC Reserved                  34. RST' Reset output
 35. IRQ' Interrupt request       36. RDY' Ready input
 37. NC Reserved                  38. EXTENB' CPU External decoder Enable
 39. NC Reserved                  40. REF' Refresh cycle
 41. CAS' Column Address Strobe   42. GND Ground
 43. MPD' Math Pack (FP) Disable  44. RAS' Row Address Strobe
 45. GND Ground                   46. LR/W' Latched read/write
 47. 800XL: NC. 600XL: +5V        48. 800XL: NC. 600XL: +5V
 49. Audio input                  50. GND Ground

Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI)/Expansion port (130XE, 800XE, & later 65XE)
     A B C D E F H
     o o o o o o o
     o o o o o o o
     1           7
A. Reserved                  1. EXTSEL' External Select
B. IRQ' Interrupt request    2. RST' Reset output
C. HALT' Halt CPU            3. D1XX' Chip select at area $D1xx
D. A13 CPU Address bus line  4. MPD' Math Pack (FP) Disable
E. A14 CPU Address bus line  5. Audio input
F. A15 CPU Address bus line  6. REF' Refresh cycle
H. GND Ground                7. +5V

Keyboard Port (XE System console only):
           1               8
            o o o o o o o o
             o o o o o o o
            9             15
1. KR2 Keyboard Response   8. K2 Keyboard Scan
2. K3 Keyboard Scan        9. Ground
3. K4 Keyboard Scan       10. Not Connected
4. K5 Keyboard Scan       11. Ground
5. KR1 Keyboard Response  12. Not Connected
6. K0 Keyboard Scan       13. Trigger 2
7. K1 Keyboard Scan       14. 5 VDC
                          15. 5 VDC

------------------------------

Subject: 2.1) What video display devices and speakers can I use with my Atari?

The Atari 8-bit computers produce a single video signal and monophonic audio.

The 400/800 models also produce some sounds (primarily the keyclick and system
buzzer sounds) by way of an internal speaker.

Most 8-bit Atari computers put out their video and audio signals in two
places:

1) Television cable (400/800) or jack (all XL/XE but SECAM 800XL, SECAM 130XE)

This provides an analog Radio-Frequency (RF) signal carrying both video and
audio.

The Atari's RF signal may be used on a television that:
  - Supports use of an external RF antenna (normally for viewing over-the-air
    TV broadcasts)
  - Can decode an analog television signal (NTSC or PAL or SECAM, matching the
    version of the computer)
  - Has a tuner that can additionally tune to the necessary TV channel(s) used
    by the Atari

If the television has a speaker then it should support the Atari's sound
output as well.

All NTSC (North America) Atari 8-bit computers make the RF audio/video signal
available on a choice of two television frequencies, selected with a physical
switch located on the back of the computer (on the side of the 800):
  - 55.25MHz video/59.75MHz audio (TV Channel 2 in North America), or
  - 61.25MHz video/65.75Mhz audio (TV Channel 3 in North America)

PAL (Europe) Atari 400/800 computers also make the RF audio/video signal
available on a choice of two television frequencies, selected with a physical
switch located on the back of the 400, or on the side of the 800.

PAL 400/800 computers intended for use in "PAL I" countries (UK) use:
  - 607.25MHz video/613.25MHz audio (TV Channel 38 in the UK)
  - 615.25MHz video/621.25MHz audio (TV Channel 39 in the UK)

PAL 400/800 computers intended for use in "PAL B" countries (Europe) use:
  - 55.25MHz video/60.75 audio
    ` TV Channel 3 in Western Europe
    ` TV Channel 2 in Eastern Europe (approx.)
    ` TV Channel 1 in Australia (approx.)
  - 62.25MHz video/67.75MHz audio
    ` TV Channel 4 in Western Europe
    ` TV Channel 2 in Eastern Europe (approx.)
    ` TV Channel 1 in Australia (approx.)

PAL (Europe) Atari XL/XE computers make the RF audio/video signal available on
a single television frequency.

PAL XL/XE computers intended for use in "PAL I" countries (UK) use:
  - 591.25MHz video/597.25MHz audio (TV Channel 36 in the UK)

PAL XL/XE computers intended for use in "PAL B" countries (Europe) use:
  - 62.25MHz video/67.75MHz audio
    ` TV Channel 4 in Western Europe
    ` TV Channel 2 in Eastern Europe (approx.)
    ` TV Channel 1 in Australia (approx.)

SECAM (France) Atari XE Game Systems make the RF audio/video signal available
on a single television frequency:
  - 591.25MHz video/597.75MHz audio (TV Channel 36 in France)

Other than the frequency of the RF signal produced, there is no difference
between the "PAL I" and "PAL B" versions of PAL Atari computers.

If your country is not included above, Wikipedia has a nice table of
television channel frequencies used around the world that you may find
helpful for determining the channel to tune your TV to:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television_channel_frequencies

** NOTE: MC has worked with limited reports to determine the channels used
** around the world.  I would greatly appreciate any corrections/additions to
** the information provided here!  In particular, I'm looking to verify the
** actual RF signal frequencies produced by the Atari.
** The above frequency values are only taken from the channels reported to be
** used in various countries.

Accessories needed (typical setup):
  a) RF Cable / TV Video Cable, a proprietary cable for Atari XL/XE computers
     The input end is a phono plug that plugs into the Switch Box/
     Television jack on the computer.  The output end is a phono plug that
     plugs into the TV Switch Box.

     The 400/800 models have no Switch Box/Television jack.  Instead, there is
     a cable that comes out of the back of the computer.  This cable carries
     the RF signal.  The output end is a phono plug that plugs into the TV
     Switch Box.

  b) TV Switch Box
     This includes a phono jack for RF signal input from the Atari, input
     connector(s) for your TV/cable/satellite antenna, and 75- and/or 300-ohm
     output connector(s) for connection to the antenna input on the
     television.

While the display quality of the RF video signal may be adequate, the quality
of the video provided at the Atari's Monitor port is noticeably superior.

2) Monitor port

A proprietary 5-pin DIN (SECAM: 6-pin) Monitor port, which along with the
audio signal actually provides two video signals:

  a) Composite video

  b) Y/C Video, also known as S-Video:
     separate composite luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signals

The separate chrominance/luminance video signal is noticeably superior to both
the RF television output and the composite video output.

Monitor port exceptions among Atari computer models:
-the 400, NTSC 600XL, and XE game system lack the Monitor port.
-the SECAM 800XL and SECAM 130XE have a different, 6-pin Monitor port that
 provides composite video but not separate chrominance/luminance signals
-the XE game system includes a phono Monitor Video Jack providing the
 composite video signal, and also a phono Monitor Audio Jack providing the
 audio signal.
-The 1200XL, PAL 600XL, and 800XL(all but very late production) lack the
 separate chrominance signal at the Monitor port, and the PAL 600XL also lacks
 the separate luminance signal at the Monitor port.

Any video display monitor that supports composite video input (this generally
includes modern televisions) should be able to display the Atari's composite
video signal.  Monitors with built-in speakers for audio support, and monitors
with support for separate chrominance/luminance video inputs, are preferred
for use with the Atari.

Commodore produced many monitors with separate chrominance and luminance
inputs, making them popular with Atari users.  Lonnie McClure provides this
list of suitable Commodore monitors:

  1701, 1702, 1802, CM-141, 1080, 2002, 1902, 1902A*, 1084**, 1084S**

  * The 1902A used a DIN connector for chrominance/luminance, which makes
  cabling a bit more of a problem.  The composite and audio connectors are
  standard phono jacks, however.

  ** The 1084 and 1084S had more than one version. Some used the a DIN
  connector for chrominance/luminance connections, like the 1902A, while some
  used standard phono jacks.

  The 1902 and 1902A are very different in appearance. The original 1902
  shares the same slightly rounded front case design as the 1080 and 2002,
  while the 1902A is has a rather square case design, and was manufactured
  by Magnavox (as were some of the 1084 and 1084S versions).

The pinout for the Atari Monitor port is in the pinouts section of this FAQ
list.

The typical Atari monitor cable includes the male 5-pin DIN connector on one
end, and two phono plugs on the other end.  One of the phono plugs will carry
the monophonic sound signal, and the other will carry the composite video
signal.  Atari's own CX89 Color Monitor Cable is of this type.

You may find an Atari monitor cable where the video signal carried on the
second phono plug is not the composite video signal, but is rather the
composite luminance signal.  These cables are for use with monochrome
composite video monitors (usually green or amber).  Atari's own CX82 Black
and White Monitor Cable is of this type.

The ideal Atari monitor cable includes 4 phono plugs at the output end,
carrying the sound signal, the composite video signal, the composite
luminance signal, and the composite chrominance signal.  Only the best
composite monitors include separate chrominance and luminance inputs.  When
the separate chrominance and luminance connectors are used, the composite
video connector is not used.

There is no real standard for colors for the different monitor cable
connectors.  It is safe to identify them by trial and error.

The separate composite chrominance and luminance signals that the Atari puts
out comprise what the world has since come to call Y/C video or S-video.
S-video connectors are normally Mini4.  It is possible to build a cable, or
purchase several adapters, that can allow you to utilize the separate Y/C
signals generated by the Atari with a television (or other display device)
that provides a standard S-video Mini4 input jack.  This is the ultimate
display option for the 8-bit Atari.  Clarence Dyson has a nice page about
such a project at http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/svideo.html .

A "video scaler" or "up-converter" is an adapter that will accept a lower-
resolution input video signal such as RF, composite video, or s-video, and
output a conversion of the signal as a standard, higher-resolution video
signal.  With such a device, the 8-bit Atari can be used with any modern
television or monitor.  Examples:

 - AV Toolbox manufactures several suitable adapters, listed at:
   http://www.avtoolbox.com/upconpage.shtml

 - Ambery markets their "Ultra Video to VGA Converter", see:
   http://www.ambery.com/vitoxgacoscs.html
   and other suitable, more expensive Video to VGA/RGBHV Converter Scalers:
   http://www.ambery.com/vitovgcosc.html

 - Earlier popular devices included:
   - Cheese Video Box from AV Toolbox
   - JAM!! from AIMS Lab

Some people report good results viewing the Atari computer's video signal
through a PC using a TV/video capture card.  Wikipedia's article about such
devices: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_capture_card

SCART - an acronym for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorecepteurs
et Televiseurs - is a 21-pin universal connecting cable/socket system used for
audio/video components in Europe.  The cables transmit RGB, composite video,
S-Video, mono and stereo sound.  SCART, which is also known as PERITEL, EURO
AV BUS and EUROCONECTOR, is common throughout Europe, particularly in France,
England, Germany, Switzerland, and Scandinavia.  SCART is also very popular in
the Russian Audio Video market.  It is possible to interface the Atari's
composite video signal, along with the audio signal.  DGS sells such a cable,
see: http://www.dgs.clara.net/

Two current sources for Atari monitor connectivity products:
  More Than Games produces "A8 A/V BOB", an audio/video breakout box featuring
  phono jacks for composite video, chrominance, luminance, and mono audio; it
  also features an s-video jack providing chrominance and luminance.
  http://morethangames.a8maestro.com/proda8/adv-eh0101.htm

  Vintage Computer Cables produces Atari monitor cables designed for use with
  televisions, plus an Atari S-Video cable.
  http://www.vintagecomputercables.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 2.2) What is artifacting?

The term TV artifacts refers to a spot or "pixel" on the screen that displays
a different color than the one assigned to it.  --De Re Atari, p. D-1

There are two different types of artifacting associated with the Atari.

The first type is considerably more intuitive.  Color cathode ray tube (CRT)
televisions and computer displays generate color by exciting red, green, and
blue phosphors arranged in either an aperture grille pattern (vertical wires)
or a shadow mask pattern (triads of dots).
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aperture_grille
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shadow_mask
The density of the phosphors defines the "dot pitch" of the display device.
If a video signal source defines a spot or pixel that is smaller than the dot
pitch of the display device, then accurate color cannot be reproduced by that
display device in that precise spot.  This type of artifacting is relatively
minor with the Atari because of the relatively low resolution of Atari
graphics modes in comparison to the dot pitch of CRT display devices.

NTSC Atari computers exhibit a considerably more profound type of artifacting
than the above.  The following is from Atari's De Re Atari, Appendix D: 
"Television Artifacts": http://www.atariarchives.org/dere/chaptD.php
Appendix D is credited to Atari's Lane Winner with assistance from Jim Cox.
=-=-=-=-=-=
This section discusses how to get multiple colors out of a single color
graphics mode through the use of television artifacts. 

The ANTIC modes with which this can be accomplished are 2, 3, and 15.  ANTIC
mode 2 corresponds to BASIC mode 0, ANTIC mode 15 is BASIC mode 8, and ANTIC
mode 3 has no corresponding BASIC mode.  Each of these modes has a pixel
resolution of one half color clock by one scan line.  They are generally
considered to have one color and two luminances.  With the use of artifacts,
pixels of four different colors can be displayed on the screen in each of
these modes. 

A simple example of artifacts using the ATARI Computer is shown by entering
the following lines: 
  GRAPHICS 8 
  COLOR 1 
  POKE 710,0 
  PLOT 60,60 
  PLOT 63,60

These statements will plot two points on a black background; however each
pixel will have a different color. 

To understand the cause of these differing colors one must first understand
that all the display information for the television display is contained in a
modulated television signal. 

The two major components of this signal are the luminance, or brightness, and
the color, or tint.  The luminance information is the primary signal,
containing not only the brightness data but also the horizontal and vertical
syncs and blanks.  The color signal contains the color information and is
combined or modulated into the luminance waveform. 

The luminance of a pixel on the screen is directly dependent on the amplitude
of the luminance signal at that point.  The higher the amplitude of the signal,
the brighter the pixel. 

The color information, however, is a phase shifted signal.  A phaseshifted
signal is a constantly oscillating waveform that has been delayed by some
amount of time relative to a reference signal, and this time delay is
translated into the color. 

The color signal oscillates at a constant rate of about 3.579 MHz, thus
defining the highest horizontal color resolution of a television set.  This
appears on the screen in the form of 160 visible color cycles across one scan
line.  (There are actually 228 color cycles including the horizontal blank and
sync, and any overscan.) 

The term "color clock" refers to one color cycle and is the term generally
used throughout the ATARI documentation to describe units of measurement
across the screen.  The graphics mode 7 is an example of one color clock
resolution, where each color clock pixel can be a different color.  (There are
microprocessor limitations though.) 

Atari also offers a "high resolution" mode (GRAPHICS 8) that displays 320
pixels across one line.  This is generated by varying the amplitude of the
luminance signal at about 7.16 MHz, which is twice the color frequency. 

Since the two signals are theoretically independent, one should be able to
assign a "background" color to be displayed and then merely vary the luminance
on a pixel-by-pixel basis.  This in fact is the way mode 8 works, the
"background" color coming from playfield register 2, and the luminances coming
from both playfield registers 1 and 2. 

The problem is that in practice the color and luminance signals are not
independent.  They are part of a modulated signal that must be demodulated to
be used.  Since the luminance is the primary signal, whenever it changes, it
also forces a change in the color phase shift.  For one or more color clocks
of constant luminance this is no problem, since the color phase shift will be
unchanged in this area.  However, if the luminance changes on a half color
clock boundary it will force a fast color shift at that point.  Moreover, that
color cannot be altered from the transmitting end of the signal (the ATARI
Computer). 

Since the luminance can change on half color clock boundaries, this implies
that two false color, or artifact pixel types can be generated.  This is
basically true.  However, these two pixels can be combined to form two types
of full color clock pixels.  This is illustrated below:

  TV Scan     |                      |                     |
  Line        |<---1 color clock---->|                     |
              |                      |                     |
              |           |          |          |          |
              |<-1 pixel->|          |          |          |
              |           |          |          |          |

 Luminance         0           1           0          0   1/2 cc pixel color A
  (0=off,          1           0           0          0   1/2 cc pixel color B
   1=on)           1           1           0          0     1 cc pixel color C
                   0           1           1          0     1 cc pixel color D

Note that each of these pixels requires one color clock of distance and
therefore has a horizontal resolution of 160. 

The colors A through D are different for each television set, usually because
the tint knob settings vary.  Thus they cannot be described as absolute colors,
for example, red; but they are definitely distinct from each other, and
programs have been written that utilize these colors.

=-=-=-=-=-=
The actual colors seen depends upon the tint setting of the NTSC display
device, and also upon the version of the NTSC Atari computer used, as pointed
out by Bryan on Oct 7, 08:

  It's well known that different models produce different artifact colors.
  The 800 produces Blue/Green, the 1200XL produces Green/Purple, and the other
  XLs produce Blue/Red.  The reason for this doesn't lie with GTIA, but
  rather with the delays inherent in the different video buffer circuits.
  When you start modifying the video circuits, you slightly alter the time
  alignment between chroma and luma and the artifact colors change.  The TV's
  decoder will be synched to the colorburst supplied by the chroma signal, but
  artifact colors are produced by changing the luma level at the 3.579 color
  frequency which the NTSC Atari models are inherently set up to do. 

A classic example of a game that utilizes color artifacting on the NTSC Atari
is the Broderbund game, Choplifter.  2nd example: Drol, also by Broderbund.

More information about artifacting on the Atari 8-bit computers:

"Atari Artifacting" by Judson Pewther. Compute! #38, July 1983, p. 221:
   http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue38/096_1_ATARI_ARTIFACTING.php
   or from Compute!'s Second Book of Atari Graphics:
   http://www.atariarchives.org/c2bag/page193.php

"GRAPHICS 8 In Four Colors Using Artifacts" by David Diamond. Compute!'s First
   Book of Atari Graphics:
   http://www.atariarchives.org/c1bag/page203.php

------------------------------

Subject: 3.1) What are the Atari 410, 1010, XC11, and XC12 Program Recorders?

The Atari Program Recorders provide storage and retrieval of programs
and data on cassette tape.  In addition to the digital track that stores
computer data, a second audio track is provided to play music or voice
as the program runs.

Specifications common to all Atari program recorders:
  - Data transmission rate: 600 bits per second.
  - Data storage capacity: 100,000 bytes per 60-minute cassette.
  - Track configuration: 4 track, 2 channel (digital data and audio track)

410 Program Recorder
  - Built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain
  - Several versions:
    1) Unreleased prototype version (introduced 1979)
       - Small/narrow profile
       - Carrying handle
       - "Atari 410" label on cassette bay door
       - Atari logo and "program recorder" above cassette bar door
       - Tape counter above cassette bay door
       - 6 Buttons, left to right:
         Rewind, REC (some protos w/ red button), Play, Advance, Stop, Eject
    2) Uncommon version made in Japan (1980-1981)
       - Carrying handle
       - "Atari 410" label between cassette bay door and buttons
       - Tape counter also between cassette bay door and buttons
       - 5 Buttons, left to right:
         Record (red label), Rewind, Play, Advance, Stop/Eject
       - Power: plugs directly into wall (120V)
    3) Common version made in Hong Kong (1980-1983)
       - No carrying handle
       - "Atari 410" label on cassette bay door
       - Tape counter above cassette bay door
       - 6 Buttons, left to right:
         REC, Play, Rewind, Advance, Stop/Ej., Pause
       - Power, 120V version: Plugs directly into wall.
       - Power, 220V/240V version ("410-P" or "410 P"): Used with an external
         DC power supply rated for 6.0 VDC and 300 mA.  An appropriate Atari-
         branded supply is detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list.
  - C015705 REV3 Atari sales flyer reads: "Two styles of the ATARI 410
    Program Recorder are currently manufactured, with equivalent performance."
    This refers to the Japan and Hong Kong versions, #2 and #3 above.

1010 Program Recorder
  - Two SIO ports
  - Power: Used with an external 8.5 to 9.0 volt AC transformer power supply
    rated for at least 5 watts, such as Atari#CO61516 (detailed elsewhere in
    this FAQ list), or equivalent.
  - Two slightly different versions were manufactured:
    1) Made in Hong Kong by Chelco
       - 6 Buttons, left to right:
         Record, Play, Rewind, Advnce, Stop/Ej, Pause
       - Silver sticker inside cassette bay
    2) Made in Japan by Sanyo
       - 6 Buttons, left to right:
         Record, Play, Rewind, Advnce, Pause, Stop/Ej
       - Orange sticker inside cassette bay

XC11 Program Recorder
  - Has a built-in SIO cable and one free SIO port
  - Power: Draws its power from the SIO +5 V

XC12 Program Recorder
  - Built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain
  - Power: Draws its power from the SIO +5 V

Upgrades for the Atari Program Recorders
========================================
Numerous methods were created for upgrading the (painfully) slow data
transmission speed of the Atari program recorders.  Most of these originated
in central and eastern Europe, where program recorders were normally used
with the Atari rather than (extremely expensive) disk drives.

The following Atari program recorder upgrade systems are described in detail
at the Polish atariki site http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/Systemy_turbo

 - KSO Turbo 2000 
 - Atari Super Turbo aka AST (1989?)
    o The first Polish system for turbo tape.
    o Designed by Slawomir Nienaltowski (designer of the SN-360 disk drive),
      sold to Atari Studio (later, Mirage)
    o Originally for the 1010, later released for XC12 and clones.
    o Later version(s) sold with software on cartridge: AST Turbo Cartridge
 - Turbo Blizzard, by Atares 
 - Turbo-ROM, jointly developed by PLUS and MAPASOFT (1991?)
    o Special software cartridge loader required to read such cassettes
 - Turbo 2000F, by MUELA (late 1980s)
    o Compatible with KSO Turbo 2000 
    o System consists of a software cartridge
 - Turbo 2T06 
 - Turbo 6000 (1988?)
    o from East Germany
 - CASA Turbo Tape, by CASA (Dutch) (1985)
    o purely software

One such product emerged from the UK, where cassette program recorders were
also relatively common.  Andreas Koch writes:
 - Rambit Turbo tape: a turbo tape enhancement built in the UK by Richard
  Gore and sold by Microdiscount (Derek Fern); it worked with 9600 Baud
  and came with some special software on disk; Microdiscount also sold
  many of its own commercial programs (Zeppelin games, etc.) on Rambit
  turbo tape...

------------------------------

Subject: 3.2) What other cassette recorders can I use with my Atari?

Firstly Atari themselves put out several more obscure models beyond the
410/1010/XC11/XC12, generally only known in eastern Europe:

XCA12 Program Recorder     -in same case as XC12...Poland
CA12 Program Recorder      -in same case as XC12...Poland
    image: http://membres.lycos.fr/romualdl/images/atari/ca12.jpg
XL12 Program Recorder      -XC12 w/slight changed design. Czech/Slovak/Poland
    box seen here: http://jpecher.sweb.cz/pic/sbirka.jpg
XC13 Program Recorder      -XC12 which was "T2000 ready". Czech/Slovak/Poland

Unlike other microcomputer systems of the time period, only Atari-specific
cassette tape recorders could be used with Atari 8-bit computers.  Several
such peripherals were produced:

Compu-Mate Computer Data Recorder by General Electric (GE, G.E.)
- 3-5148A (unit) / 3-5156 (box)
- 3-5149A Atari/Commodore Interface Module (IFM)
- 1st data cable: Data Recorder <-> IFM Interface or Data Recorder <-> C64
- 2nd data cable: IFM Interface <-> Atari computer SIO connector
- No second SIO port - must be at end of SIO chain.
- Battery operated or uses an external power supply
- switch on the bottom, Atari or "All other computers".
- more info: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=128505
- pics: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/161936-atari-1010-problem/

Phonemark PM-4401A Data Recorder
- near clone of XC12
- power - plugs directly into wall, (240v, 50Hz) and has a captive power lead
  in addition to the SIO lead.
- source of info:
  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Phonemark-Atari-Data-Recorder.jpg

Datamark XG12
- Clone of XC12 (they are truly identical!)
- Built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain
- Power: Draws its power from the SIO +5 V
- Photos and more information in this AtariAge Forums thread:
  http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=128505

Taihoho Computer Cassette
- Clone of XC12
- Built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain
- Power: Draws its power from the SIO +5 V
- Photos in this AtariAge Forums thread:
  www.atariage.com/forums/topic/165991-atari-410-vsatari-410-1010xc1112-too/

------------------------------

Subject: 3.3) How do I run a program from cassette?

To run an Atari BASIC program from cassette:

1. Place the cassette in the recorder.
2. Press REWIND or FORWARD, if necessary, to bring the tape to the position
   where the program is located.
3. Boot the computer to the Atari BASIC READY prompt.
4. There are several possibilities for the next step, depending on how the
   program was saved, and whether you want to run the program or just load
   it into RAM.  Enter one of the following four commands:
   a. CLOAD                       loads programs saved with CSAVE
   b. LOAD "C:"                   loads programs saved with SAVE "C:"
   c. ENTER "C:"                  loads programs saved with LIST "C:"
   d. RUN "C:"                    loads&runs programs saved with SAVE "C:"

] Relative efficiency of the three cassette tape recording techniques:
] CSAVE/CLOAD - short inter-record gap - fastest speed - tokenized files
] SAVE "C:"/LOAD "C:" - long inter-record gap - middle speed - tokenized files
] LIST "C:"/ENTER "C:" - long inter-record gap - slowest - straight ATASCII -
]                        tape actually stops in between block reads/writes

5. The computer will "beep" as a signal for you to press PLAY on the recorder.
6. Press the RETURN key on the computer keyboard, and the program will load
   into the computer.
7. Press STOP on the recorder when loading has finished.
8. Unless you entered RUN "C:" above, now enter the command: RUN

To run a machine language program from cassette upon startup:

1. Place the cassette in the recorder
2. Press REWIND or FORWARD, if necessary, to bring the tape to the position
   where the program is located.
3. Turn on the computer while holding down the START key.
   If your computer has Atari BASIC built-in, hold down both the START key and
   the OPTION key.
4. The computer will "beep" as a signal for you to press PLAY on the recorder.
5. Let go of the START/OPTION button(s).
6. Press the RETURN key on the computer keyboard, and the program will load
   into the computer.
7. Press STOP on the recorder when loading is complete and the program is
   running.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.4.1) What is the Atari 810 Disk Drive?

Portions of this section developed by Laurent Delsarte from the 810 Field
Service Manual.

The Atari 810 Disk Drive is a record/playback device that allows information
to be stored and retrieved quickly and accurately.  The actual recording is
much like a tape recording process, and is done on similar material.  The data
is magnetically recorded on a 5 1/4 inch diameter diskette.  Each diskette can
store 88K bytes of programs and/or data.  The diskette is inserted through a
door in the front panel of the drive unit.  The 810 Disk Drive is used with a
single Atari 8-bit computer with a minimum of 16K of RAM installed.  Up to
four 810 disk drives may be attached and used with an Atari computer at the
same time.

The 810 drive has only one drive head, so it can only read/write to one side
of the disk.  The reverse side of a 2-sided "flippy" disk may be used by
inserting the disk into the drive upside-down.

The front of the 810 features a Power on/off switch, a "Power" indicator
light, and a "Disk busy" indicator light.  The rear of the unit includes two
SIO ports ("I/O Connectors"), a power input jack, and drive number selector
switches:
                     Black & white left: Drive 1
                Black right, white left: Drive 2
                    Black & white right: Drive 3
                Black left, white right: Drive 4

More features/specifications of the 810 disk drive (all versions):
- Height: 4.5 Inches
- Width: 9.5 Inches
- Depth: 12 Inches
- Weight: 104 oz. (6.5 Pounds)
- Standard 6507 MPU (Atari#C010745) and on-board ROM
- Clocking Frequency: 1 MHz Crystal Control
- INS1771-1 floppy disk controller (FDC) chip (Atari#CO14329)
- Media: ANSI Standard 5.25" Floppy Diskette
- Track Density: 48 TPI (tracks per inch)
- Recording Density: 2,938 BPI (bits per inch) (MAX)
- Flux Density: 5,876 FCI (flux changes per inch) (MAX)
- Recording Format: 
    Single-Sided
    Single-Density
    FM (frequency modulation) Encoding Method 
    Soft Sectored
  Total storage capacity per diskette:
    40 tracks  x  18 sectors/track  =  720 sectors/disk
    720 sectors  x  128 bytes/sector  =  92,160 bytes/disk
- Disk Rotation Speed: 288 RPM (rotations per minute) +- 1%
- Average Latency: 100 Milliseconds
- Read/Write Head Gap: .013 Inches
- Guard Band: .008 Inches
- Average Data Transfer Rate: 6K Baud (19.2K Baud max.)
- Pad Pressure: 17 Grams
- Power-up Delay: 0.5 Seconds
- Maximum Data Access Time: 236 Milliseconds
- Head Loading Time: 35 Milliseconds
- Head Settling Time: 15 Milliseconds
- Track to Track Access Time: 5 Milliseconds
- Average Access Time: 74 milliseconds

The 810 underwent numerous design revisions over the course of its
manufacture.

Original "PRE-ANALOG" 810 Disk Drive (1980-1982) specifications:
- MPI drive mechanism
- Power Input: 9 Volts AC, 1.7 Amps
- Power Usage: 20 Watts

The 810 Data Separator Board was introduced in October 1981.  According to
Antic (Oct. 82), "The Data Separator Board for the 810 improves the drive's
ability to distinguish between data pulses and clock pulses on the disk.  This
is necessary in part because of the variations in the characteristics of
different diskettes.  The data separator lowers the chance of a misread from
the disk."  The Data Deparator board was also offered as an upgrade for older
810 drives.

Next, Atari introduced the 810 ROM C in November 1981.  According to Antic
(Oct. 82), "ROM C causes diskettes to be formatted with an improved sector
layout which is more efficient than that used by earlier 810 control ROMs."
The ROM C was also offered as an upgrade for older 810 drives.

After February of 1982, Atari began producing the new "Analog" (later, "810M")
design of the 810.  The 3 new components were also offered together as the
CB101128 "Grass Valley Analog Board Set" upgrade for "Pre-Analog" 810 drives.

Features/spcifications of the "ANALOG" 810 Disk Drive (both initial "810M" and
later "810T" designs) (1982-1983):
- A Power Supply Board now bolts onto the common base plate where the Rear
  Board used to be.  The Power Supply Board contains: 
    a) a redesigned Power Supply. 
    b) a Tachometer/Speed Switch I.C. (frequency to voltage converter)
       added as the Tach circuit to stabilize the motor speed. 
- An Analog Board now bolts to the top of the Drive Mechanism.  This board
  contains the Analog circuitry which used to be on the Rear Board.  The major
  changes are to the Read/Write circuitry.  The Analog Board contains: 
    a) op-amps and discrete transistors in place of transistor arrays. 
    b) a multiplexor chip for switching the Read/Write amplifiers. 
- A 10 pin flat cable connects the Analog Board to the Power Supply Board.
- Power Input: 9 Volts AC, 3 Amps
- Power Usage: 30 Watts

In November 1982, the drive mechanism of the 810 was changed from MPI to
Tandon.  This design is known in technical documentation as the "810T"
version of the "Analog 810".

           TANDON ("810T")                      MPI ("Pre-Analog" & "810M")
FRONT      Operated by a front latch.           Operated by a door release
BEZEL      No diskette eject mechanism. Raise   button.
           the front latch to access diskette.  Contains a diskette eject
           Plastic guides and front latch       mechanism.
           inhibitor position the diskette.

UPPER      Contains no pressure spring.         Contains pressure spring
ARM                                             assembly.
ASSEMBLY   Adjust by turning the two nuts which Adjust pressure spring.
           secure the upper arm to the 
           carriage.

STEPPER    Adjust by turning the cam screw at   Adjust by loosening setscrew
MOTOR      rear of Drive Mechanism.             to move Stepper Band Pulley.
ADJUSTMENT

TRACK 00   Adjust by monitoring increase and    Adjust for 0.010 clearance.
STOP       decrease in waveform amplitude.

WRITE      Microswitch Assembly                 Phototransistor
PROTECT
CIRCUIT 

The 810 disk drive is used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply
rated for at least 50 watts, such as Atari#C017945, CA017964, or C060592 (each
detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list), or equivalent.

The 810 shipped with DOS I (winter 1980 to fall 1981) or DOS II version 2.0S
(fall 1981 to May 1983).  Production of the 810 ended in May 1983.

810 accessories from Atari:
CX8100 5 Diskettes (blank)
CX8101 Master Diskette (DOS I)
CX8104 Master Diskette II (DOS II version 2.0S)
CX8111 Atari 810 Formatted Diskettes II (5 per box)
CX8202 Atari 810/815 Blank Diskettes (5/box, certified for double density)

Third-party upgrades for the 810:
Fast-Chip, by Binary Corporation
 - 30% faster formatting for earlier 810 drives (prior to "ROM C"), or
   10% faster formatting for 810 drives with "ROM C" (Nov. 1981 or later)
 - Disks formatted by an 810 with Fast-Chip utilize an improved sector
   layout which is more efficient than those created by standard 810 drives.
810 Archiver, by Computer Software Services (CSS)
 - Copy many copy-protected programs
810 Enhancement ("Happy 810")
 - by Happy Computing / Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams)
 - RAM buffer: 18 sectors (2304 bytes)
 - Warp Speed: reads disks up to 3 times faster than standard 810
 - Original version for Pre-Analog 810; -H version for Analog 810 
 - Warp Speed Software:
   - Diagnostic program
   - Sector Copy Program / Sector Copier
   - Happy Backup Program (Single Drive version)
   - Happy Compactor Program (combine up to 8 boot-load programs on 1 disk)
   - Multi Drive Program (Happy Backup for multiple drives)
   - Tracer program
   - Warp Speed DOS (modified DOS 2.0S uses "Warp Speed" not just for reads
     but also for writes with verify (about 5 times faster than standard 810)
 - Software sold separately, each supports Warp Speed read/write:
   - Customizer Program (create non-standard disks track-by-track)
   - Warp Speed DOS XL (by OSS, modified by Happy Computers)
   - TOP DOS 1.5 & up, by Eclipse Software
   - SuperDOS for Happy (c)1986 by H.C.I.
810 Turbo, by Neanderthal Computer Things (NCT)
 - double-density,
 - track buffering,
 - speed comparable to Happy 810 Enhancement
 - Distributed with MachDOS

------------------------------

Subject: 3.4.2) What was the Atari 815 Dual Disk Drive?

The 815 Dual Disk Drive was introduced by Atari, Inc. at the June 1980
Summer Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago.  The unit would feature two
double-density, single sided disk drives.
- Recording Format: 
    Single-Sided
    Single-Density
    MFM (frequency modulation) Encoding Method 
    Soft Sectored
  Total storage capacity per diskette:
    40 tracks  x  18 sectors/track  =  720 sectors/disk
    720 sectors  x  256 bytes/sector  =  184,320 bytes/disk
Prototypes were developed using both MPI and Tandon mechanisms.

The 815 disk drive has a built-in power supply (plugs directly into the wall,
120V AC).

815 accessories from Atari:
CX8201 Master Diskette II (DOS II version 2.0D, or DOS 2.0D; never shipped)
CX8202 Atari 810/815 Blank Diskettes (5/box, certified for double density)
CX408 Atari Word Processor (Atari 815 Version; never shipped)

Atari continued to promote the 815 for around a year; it was dropped from the
product line around mid-1981.  Prototype units exist (according to
Atarimuseum.com: 60 units were produced), but the 815 never shipped.
http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/400800/815/815.html

------------------------------

Subject: 3.4.3) What is the Atari 1050 Disk Drive?

Portions of this section developed by Laurent Delsarte from the 1050 Field
Service Manual.

The Atari 1050 disk drive was introduced in March 1983 as a replacement for
the 810 disk drive.  The 1050 is fully backward-compatible with the 810,
with the addition of a new "double density" mode of operation offering 127K
bytes of data storage per diskette.

While Atari called the new 1050 mode "double density", the 1050 is not capable
of the 180K double density standard offered in many third party Atari disk
drives.  Thus, the 1050's "double density" is usually referred to as "enhanced
density" or "dual density."

Like the 810, the 1050 drive has only one drive head, so it can only read/
write to one side of the disk.  The reverse side of a 2-sided "flippy" disk
may be used by inserting the disk into the drive upside-down.

The front of the 1050 features a Power on/off switch, a Power indicator
light, and a "Disk busy" indicator light.  The rear of the unit includes two
SIO ports ("I/O Connectors"), a Power In jack, and Drive Select switches:
                     Black & white left: Drive 1
                Black right, white left: Drive 2
                    Black & white right: Drive 3
                Black left, white right: Drive 4

More features/specifications of the 1050 disk drive:
- HEIGHT: 1.70 Inches (Max)
- WIDTH: 6.00 Inches (Max)
- LENGTH: 8.00 Inches (Max)
- WEIGHT: 6 Pounds (Max)
- Standard 6507 MPU (Atari#C010745) and on-board ROM
- Clocking Frequency: 1 MHz Crystal Control
- WD2793-02 (Atari#FC100542 --Original design) or WD2797 (Atari#FC100817)
  floppy disk controller (FDC) chip
- Media Requirement, Single or Double Density: Soft Sectored
                                   Single Density        "Double Density"
                                    (Read/Write)           (Read/Write)
- Tracks per surface                     40                     40
- Tracks per inch                        48                     48
- Recording density (Track 39, max)   2,878 BPI              5,757 BPI
- Flux density (Track 39, max)        5,757 FCI              5,757 FCI
- Encoding method                        FM                    MFM
- Capacity unformatted
    o Per track                       3,382 Bytes            6,510 Bytes
    o Per surface                   135,280 Bytes          260,400 Bytes
- Capacity formatted
    o Sectors per track                  18                     26
    o Bytes per sector                  128 Bytes              128 Bytes
    o Bytes per track                 2,304 Bytes            3,328 Bytes
    o Bytes per surface              92,160 Bytes          133,120 Bytes
- Transfer rate                     125,000 BPS            250,000 BPS
- Read/Write head                         1                      1
- Write protect sensor                  Yes                    Yes
- Track 00 sensor                       Yes                    Yes
- Rotational speed                      288 RPM                288 RPM
- Rotational speed accuracy                 +/-3%                  +/-3%
- Average latency                       110 ms                 110 ms
- Access time
    o Track to track (max)               40 ms                  40 ms
    o Head settling (max)                30 ms                  30 ms
    o Motor start (max)                1000 ms                1000 ms
- Power Consumption
    Standby: 1.5 Watts (MAX)
    Operating: 30 Watts (MAX)
    Start Up: 50 Watts (MAX)

The 1050 drive features a horizontal slot with latch bar door mechanism.
To complete the insertion of a disk, turn the latch bar clockwise ninety
degrees.  To release the disk, turn the latch counterclockwise.

There were two production versions of the 1050 drive, designed to appear and
function identically.  The earlier 1050 made in Singapore for Atari, Inc. uses
a Tandon drive mechanism, while the later 1050 made in Hong Kong for Atari
Corp. uses a World Storage drive mechanism.

The 1050 disk drive is used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power
supply rated for at least 50 watts, such as Atari#C017945, CA017964, or
C060592 (each detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list), or equivalent.

The 1050 drive shipped with DOS 2.0S (1983), DOS 3 (1983-1985), or
DOS 2.5 (1985-1988).

Third-party upgrades for the 1050
=================================

Happy Warp Speed and compatible:
-------------------------------
Warp Speed Happy 1050 Enhancement
 - by Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams)
 - Adds true single-sided, double density (180K) operation
 - RAM buffer: 36 sectors (4608 bytes)
 - Warp Speed reads: about 3 times faster than standard 1050
 - Warp Speed Software:
   - Diagnostic program
   - Sector Copy Program / Sector Copier
   - Happy Backup Program (Single Drive version)
   - Happy Compactor Program (combine up to 8 boot-load programs on 1 disk)
   - Multi Drive Program (Happy Backup for multiple drives)
   - Tracer program
   - Warp Speed DOS (modified DOS 2.0S uses "Warp Speed" not just for reads
     but also for writes with verify (about 5 times faster than standard 1050)
   - IBMXFR IBM Transfer Program (Warp Speed software version 7.1 only)
     - Read/write standard SS/DD 180K 5.25" MS-DOS floppy disks
 - Software sold separately, each supports Warp Speed read/write:
   - Customizer Program (create non-standard disks track-by-track)
   - Warp Speed DOS XL (by OSS, modified by Happy Computers)
   - TOP DOS 1.5 & up, by Eclipse Software
   - SuperDOS for Happy (c)1986 by H.C.I.
 - Hardware upgrades for Warp Speed Happy 1050 Enhancement:
   o Happy Doubler, by Innovative Concepts, 1989
      - Disk software, programs the Happy 1050 to be fully compatible with
        ICD's US Doubler, including formatting disks in the US skew
      - Also allows you to re-program the drive numbers up to D8:
   o Imitator Controller, by Innovative Concepts, 1989
      - Hardware switch to select Happy Fast or Slow mode
      - Second hardware swtich for write-protect
      - Two-color LED for write-protect status
   o IC Chip, by Innovative Concepts
      - Replacement ROM for Happy 1050 Enhancement
      - Automatic detection and support for SpartaDOS skewed disks
Happy 1050 Maximizer
 - by Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams)
 - Adds true single-sided, double density (180K) operation
 - Upgrades:
    1) Maximizer to Enhancement Upgrade available from Happy Computers
    2) Happy 1050 Controller (see below)
Happy 1050 Controller 
 - by Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams)
 - When used with the Happy 1050 Enhancement or Happy 1050 Maximizer:
    - Allows writing on the flip side of disks without punching holes
    - Selects protection from writing on valuable disks.  Selection can be
      made both from software commands and a three position switch.
 - When used with the Happy 1050 Enhancement:
    - Allows both switch and software control of reading and writing speeds.
 - When used in otherwise stock 1050:
    - Manual control of write protection
Hyper Drive
 - by Chaos! Computers
 - SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 52Kbps

ICD UltraSpeed and compatible:
-----------------------------
US Doubler
 - by ICD
 - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed (US) 54Kbps, sector skewing
Super Archiver
 - by Computer Software Services (CSS)
 - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 54Kbps, sector skewing
 - Copying and disk editing tool
 - Will produce/reproduce "phantom" sectors.
 - Fully compatible with the CSS 810 Archiver 
 - Can be upgraded with CSS Bit-Writer
Super Archiver II
 - by CSS
 - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 54Kbps, sector skewing
 - All the features of CSS Super Archiver
 - Edits and copies all enhanced density programs 
 - Sold as one of:
    1) complete package
    2) software upgrade to CSS Super Archiver
 - Can be upgraded with CSS Bit-Writer
Bit-Writer
 - by CSS
 - Upgrade to CSS Super Archiver or Super Archiver II
 - Writes bits rather than sectors -> should be able to copy ANY disk
Speedy 1050
 - by Compy-Shop (now ABBUC), 1988
 - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 70Kbps
 - 8kB buffer
 - DOS, copier, track & density displays
 - beep speaker
 - http://www.mia-net.org/speedy.html
Mini-Speedy
 - by Compy-Shop (now ABBUC)
 - Same as Speedy 1050, but without displays & speaker
 - Can be upgraded with Super Speedy
Super Speedy
 - by Compy-Shop (now ABBUC) 
 - Upgrade for Mini-Speedy
 - Same specs an Mini-Speedy, but adds switches and an LED display
SuperMax
 - by Super Products
 - SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 52Kbps, sector skewing

Turbodrive and compatible:
--------------------------
1050 Turbo            SS SD/ED/DD Turbodrive 70000 baud, printer interface
                      Bernhard Engl, 1986.  software:
                      Backup Machine II, Magic Formatter, Maintenance Box 
                      http://www.strotmann.de/~cas/Infothek/1050Turbo/
1050 Turbo II v3.5    SS SD/ED/DD Turbodrive 70000 baud, printer interface
                      Bernhard Engl, 1986.  software:
                      Backup Machine II, Magic Formatter, Maintenance Box 
                      http://www.strotmann.de/~cas/Infothek/1050Turbo/
Top Drive 1050        SS SD/ED/DD Turbodrive 70000 baud (1050 Turbo clone)
TOMS Turbo            upgrade for 1050, LDW/Indus, and CA-2001:
                      adds 1050 Turbodrive 70000 baud and IBM densities

Add support for multiple above enhancements:
--------------------------------------------
I.S. Plate            SS SD/ED/DD Ultra/Warp (USD/Happy clone)
  (Innovated Software)
Lazer 1050            SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed and UltraSpeed 54Kbps
                      (USD/Happy clone)
TOMS Multi            upgrade for 1050, LDW/Indus, and CA-2001:
                      adds 1050 Turbo (68.2 Kbps) and UltraSpeed (54 Kbps),
                      and supports IBM densities

Other upgrades:
---------------
1050 Duplicator       SS SD/ED/DD "read 18 sectors in the time normally for 1"
  (Duplicating Technologies (DT))
  sources(Jim Patchell)http://www.oldcrows.net/~patchell/atari/duplicator.html
  - Upgrades:
     - CheerUp Upgrade, by Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams)
     - Converts 1050 Duplicator to Warp Speed Happy 1050 Enhancement
IC1050 Controller, by Innovative Concepts, 1989
 - Hardware swtich for write-protect
 - Two-color LED for write-protect status

------------------------------

Subject: 3.4.4) What is the Atari XF551 Disk Drive?

The Atari XF551 disk drive was introduced in June 1987 as a replacement for
the 1050 disk drive.  The XF551 is fully backward-compatible with the 1050,
with the addition of two new modes of operation: a true "double density" mode
offering 180K bytes of data storage per (single-sided) diskette (fully
compatible with 3rd party double density drives for the Atari), and a "double-
sided double density" mode offering 360K bytes of data storage per (2-sided)
diskette.

Unlike the 810 or 1050, the XF551 drive has two drive heads, so it can read/
write to both sides of a 2-sided floppy disk (in double-sided double density
360K/disk mode).  The 360K mode of the XF551 writes "backwards" to the second
side of the disk in comparison to the way data would be stored on the reverse
side of a two-sided "flippy" disk in single-sided double density 180K mode.

The XF551 is also capable of communicating with the computer at about twice
data rate of the earlier Atari 1050 or 810 drives.  This high speed mode is
supported by DOS XE, SpartaDOS X, SuperDOS 5.1, and TurboDOS.  A patch was
developed for SpartaDOS 3.2.

The front of the XF551 features a "Disk busy" indicator light.  (Notably,
there is no power indicator light on the XF551.)  The rear of the unit
includes a power on/off switch, a Power jack, two SIO ("Peripheral") ports,
and Drive Select DIP switches:
                 Both dips down: Drive 1
            Left down, right up: Drive 2
            Left up, Right down: Drive 3
              Left and Right up: Drive 4

More features/specifications of the XF551 disk drive:
- Standard 8050 (Atari#CO70235) or 8040 (Atari#CB101393) MPU at 18.3333 Mhz
  (The 8050 has internal ROM space that is not used in the XF551.)
  (Atari and media reports initially indicated a 6507, but I think this was
   probably never correct. -mc)
- Disk controller: WD1772 (Atari#CO26028) or (rarely) WD1770
- SIO Data rate (normal): 19,040 BPS (NTSC), 18,688 BPS (PAL)
            (high speed): 38,908 BPS (NTSC), 38,553 BPS (PAL)
- Rotation rate: 300 RPM
  All other Atari-specific drives spin at 288 RPM.  This results in rare
    compatibility issues.  Specifically, these commercial disks do not load
    in, and can possibly be damaged (!) by the XF551:
      - Flight Simulator II (subLOGIC)
      - Blue Max (Synapse) (I have personally destroyed multiple Blue Max
        disks with the XF551 drive!  -mc)
      - Bank Street Writer (Broderbund).  Conflicting reports about this one.
      - Boulder Dash II (Databyte release?)
      - the original Polish version of Inside (Spektra, 1990 release?)
- Dimensions
  o Height 2.75 in. (70 mm)
  o Width 7.50 in. (190 mm)
  o Length 11.80 in. (300 mm)
- Weight 6 lb. (2.7 Kg)

Operating modes      Single   Dual   Double density
  Encoding Method      FM      MFM      MFM
  Number of sides       1        1        2
  Total tracks         40       40       80
  Sectors per track    18       26       18
  Bytes per sector    128      128      256 (total storage capacity)
  Total Bytes      92,160  133,120  368,640 (total storage capacity)

The XF551 drive features a horizontal slot with latch bar door mechanism.
To complete the insertion of a disk, turn the latch bar clockwise ninety
degrees.  To release the disk, turn the latch counterclockwise.

XF551 disk drives were manufactured for Atari in Japan by both Chinon and
Mitsumi.  The manufacturer cannot be determined externally.  However, Chinon
and Mitsumi XF551 drives differ in one important way:
 - XF551 by Chinon: CANNOT read/write/format the flip side of a 2-sided disk
      in single-sided (90K, 130K, or 180K) mode if the disk lacks a 2nd timing
      hole
 - XF551 by Mitsumi: CAN read/write the flip side of a 2-sided disk in single-
      sided (90K, 130K, or 180K) mode if the disk lacks a 2nd timing hole, but
      CANNOT format the backside without the 2nd timimg hole

The XF551 disk drive is used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power
supply rated for at least 50 watts, such as Atari#C017945, CA017964, or
C060592 (each detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list), or equivalent.

The XF551 shipped with DOS 2.5 (1988-1989) or DOS XE (1989- ).

The key engineer/designer of the XF551 was Jose Valdes at Atari.

Third-party upgrades for the XF551:

XF35 Kit
 - Developed by Bob Woolley;
   Marketed by Innovative Concepts (Mark Elliott), 1989
 - A standard 3.5" 720kB drive mechanism (not included with Kit) may replace
   the 5.25" drive of the XF551, or it may be added to the drive making it
   possible to select one or the other using a toggle switch.
 - Dual drive option requires several additional parts, not included with Kit
 - Kit also includes replacement drive ROM chip
 - XF551 high speed remains available
XF Single Drive Upgrade
 - by Computer Software Services (CSS), 1991
 - A replacement 3.5" 720kB drive mechanism + replacement drive ROM
 - UltraSpeed compatibility
 - Included IBM/ST Transfer Utility (IBMREAD.COM) allows the upgraded XF551
   drive to read the 512 byte sectors used in the disk formats of the IBM PC
   and compatibles, and the Atari ST computers.  It will automatically adapt
   to either single sided or double sided formats, and supports the increased
   sector density of the 'twister' ST disk formats.  Program includes built-in
   text translation.
 - Kit sold with or without 3.5" drive
 - See: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFsingdrup.htm
XF Dual Drive Upgrade
 - by Computer Software Services (CSS), 1991
 - Same as XF Single Drive Upgrade, except keep using the XF551 5.25" drive as
   well.  Result is two disk drives; the new 3.5" drive assumes the next drive
   number higher than the 5.25" drive.
 - See: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFdualdrup.htm
XF551 Enhancer
 - by Computer Software Services (CSS)
 - Provides a switch that allows the XF551 to use, in single-sided mode, the
   back side of a floppy disk that contains only one timing index hole.
 - No need for the disk to have a second write protect hole.
 - A write protect disable is built in.
 - 60Hz version for North American or 50Hz version for Europe
 - See: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XF551enh.htm
XF Update
 - by Computer Software Services (CSS), 1992
 - Replacement drive operating system (ROM)
 - "Runs more commercial software"
 - Changes density properly
 - Supports UltraSpeed (slightly faster than 1050 UltraSpeed)
 - Improved/optimized interleave in high speed formats
 - Included IBM/ST Transfer Utility (IBMREAD.COM) allows the upgraded XF551
   drive to read the 512 byte sectors used in the disk formats of the IBM PC
   and compatibles, and the Atari ST computers.  It will automatically adapt
   to either single sided or double sided formats, and supports the increased
   sector density of the 'twister' ST disk formats.  Program includes built-in
   text translation.
 - See: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFupdate.htm
XF Speedy
 - (c) 1994 Klaus Peters Elektronik + Software
 - 100% compatible with the 1050 Speedy:
   SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 70Kbps, plus DSDD 360K
 - Replaces the 8040 CPU with a 65C02 + ROM + Memory
 - Reviewed:
http://www.pokey.nl/xoops/modules/megazine/index.php?op=viewarticle&artid=225
Hyper-XF  (or HyperXF)
 - (c) 1998 Stefan Dorndorf
 - Replacement drive operating system (ROM)
 - Hyper-XF 1.0A is for original XF551 with 5.25" drive
 - Hyper-XF 1.0B is for the XF551 with replacement 3.5" drive installed
 - UltraSpeed (sector skewing; no track buffer)
   55420 bps PAL or 55931 bps NTSC, see:
atariage.com/forums/topic/108472-xf551-oses/page__view__findpost__p__2059318
 - Hyper-Speed 55000 bps (same speed as UltraSpeed)
    - Hyper-Speed DOS Patches for: BIBO-DOS 6.4RF, Turbo-DOS 2.1XF, XDOS 2.3N
    - Driver can also be downloaded directly from the drive, before a DOS boot
 - Can use disk partitions (2 on 5.25", 4 partitions on 3.5") with mixed 
   Densities (S/E/D) or standard 360Kbytes (5.25") / 720Kbytes (3.5")
 - Can theoretically read/write ST/PC 720k disks (software is missing!)
 - Improved double-density detection 
 - Available: 
   www.atariage.com/forums/topic/84017-xf551/page__view__findpost__p__1023935

------------------------------

Subject: 3.5) What other floppy disk drives can I use with my Atari?

Major contributors to this section: Glenn M. Saunders, Tomasz M. Tatar,
James Bradford, Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz, Don Schoengarth, Andreas
Koch, TXG/MNX

SD=Single-Density, 90K/disk side
ED=Enhanced-Density, 130K/disk side
DD=Double-Density, 180K/disk side

SS=Single-Sided (drive has only one drive head, so it can only read/write to
                 one side of the disk.  The reverse side of a 2-sided "flippy"
                 disk may be used by inserting the disk upside-down.)
DS=Double-Sided (one of 3 possible data-mappings, see below for details)

Printer port=has a standard DB25 parallel printer port,+ maybe a print buffer
Master=includes drive controller, can add additional,non-Atari-specific drives

Top transfer rate is 19.2Kbps unless stated otherwise.

Floppy disk drives designed for the 8-bit Atari computers:
Atari 810            SS SD
Atari 1050           SS SD/ED
Atari XF551          DS SD/ED/DD, 38.4Kbps burst mode
Access Unlimited ATAR88-1
                     SS SD master
Access Unlimited ATAR40-1
                     SS SD/DD master
Amdek Amdisk III AMDC-1 
                     SS SD/ED/DD uses "flippy" Amdisk III 3" (not 3.5") disks
                     by Hitachi/Maxell/Matsushita seen as standard 5.25"
                     floppies to the Atari, printer port, master
Amdek Amdisk III AMDC-2
                     SS SD/ED/DD dual drives, uses "flippy" Amdisk III 3" (not
                     3.5") disks by Hitachi/Maxell/Matsushita seen as standard
                     5.25" floppies to the Atari, printer port, master
AS SN-360            DS SD/ED/DD
Astra 1001           SS SD/DD, printer port
Astra 1620           SS SD/DD dual drives
Astra 2001           SS SD/DD dual drives
Astra Big-D          DS SD/DD dual drives
Astra The "One"      DS SD/DD, printer port
B&C 810              SS SD, optional Happy Warp Speed 52Kbps
Concorde C-221M      SS SD/DD master
Concorde C-222M      DS SD/DD master
SBG D.8002 HS        DS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed
                     see: http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/D.8002_HS
CSS Floppy Board, for the Black Box, master, support PC 720K and 1.44MB 3.5"
                     drives, support PC 1.2MB and 360kB 5.25" drives,
                     also read/write 5.25" and 3.5" MS-DOS disks
                     see: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/floppy.htm
Flop Roznov pod Radhostem VD 40 F
                     SS SS/ED/DD, XF551 compatible, printer port
                see: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=99716
High-Density Disk Interface (HDI) by Erhard Puetz. a PCB, master
                     connect up to 4 standard PC high-density drives
Indus GT             SS SD/ED/DD, Synchromesh mode supported by SpartaDOS X
                     (72Kbps) and DOS XL (37Kbps). Z-80 cpu
                     option: RAM-Charger 64K RAM + software, for CP/M support
Karin Maxi           PBI/ECI device, master, WD1772 + 2KB driver ROM
                     DS formats use PC-standard 'head-first' mapping
L.E. Systems LEDS5-01
                     SS SD/DD master, 134.4Kbps, 800 only
                     CP/M expansion: 4MHz Z80, 64K RAM
L.E. Systems LEFDC-04
                     SS SD Four drives, copies a disk in 22 secs, 800 only
L.E. Systems LEFDC-08
                     SS SD Eight drives, copies a disk in 22 secs, 800 only
LDW Super 2000       SS SD/DD, 19.2Kbps or 67Kbps. Indus GT clone
                     "Logical Design Works"
   image: http://membres.multimania.fr/romualdl/images/atari/super2000.jpg
LDW/California Access CA-2001
                     SS SD/DD, 19.2Kbps or 38.4Kbps
                     Indus GT/LDW Super 2000 clone
   image: http://membres.multimania.fr/romualdl/images/atari/ca2001.jpg
LDW/California Access CA-2002
                     DS SD/ED/DD,19.2Kbps,70Kbps w/SpartaDOS
Micro MainFrame MF-1681
                     SS SD/DD, printer port, 4K to 54K printer buffer,
                     hard disk firmware included, master, Z-80 CPU w/ 16K to
                     64K RAM for CP/M, TRSDOS, MaxiDOS A, and OASIS.
Micro MainFrame MF-1682
                     dual drives version of MF-1681
Percom RFD40-S1      SS SD/DD, master (configurable).
Percom RFD40-S2      SS SD/DD dual drives, master (configurable)
Percom RFD44-S1      DS SD/DD, master (configurable)
Percom RFD44-S2      DS SD/DD dual drives, master (configurable)
Percom AT-88         SS SD. Can be upgraded to DD with the separately-sold:
                     AT88-DDA Doubler ("Double Density Adapter")
Percom AT88-S1       SS SD/DD, master (non-configurable)
Percom AT88-S1-PD    SS SD/DD, printer port, master (non-configurable)
Percom AT88-S2       SS SD/DD dual drives, master (non-configurable)
Percom AT88-S2-PD    SS SD/DD dual drives, printer port, master (non-config.)
Rana 1000            SS SD/ED/DD, stand alone disk formatting
RCP 810              SS SD
San Jose Computer Special Edition 810
                     SS SD, optional Happy Warp Speed 52Kbps
Spider               SS SS/ED/DD,XF551 compat,printer port,only 70 protos made
                see: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=99716
SWP ATR8000          4MHz Z80, 16K RAM, RS-232, master, printer port
               or    4MHz Z80, 64K RAM, RS-232, master, printer port, CP/M 2.2
                     run up to 4 floppy disk drives (5.25"/8"; 40T,80T,SS&DS)
            options: 128K or 256K CO-POWER-88 with MS-DOS (64K version only),
                     CP/M-86, MY-DOS, AUTOTERM-80 (80-column display output)
SWP ATR8500          4MHz Z80, 64K RAM, RS-232, master, printer port, CP/M 2.2
                     run up to four floppy disk drives (40T, 80T, SS & DS)
                     hardware UART serial port controller, Z80 expansion bus,
            options: DMA controller, built-in drives, hard disk
TOMS 720             DS SD/ED/DD/ID/QD/ST
                     printer port, MYDOS 4.5 on ROM, 68.2Kbps
                     Intel 8085 microprocessor
                     SS/SD - 40 tracks, 18 sectors, 128 bytes/sector = 90 kB
                     SS/ED - 40 tracks, 26 sectors, 128 bytes/sector = 130 kB
                     SS/DD - 40 tracks, 18 sectors, 256 bytes/sector = 180 kB
                     SS/ID - IBM S-9 - 40 tr, 9 sc, 512 bytes/sector = 180 kB
                     DS/DD - 40 tracks, 18 sectors, 256 bytes/sector = 360 kB
                     DS/QD - 80 tracks, 18 sectors, 256 bytes/sector = 720 kB
                     DS/ID - IBM D-9 - 40 tr, 9 sc, 512 bytes/sector = 360 kB
                     DS/ST - Atari ST - 80 tr, 9 s, 512 bytes/sector = 720 kB
                     1050 Turbo speed and UltraSpeed
                     Optional RS-232 port
TOMS 710             features same as TOMS 720, plus:
                     - also has TOMS Navigator (like Norton Commander) on ROM
TOMS 360             features same as TOMS 720, except:
                     - no support for 720K formats
Trak AT-1            SS SD/DD master.upgrade: printer port+4K/16K buffer
Trak AT-D1           SS SD master, printer port,4K print buffer.upgrade:DD/16K
Trak AT-D2           SS SD/DD master, printer port,4K print buffer.upgrade:16K
Trak AT-D4           DS SD/DD, printer port, print buffer
Trak Champ           SS SD master
Trak Champ2          SS SD/DD master
Trak AT-S1           SS SD/DD slave
Viatronic Brno VD 40 SS SS/ED/DD, XF551 compatible, printer port
XFD601 (Jacek Zuk)   DS SD/ED/DD 70kbps,Top Drive,Synchromesh,UltraSpeed,
                     XF551 compat.
                     http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/XFD601
XFD602 (Jacek Zuk)   DS SD/ED/DD dual drives,70kbps,Top Drive,Synchromesh,
                     UltraSpeed,XF551 compat
                     XF clones with indus GT speed, but have a FAST and TURBO
                     mode. The Fast mode is the same a INDUS GT and turbo is
                     also INDUS GT only works with SpartaDOS X. There is a
                     jumper for Fast/Turbo.
                see: http://www.atariage.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=113924
                 or: http://atariki.krap.pl/index.php/XFD602

While any standard "slave" drive will work with "master" drives listed above,
the following are slave drives marketed specifically to Atari users:
Access Unlimited ATAR88-A1 SS SD slave
Access Unlimited ATAR40-A1 SS SD/DD slave
Amdek Amdisk IIIB    SS SD/ED/DD dual drives, uses "flippy" Amdisk III 3" (not
                     3.5") disks by Hitachi/Maxell/Matsushita seen as standard
                     5.25" floppies to the Atari, printer port, slave
Concorde C-221S      SS SD/DD slave
Concorde C-222S      DS SD/DD slave
Percom RFD40-A1      SS SD/DD slave
Percom RFD44-A1      DS SD/DD slave
Percom AT88-A1       SS SD/DD slave
RCP 100              DS SD/DD, slave
RCP 200              DS SD/DD dual drives, slave

The following information is taken from the documentation for HiassofT's
WriteAtr program, http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/

Double-Sided drives for the Atari may use one of three different drive-
mapping possibilities.
   * Most double-sided Atari disk drives:
     First fill tracks 0-39 (or 0-79) on the first side, then switch
     over to side 2 and again fill tracks 0-39 (0-79 for 3.5" disks).

   * The XF551 first fills track 0 on the first side. Then it
     fills track 1, then track 2, ... up to track 39 (on a 5.25" disk)
     or 79 (on a 3.5" disk). Then it switches to side 2 and fills
     the disk in reverse order (starting at track 39/79, then 38/78,
     ... til it has reached the end of the disk at track 0).

   * The third possibility is the standard in the PC world, but on the Atari
     it's possibly unique to drives connected via the Karin Maxi interface.
     If your Atari disk drive uses this mapping, it first fills
     track 0 on side 1, then track 0 on side 2, then seeks to track 1,
     again first fills track 1 / side 1, then track 1 / side 2,
     and so on, until it finishes with track 39 (79) / side 2.
     The drive switches the heads (sides) first before switching
     the track.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.5.5) What is the Percom configuration block?

The following is largely verbatim from Bill Wilkinson's "Insight: Atari"
column, Compute! magazine #65, October 1985, page 110-111.  See:
http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue65/insight_atari.php

As defined by the Percom standard (Percom was the first manufacturer of
double-density disk drives for the Atari), a config block is a set of 12 bytes
within the memory of the disk control microprocessor--which is inside your
disk drive(s).  You read a drive's config block by passing "N" to it as an SIO
command.  You can write a new config block to a drive via an "O" command.  The
"N" and "O" commands closely parallel the "R" and "W" sector input/output
commands, except the data length is always 12 bytes and, no sector number is
needed.  The 12 bytes in the block are shown in the table:

   Byte #  # of   Description
           Bytes  
     0       1    Number of Tracks
     1       1    Step Rate (values have no universal meaning)
    2-3      2    Sectors per Track (byte 2 is high byte; byte 3 is low byte)
     4       1    Number of Sides or Heads (0=one head, 1=two heads)
     5       1    Density (0=FM/Single, 4=MFM/Double)
    6-7      2    Bytes per Sector (byte 6 is high byte; byte 7 is low byte)
     8       1    Drive Selected?
     9       1    Serial Rate Control (values have no universal meaning)
   10-11     2    Miscellaneous (reserved)

While the successfull establishment of the Percom standard allowed for
interchangeable double-density (and greater) disk drives for the Atari, the
extent of support for the full standard varies widely among particular disk
drives.  Atari's own 810 and 1050 drives do not support the Percom config
block at all, but most 3rd party disk drives designed for the Atari support at
least portions of the Percom standard.  For example, the Indus GT supports
Percom config block bytes 5-7 (Density and Bytes/Sector) only.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.6) What kinds of 5.25" floppy disks can I use with my Atari drives?

Russ Gilbert writes:
If you're talking standard computer store, you can't use those 5 1/4" disks.
I mean you can't use high density disks.  They must be double density to use
with the 1050.  Almost all double density 5 1/4" disks have a hub ring, high
density disks don't have the hub ring.

RHamiIton5 elaborates: (5/12/01)
The Atari 8 drives do not have write heads and circuitry which can handle the
type of oxide coating used on the high density floppy media; they cannot write
reliably to them. The hub ring has just become a sort of marker to distinguish
the high density from the standard double density diskettes.

Way back in your apple days of '79-'82, most disks were hubless and only the
really premium brands offered hubs to prevent slippage and out of round
problems; you could even buy little kits for adding you own hub rings.

When the home computer swell really hit around '83 and price wars began, hub
rings became common on good disks and eventually became standard down to
include most generic bargain diskettes.

The introduction of high density 5.25s required a different coercivity (=
magnetizability) to get more bits in a smaller space and suitable electronics
to do it. These disks were produced hubless; was it a differentiating label or
just unnecessary because of stronger mylar construction? Anyone?

------------------------------

Subject: 3.7) What can I do to extend the life of my floppy disks?

Lee Hart writes (January 2004):

Personally, I have several hundred floppy disks for my Atari 800, Kaypro
4, Heathkit H89, and IMSAI 8080 computers that are 10-20 years old.  What
I can say in general:

 - Most disks stored in plastic boxes or ziplock baggies survived.
 - Most disks stored in cardboard boxes or just their sleeves
   did NOT survive.
 - Some brands lasted better than others, but I haven't collated the
   information so as to make any kind of definitive statements.
 - If a disk cannot be read, CLEAN THE DISK DRIVE HEAD before attempting
   to read another disk! Otherwise, crap from the bad disk will remain
   on the head, and will scar and destroy any SUBSEQUENT disk you put
   in the drive! (the voice of painful experience).
 - For lack of a better plan, for each of my surviving disks I am:
        a. reformatting another blank disk
        b. copying the data from an old disk onto the blank disk
   Then I have a more recently-produced backup disk in case the
   original disk later fails.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.8) What hard drives were designed for my Atari?

Atari never produced hard drives for the 8-bit Atari, but the following
were produced and marketed to Atari users by third parties.

==> Corvus hard drive (5MB, 10MB, or 20MB)
(some Corvus info from an eBay auction by Ben Corr, 7/03)
Attaches via joystick ports 3 & 4 on the Atari 800 only.
  -- Corvus Integrator Board - allows access to the Corvus Disc without the
     Corvus software, so that any DOS that uses standard SIO calls will work.
  -- Corvus Multiplexer - used to network up to 8 Ataris to one Corvus Drive
  -- Corvus Mirror card - back up the drive's contents onto video tape

==> SupraDrive Atari Hard Disk, by Supra, later K-Products. 10MB or 20MB.
includes external Hard Disk Interface
Some limitations on drive type and size and total number of drives in sys.
Attaches via PBI, or ECI with adapter.
See: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v5n6/Supradrivefor8Bit.html

==> BTL Hard Disk System by Lurie Associates
10MB to 128 MB
BTL 2001 Connector for 600XL/800XL PBI
BTL 2002 Connector for 130XE/800XE/65XE ECI
BTL 2004 SASI Hard Disk Adapter
See: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v5n12/BTLHardDisk.html

Most hard drives are connected to the Atari via a SCSI or IDE interface.
Such interfaces are covered in other sections of this FAQ List.

------------------------------

Subject: 3.9) How can my Atari utilize my other computer's storage drives?

==> The Critical Connection, by USS Enterprises (Vincent Cate)

The Critical Connection is a hardware interface and CP/M software package that
links an Atari computer to CP/M compatible computers.

Features:
 - Utilize an entire CP/M disk as an emulated 600K Atari disk drive
 - Utilize 92K CP/M disk files as emulated Atari disk drives
    - This feature requires CP/M 2.0 or above, and a copy of Atari DOS
 - Can only access one CP/M drive at a time
 - Utilize the CP/M computer system's keyboard as an input device for the
   Atari
 - Utilize the CP/M computer system's printer as an output device for the 
   Atari

Two versions:
 - The Critical Connection (original) for Atari 400/800 computers
 - The Critical Connection XL for Atari XL/XE computers


==> SIO2PC, by Nick Kennedy

From the SIO2PC home page:

SIO2PC is a hardware & software package interfacing the 8-bit Atari to PC
compatible computers.

The original idea was to have the PC emulate Atari disk drives so Atari
programs could be stored on the PC's hard (or floppy) drives.  It turned out
to be quite successful.  About 95% of my work was in the software, but a
hardware device to convert logic levels was also necessary.  This device is
now commonly referred to as an SIO2PC cable.

Features:
  -  Emulates 1 to 4 Atari disk drives
  -  Store your Atari files on PC hard or floppy drives
  -  Boot from the PC, real drive not needed to start-up
  -  No software or drivers required for the Atari;
         no conflicts: use your favorite DOS
  -  Twice as fast as an Atari 810 drive and more reliable
  -  Co-exists with real drives in the Atari daisy chain
  -  Compatible down to the hardware level: use sector copiers, etc.
  -  Print-Thru captures Atari print-out and routes to PC's printer
  -  Convert Atari files to PC files and vice versa

http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm

Another source for various SIO2PC cable design plans is Clarence Dyson's page
at http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/

Another (Czech language): http://raster.infos.cz/atari/hw/sio2pc.htm


==> Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE), by Steven Tucker

David A. Paterson writes:
"Steven J. Tucker took SIO2PC one better and wrote new software.
The Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE for short):

- lets your PC act as high-speed drives.
- It lets you print to your PC printer.
- And it lets you use your PC modem on the 8-bit."

http://www.atarimax.com/


==> 800XL DJ, by Kolja 'joust' Koischwitz & Christian 'chrisker' Krueger

Edward S. Baiz Jr. writes:
Basically, 800XLDJ is to TOS users what APE is to PC users.  It simulates an
Atari disk drive and uses disk images (DI extension) to load programs.  It
also needs the SIO2ST cable which the same thing as the SIO2PC cable.

More info: http://www.gooddealgames.com/articles/Atari_800XLDJ.htm

800XL Deejay Version 2.41 (1994):
  http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/Emulators/800xldj.lzh
  800XLDJF.APP is for Falcon ; 800XLDJ.APP is for ST


==> SIO2Linux, by Preston Crow

Pavel Machek made an initial attempt at communicating with the Atari through
an SIO2PC cable using Linux's serial port drivers. He came up with a simple
floppy emulator, femul.c.  Preston Crow rewrote that to add more features:

* No kernel modules.
  Unlike the AtariSIO project, this is just a simple user-space program that
  uses a serial port device.
* Create new dynamically sized images
  Each image starts as a 3-sector image file, but grows to accommodate the
  highest-numbered sector written.
* Mount your native file system as an Atari disk
  It's read-only for now, and it doesn't support subdirectories, but each
  file is mapped to a different starting sector, and as that sector is read,
  it automatically maps in the rest of the file.

http://www.crowcastle.net/preston/atari/


==> Atari810, by Dan Vernon
A disk drive emulator in the tradition of SIO2PC, for the Windows NT/2000/XP
platform.

http://retrobits.net/


==> Sio2OSX, by Mark Grebe

Sio2OSX is a peripheral emulator for the Atari 8-bit computers that allows
the Atari computer to use an OSX based Macintosh as a disk drive, a cassette
drive, and a printer. Sio2OSX performs functions similar to APE or SIO2PC on
Windows based computers.

http://www.atarimac.com/sio2osx.php


==> Multi-platform Distributive Operating System Professional for Atari,
    by Krishna Software (Krishnasoft)

MPDOS Professional for Atari Features:

 o Joystick simulation (2-button and single button)
 o Digitized Paddle simulation (just extreme values)
 o Allows for using PC joystick or keyboard to simulate Atari joystick
 o Works with Atari 5200 (using Digital Joystick Adapter)
 o Keyboard simulation (supplied software driver is needed)
 o Simulates up to 4 Atari disk drives (D1:, D2:, D3:, D4:)
 o Simulates Atari cassette player (C:)
 o Includes easy to use parallel port cable (plug and play)
 o Hardware level simulation (no drivers required, except for keyboard)
 o Supports PC video overlay window
 o KDOS4-- a fast binary file uploader
 o Multimedia CDROM included (runs on PC and Atari using distributive
   programming)
 o Built-in editor for creating Atari ASM and Atari BASIC source files
 o 6502 Assembler (compile and upload directly to Atari)
 o Sample source code
 o DOS-based utilities including 6502 disassembler
 o Simple GUI interface for simulating peripherals, compiling, and uploading
 o On-line 100+ page manual with technical and general information


==> AtariSIO driver and utilities V0.30, by Matthias Reichl

AtariSIO requires a 2.2, 2.4, or 2.6 series Linux kernel (with enabled module
support) and a serial port with a 16550 compatible chip.

AtariSIO basically consists of two parts:
- a kernel module to handle the low-level part of the Atari SIO
  protocol, and
- a set of utilities (atarserver emulates Atari floppy disk
  drives, atarixfer can read/write floppy disks from/to a
  floppy drive connected to the PC)
    - atarixfer is used to read/write disk images from/to a Atari drive
      connected to your Linux box with an 1050-2-PC cable. An APE
      ProSystem cable  will also work, but you have to add the
      command-line switch "-p".
    - atariserver is an SIO-server, like SIO2PC or APE for MSDOS-machines.
- a set of utilities to handle ATR (and other) disk images
  (adir to list the directory of an image and dir2atr to
  create a disk image from a directory of files on your PC)

AtariSIO supports the following interfaces:
- one chip SIO2PC (with MAX232), command connected to RI
- one chip SIO2PC, command connected to DSR
- one chip SIO2PC, command connected to RTS
- 1050-2-PC (with MAX232), command connected to RTS
- Ape ProSystem cable (with 14C89), command connected to DTR

http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/


==> AspeQt : Atari Serial Peripheral Emulator for Qt, by Fatih Ayguen

AspeQt emulates Atari SIO peripherals when connected to an Atari 8-bit
computer with an SIO2PC cable. In that respect it's similar to programs like
APE and Atari810. The main difference is that it's free (unlike APE) and it's
cross-platform (unlike Atari810 and APE).

Some features:

* Qt based GUI with drag and drop support.
* Cross-platform (currently Windows and x86-Linux, but it should be very easy
  to port it to MacOsX)
* 8 disk drive emulation
* Folders can be mounted as simulated Dos20s disks. (read-only, at least for
  now)
* Atari executables can be booted directly.
* Support for gzipped disk images. DCM and SCP support are on the way.
* Support for APE time downloader.
* 1x, 2x, and 3x SIO speed.

http://aspeqt.sourceforge.net


==> SIO2UNIX aka SIO2BSD, (c) 2005-9 drac030@krap.pl

This program is for an Unix box (preferably FreeBSD) and SIO2PC cable.  It
serves as a replacement for APE.

http://drac030.atari8.info

------------------------------

Subject: 3.10) How can I use SD/MMC cards with my Atari?

Secure Digital (SD) is a flash memory (non-volatile) memory card format used
in portable devices, including digital cameras, handheld computers, PDAs and
GPS units.  SD cards are based on the older MultiMediaCard (MMC) format.

==> SIO2SD, by Jakub Kruszona-Zawadzki
http://sio2sd.gucio.pl/  and  http://sio2sd.sourceforge.net
SIO2SD is a device that allows you to load games/applications into 8-bit Atari
computers via SIO interface from SD/MMC cards. 
Device abilities:
 - Works with SD/MMC (FAT12,FAT16 and FAT32 formats - Warning !!! Software up
   to version 2.0 had a bug in FAT12 code - FAT12 is typically used by Windows
   XP for 16MB cards) 
 - Handles ATR (rw), XFD (ro) and COM/XEX (ro) file types 
 - 16x2 LCD display allows to "walk" catalog tree and choose files to load 
 - Handles SIO with turbo (allows to set speed index from 1 to 16, default is
   6 (69kb/s), in versions 1.x speed index was always 10 (51kb/s)) 
 - All densities with 128B and 256B sectors, including 16MB disks 
 - Handles drives d1 to d8 (up to version 1.2 only d1 to d4 drives were 
   available) 
 - Can be configured using ATARI (it's possible to load configuration tool
   directly from MCU flash memory, so no SD card is needed)

==> SDrive, by C.P.U. (Radek Sterba (Raster) & Robert Petruzela (Bob!k))
http://raster.infos.cz/atari/hw/sdrive/sdrive.htm
The SDrive is a device that connects to Atari XL/XE's serial (SIO) port and
simulates an Atari floppy disk drive with full read/write access to programs
and data stored on a Secure Digital (SD) flash mamory card.
Main features:
 - Supported flash cards: Secure Digital up to 2GB size, FAT16 filesystem
 - Maximum number of drives: 4 (D1: to D4:) + 1 special boot drive
 - Supported SIO transfer rates: 3.5 to 128kbps (standard 19 and 69kbps)
 - Supported disk images: ATR, XFD, size up to 16MB, 128 or 256B sectors
 - Supported executable files: COM, XEX, BIN.... (any filename extension).
 - Device controlled by software running on Atari from the SD card, which can
   be therefore easily updated/replaced
 - Drives swappable on the fly by buttons
 - Write protect/enable switch
 - SDrive ID number selection switch - simultaneous use of up to 4 SDrives
 - Low cost design - no LCD, a few LEDs, cheap DIL28 Atmega8 MCU, single sided
   PCB
 - Firmware and software source code freely available
Special features:
 - Buffered reads for speedup
 - Delayed writes for speedup and greatly reduced flash write cycles
 - Built-in bootloader requiring less than 256 bytes including sector buffer,
   relocatable in the $0500-$05F7 to $BE00-$BEF7 range, with SKCTL
   initialization before every block. Supports executable files of up to 8MB
   size.
 - Directory with filename simulated for active files in drives, data handled
   through standard 128B sectors. Executable files can be run from most DOSes
   or Q-MEG. Random data files with arbitrary suffix can be activated and
   opened by a program through DOS or copied to disk images. (Note: 80KB file
   size limit applies to standard DOSes, 8MB to Q-MEG and MyDOS)

==> SDrive NUXX, by Steve Vigneau / c0nsumer (based on SDrive by C.P.U.)
http://nuxx.net/wiki/SDrive_NUXX
Based on SDrive by C.P.U.  Changes from the original SDrive:
- A readily available enclosure and custom end panels with cutouts and
  artwork.
- An SIO connector footprint. This allows a standard Atari SIO
  connector to be used, allowing easy connectivity with any of the compatible
  Atari 8-bit computers. 
- Incorporates a low-cost AVR programmer allowing a SDrive builder who doesn't
  have AVR programming hardware readily available an easy method of loading
  the firmware on the microcontroller.
- The built-in Brown-Out Detector has been enabled with a 4.0V threshold.

==> SDrive Standard, by Rick L. Detlefsen / Rix / More Than Games
(based on SDrive by C.P.U.)
http://morethangames.a8maestro.com/proda8/adv-eh0130.htm

==> SDrive Bay Mount version, by Rick L. Detlefsen / Rix / More Than Games
(based on SDrive by C.P.U.)
http://morethangames.a8maestro.com/proda8/adv-eh0140.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 3.11) How can I use a USB flash drive with my Atari?

USB flash drives are NAND-type flash memory data storage devices integrated
with a USB (universal serial bus) interface.  They are typically small,
lightweight, removable and rewritable.

==> SIO2USB, by ABBUC Regional Group Frankfurt / Main

The SIO2USB Interface is a peripheral device that can be attached to an ATARI
8-bit computer using the SIO-Bus.  It emulates one or more ATARI Floppy-
Drive(s) and does not require any special drivers or Operating-Systems, it is
fully compatible with all ATARI DOS Systems and extensions.  Because the
device is connected to the SIO-Bus, it is not necessary to open or modify the
ATARI.  The device is powered by the SIO-Bus and does not need an external
Power Adapter.  The data are stored on standard USB Mass Storage Devices (USB
FLASH Drives) as ATARI-Imagefiles (ATR or XFD) on a standard FAT filesystem.

SIO2USB features:

 o Can boot an ATARI 8-bit Computer without physical Floppy Drive
 o Emulation of up to 3 (virtual) Disk drives simultaneously
 o Simple device, attached to SIO-Port, no modification of computer necessary
 o Mixed operation of real Floppy and SIO2USB possible
 o Fully compatible with all ATARI DOS and OS and all ATARI compatible
   extensions
 o Storage of ATARI-Imagefiles on standard USB FLASH Drives
 o Configuration of the device by built-in keys and LC-Display or
   configuration program on the ATARI
 o Built-in Real Time Clock (RTC)
 o Power supply for the device and USB FLASH Drive from SIO-Bus
 o Updated SIO2USB Firmware can be applied from within the ATARI (no
   additional device or computer required)
 o Updates available via Internet (USB FLASH Drive) or direct from the ATARI
   (real Disk Drive)

http://home.arcor.de/grasel/sio2usb_e.htm   or
http://home.arcor.de/grasel/sio2usb_d.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 4.1) What are the Atari 820, 822, and 825 Printers?

The following printers were produced by Atari and styled to match the 400/800
computers.

Atari 820 Printer:  ( = LRC 7000 / Eaton 7000 )
- 40-column impact printer
- 5x7 dot matrix
- 40 characters per line, upper & lower case alpha
- horizontal and vertical alphanumeric characters
- 6507 microprocessor, 6532 RAM I/O chip, 2K ROM
- 40 characters per second
- uses Standard Roll Paper/adding machine paper

Atari 822 Thermal Printer:   ( = Trendcom 100 )
- 37 characters per second
- 10 characters per inch
- 40 characters per line, upper/lower case and point graphics
- 5x7 dot matrix

Atari 825 80-Column Printer      ( = Centronics 737 )
- 3 character sets:
    monospaced 7x8 dot matrix at 10 characters per inch
    monospaced condensed at 16.7 cpi
    proportionately spaced Nx9 dot matrix at avg of 14 cpi (N=6..18)
- all characters can be elongated (printer double width)
- characters per line: 80 at 10 cpi; 132 at 16.7 cpi
- speed: 50 cps at 10 cpi; 83 cps at 16.7 cpi; 79 cps avg. proportional
- print buffer: 1200 dot columns
- paper: roll, fanfold, or cut sheets
- requires Atari 850 Interface Module or equivalent

------------------------------

Subject: 4.2) What are the Atari 1020, 1025, 1027, and 1029 Printers?

The following printers were produced by Atari and styled to match the XL
series computers.

Atari 1020 Color Printer:
( = Commodore 1520 / Oric MCP40 / Tandy/Radio Shack CGP-115 /..; made by ALPS)
- Made in Japan
- 4-color graphics: (black, red, blue, green). optional 8-pen rainbow package
- alphanumeric and X,Y plotting capability
- 10 cps (40-column mode)
- 20, 40 and 80-column modes
- horizontal and vertical alphanumerics, English and International chr sets
- water soluble ink pen technology
- 4-pen barrel print head
- microprocessor
- paper: standard roll paper (40 column width)
- TX9032 Joystick Sketchpad graphics software cassette included

Atari 1025 Printer:   ( = Okidata ML80 )
- Made in Japan
- 40 cps (80-column 10 cpi mode)
- 5 cpi expanded (40 col), 10 cpi (80 col), 16.7 cpi condensed (132-col)
- 5x7 character dot matrix
- buffer: 132 chrs at 16.7 cpi, 80 chrs at 10 cpi
- paper: roll,fanfold,single sheets. optional:roll paper holder, tractor feed
- Power, 120V version: Plugs directly into wall.
- Power, 240V version: Used with an external 9V AC power adapter rated for
  3.4A, such as Atari#CO60592-34 which is detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list.
  (mc is still looking for pictures of such a 1025 printer.  Sole source of
   this info so far is the Best Electronics catalog.)
- Power, 220V version: Used with an external AC power adapter with two
  outputs, one rated for 29VAC/600mA and the other rated for 8.6VAC/1A.
  Atari#14750, one such supply, is detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list.

Atari 1027 Letter Quality Printer:     ( = Mannesmann Tally Riteman LQ.)
- fully formed characters, prestige elite 12)
- 12 characters per inch (80 columns)
- 20 characters per second
- single sheets or roll paper

Atari 1029 Programmable Printer    (by Seikosha)
- 7-pin dot matrix, same as Commodore MPS-801
- Released for Europe & Canada (not USA)
- Rich_N_Feymus says:
     I think it's a SEIKOSHA GP500, but not 100% sure. However, the
     Commodore MPS-801 ribbons should be much easier to find.
- The Tandy DMP 110 is another model reported to be the same as the 1029.

------------------------------

Subject: 4.3) What are the Atari XMM801 and XDM121 Printers?

The following printers were produced by Atari Corp. and styled to match the XE
series computers.

Atari XMM801 Dot Matrix Graphics Printer:    ( = SHINWA CP80 )
- 80 columns, dot matrix
- friction feed or pin feed
- pica 10 cpi, double width pica 5 cpi, elite 12 cpi,double width elite 6 cpi,
  condensed 16.5 cpi, double width condensed 8.25 cpi
- Ribbon: Commodore 1526 and the Mannesman-Tally Spirit 80
- Made in Japan

Atari XDM121 Letter-Quality Daisy Wheel Printer:
- 80 columns
- underlining, subscripts, superscripts
- friction feed paper
- Ribbon: Silver Reed CF130, Olivetti ET201,ET221,Nu-Kote NK136

------------------------------

Subject: 4.4) What other printers can I use with my Atari?

Some third-party printers were marketed for use with the Atari 8-bit
computers:

Alphacom 42 
+ Alphacom Atari cartridge cable interface
- thermal
- friction feed
- 40 columns / 4 1/2" max paper width
- 80 cps /  2 lines per second
- 10 cpi
- one line buffer
- graphics and full ATASCII character set support

Alphacom 81
+ Alphacom Atari cartridge cable interface
- thermal
- friction feed
- 80 columns / 8.75" max paper width
- 80 cps
- 10 cpi
- one line buffer
- graphics and full ATASCII character set support

Alphacom Pluswriter / Letter Quality Daisywheel
+ Alphacom Atari cartridge cable interface
- daisywheel
- 20 cps
- released????

Axiom AT-100 or Axiom GP-100AT (Seikosha GP-100A)
- built-in Atari interface, cable and connector, 2nd SIO port for daisy-chain
- dot matrix
- 30 cps (earlier units?) or 50 cps (later units?)
- Graph-AX graphics software package

Axiom GP-550AT Dual Mode Printer (by Seikosha) 
- built-in Atari interface, cable and connector, 2nd SIO port
- dot matrix
- near letter quality and draft modes
- 86 cps (draft mode); 43 cps (nlq mode)
- Graph-AX graphics software package

Axiom GP-700AT Full Color Printer (by Seikosha)
- built-in Atari interface, cable and connector, 2nd SIO port
- impact / dot matrix
- pin feed
- 4 hammer print heads, 4-color ribbon cartridge
- 25 colors
- 30 cps or 50 cps (different versions produced???)
- 5 cpi - 10 cpi
- one line buffer
- 80 columns / 9.5" max paper width
- Graph-AX graphics software package

Axiom Elite-5 
+ Direct-Connect interface for Atari
- daisy wheel printer
- 12 cps
- 11.8" max paper width
- released?

Axiom Elite-10 
+ Direct-Connect interface for Atari
- daisy wheel printer
- 22 cps
- 13.8" max paper width
- released?

Axiom Elite-15
+ Direct-Connect interface for Atari
- daisy wheel printer
- 45 cps
- 16.7" max paper width
- released?

Comrex 220
- Atari interface version
- released?????  Listed in CMO ad, Compute#75Aug86p4

Epson HomeWriter 10
+ plug-in cartridge interface for the Atari
- 80 column dot-matrix printer
- draft quality printing at 100 cps and near letter quality at 16 cps

General Electric TXP-1000 / Letter Quality Printer (GE 3-8100)
+ GE Printer Interface 3-8150 for Atari/Commodore
- thermal printer (not dot matrix as reported in Antic June 1985)
- 50 cps "draft" mode, 25 cps "normal"/"letter quality" mode
- http://www.classiccomputer.de/com/getxp1000.jpg

Okidata Okimate 10 Personal Color Printer
+ Plug 'n Print Interface for Atari
- a thermal printer.
- single-sheet or tractor-feed paper.
- 26 colors
- 240 words per minutes

Tesla BT-100 (Tesla Prelouc, Czech Republic)
- plugs into 2 joystick/controller ports
- Dot matrix, 1 pin (!)
- carbon paper instead of ribbon
- 480 dots per line
- 150 dots per sec (A4 paper in 10 minutes)
- Input power 5 W
- http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwbt.htm
- Can be installed in the SP 210-T Data Cassette Recorder

Merkur Alfi (Kovopodnik Broumov, Czech Republic)
- Plotter
- Standard, size A4 paper
- Pens - Any
- Length of step - 0.15 mm
- sold only as kit
- http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwal.htm

Alfigraf
- plotter
- http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwag.htm

Minigraf 0507 Aritma (Aritma Praha, Czech Republic)
- plotter
- Paper - Standard, size A4
- Pens KIN 0577; Centropen 1939; KOH-I-NOOR 4443; Staedtler 40T06-S;
  Staedtler 32T03-S
- Speed	- max. 80 mm/s
- Length of step (error) - 0.125 mm (+- 0.005 mm)
- Input power 30 W
- http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwmi.htm

Graficka Jednotka XY4140 / XY4150 (Laboratorni Pristroje Praha)
- Plotters 
- Paper	Standard, size A4 (297 x 210 mm)
- Printable space 260 x 185 mm (2600 x 1850 steps)
- Step 0.1 mm
- Speed 100 mm/sec
- http://jindroush.atari8.info/aczhwxy.htm

Beyond the above printer models, most any "industry-standard" line printer can
work well with the Atari.  For many years, most printers marketed for home use
could be classified into one of two categories: parallel or serial interface.
Parallel line printers were much more commonly used than serial line printers,
with the Epson MX/FX/LX series defining the market.

The most common way to use an industry standard printer with the Atari has
been to attach it through the 15-pin 8-bit parallel port of the Atari 850
Interface Module or equivalent (such as the ICD P:R: Connection).  One gotcha
here is that the 850's parallel port is DB15, where the PC world ended-up
standardizing on a DB25 configuration.  So you need to find or build a cable,
such as the Atari CX86 Printer Cable, that provides the DB15 connector for the
Atari end, and Centronics-type parallel connector on the printer end, in order
to attach a standard parallel printer to the Atari through an Atari 850 or
equivalent.  The pinouts necessary for building such a cable are available
in the Atari 850 Interface section of this FAQ list.

Many 3rd-party disk drives for the Atari (along with the Atari XEP80 Interface
Module) do include a DB25 parallel printer port, rendering the need for an
Atari-specific printer cable unnecessary.

The Atari 850 Interface Module and equivalents also provide standard DB9
serial RS-232-C ports, permitting use of standard serial line printers with
the Atari.  But this is much less common than parallel, both in the Atari
world and in the industry at large.

Some folks have connected more modern inkjet and laser printers with parallel
connections to the 8-bit Atari with success.  Graphics printouts from the
Atari may be less than ideal (look for a printer with an Epson MX/FX/LX
printer series emulation mode), but these types of printers should work fine
for plain text output if they can handle simple line print jobs.

Bob Woolley wrote on Sun, 14 Apr 2002:
     I use HP LaserJet 4Ps on my Ataris. They are one of the last front panel
     selectable cheap printers - from which you can select your default fonts,
     etc. The newer laser printers can only set fonts and operating modes thru
     the interface, not impossible, but not as easy as selecting on the panel.
     This does allow you to print just about any point size of the internal
     fonts in the printer on your Atari.
        
     Either way, you really have to do a little work to get properly formatted
     output from a word processor. I have managed to use the proportional font
     setting with AtariWriter and printer driver creation utilities to get good
     results.

Mathy van Nisselroy provides an AtariWriter printer driver for the HP LaserJet
here:  http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/special%20stuff.htm

Carsten Strotmann wrote on 30 Dec 2006:
     I'm very happy with the Kyocery Mita Laserprinters. They still support
     Epson and IBM ESC Codes (as well as PCL and Postscript), have all Codes
     documented in the handbooks (downloadable as PDF from the company
     webpage). Also the printers are very reliable and have low life cycle
     costs. Be sure to check the Emulation Features, as they also have some
     Windows only GDI Printer.

     I have the FS1200D (with duplex printing feature).

Modern printers designed for "modern" PCs now normally utilize USB connectors
rather than the older standard Centronics parallel connector.

------------------------------

Subject: 4.5) How can my Atari utilize my other computer's printer?

==> The Critical Connection, by USS Enterprises (Vincent Cate)

The Critical Connection is a hardware interface and CP/M software package that
links an Atari computer to CP/M compatible computers.

Features:
 - Utilize an entire CP/M disk as an emulated 600K Atari disk drive
 - Utilize 92K CP/M disk files as emulated Atari disk drives
    - This feature requires CP/M 2.0 or above, and a copy of Atari DOS
 - Can only access one CP/M drive at a time
 - Utilize the CP/M computer system's keyboard as an input device for the
   Atari
 - Utilize the CP/M computer system's printer as an output device for the 
   Atari

Two versions:
 - The Critical Connection (original) for Atari 400/800 computers
 - The Critical Connection XL for Atari XL/XE computers


==> SIO2PC, by Nick Kennedy

From the SIO2PC home page:

SIO2PC is a hardware & software package interfacing the 8-bit Atari to PC
compatible computers.

The original idea was to have the PC emulate Atari disk drives so Atari
programs could be stored on the PC's hard (or floppy) drives.  It turned out
to be quite successful.  About 95% of my work was in the software, but a
hardware device to convert logic levels was also necessary.  This device is
now commonly referred to as an SIO2PC cable.

Features:
  -  Emulates 1 to 4 Atari disk drives
  -  Store your Atari files on PC hard or floppy drives
  -  Boot from the PC, real drive not needed to start-up
  -  No software or drivers required for the Atari;
         no conflicts: use your favorite DOS
  -  Twice as fast as an Atari 810 drive and more reliable
  -  Co-exists with real drives in the Atari daisy chain
  -  Compatible down to the hardware level: use sector copiers, etc.
  -  Print-Thru captures Atari print-out and routes to PC's printer
  -  Convert Atari files to PC files and vice versa

http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm

Another source for various SIO2PC cable design plans is Clarence Dyson's page
at http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/

Another (Czech language): http://raster.infos.cz/atari/hw/sio2pc.htm


==> Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE), by Steven Tucker

David A. Paterson writes:
"Steven J. Tucker took SIO2PC one better and wrote new software.
The Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE for short):

- lets your PC act as high-speed drives.
- It lets you print to your PC printer.
- And it lets you use your PC modem on the 8-bit."

http://www.atarimax.com/


==> Sio2OSX, by Mark Grebe

Sio2OSX is a peripheral emulator for the Atari 8-bit computers that allows
the Atari computer to use an OSX based Macintosh as a disk drive, a cassette
drive, and a printer. Sio2OSX performs functions similar to APE or SIO2PC on
Windows based computers.

http://www.atarimac.com/sio2osx.php

------------------------------

Subject: 5.1) What are the Atari 830, 835, 1030, XM301, and SX212 Modems?

A MODulator/DEModulator translates digital information from your computer into
acoustic tones that can be sent and received, from modem to modem, via
standard telephone lines.

Atari produced several modems for use with the 8-bit Atari computers:

Atari 830 Acoustic Modem:    ( = Novation 'CAT' )
- a stand-alone, acoustically coupled, frequency shift keying (FSK) modem
- up to 300 bits per second
- Bell 103/113 modem compatible
- requires Atari 850 Interface Module or equivalent

Atari 835 Direct Connect Modem:   (by Racal-Vadic)
- 300 bps
- Bell 103/113 modem compatible
- pulse dialing
- 2 SIO ports
- packaged with the TeleLink II cartridge
- Made in U.S.A.

Atari 1030 Modem:  (by Penril)
- 300 bps
- Bell 103/113 modem compatible
- built-in (ROM) ModemLink software.
- 2 I/O Connectors (SIO ports)
- 1030 project director at Atari: Sherwin Gooch

Atari XM301 Modem:
- 300 bps
- Bell 103/113 modem compatible
- with XE Term disk software (developed by Russ Wetmore for Atari)
- permanent SIO cable, must be at end of SIO chain
- draws its power from the computer via SIO

Atari SX212 Modem:
- SIO & DB25 RS-232 serial ports, must be at end of SIO chain
- 1200 baud
- Bell 103/113/212A modem compatible
- Key engineer/designer: Jose Valdes at Atari
- SX Express! sold separately (DX5089)
  - Package includes Program Disk, User's Manual, and SIO cable
  - SX Express! Program Disk (DX5089) includes: 
      DOS.SYS      DOS 2.5 FMS
      DUP.SYS      DOS 2.5 Disk Utility Package
      AUTORUN.SYS  SX Express! Ver. 3.00 by Keith Ledbetter
      RAMDISK.COM  DOS 2.5 130XE RAMdisk utility
      HANDLER.OBJ  R: device handler (by Paul Swanson)
      HANDLER.DOC  SX212 Modem Handler Technical Description
- Made in Taiwan
- Power: external power supply that delivers 500mA 9V DC, such as
  Atari#CX261/CO16353/CO18084 or equivalent

------------------------------

Subject: 5.2) What other modems can I use with my Atari?

Some third-party modems were marketed for use with the Atari 8-bit
computers:

==> Microconnection A1, by The Microperipheral Corp.
requires 850 interface, Bell 103, 300 baud, (no auto-answer, no auto-
originate,) T-SMART software

==> Microconnection A1A, by The Microperipheral Corp.
requires 850 interface, Bell 103, 300 baud, auto-answer, auto-originate
(pulse dialing), T-SMART software

==> Microconnection A2, by The Microperipheral Corp.
Bell 103, 300 baud, (no auto-answer, no auto-originate,) T-SMART software,
Centronics DB-25 parallel printer port

==> Microconnection A2A, by The Microperipheral Corp.
Bell 103, 300 baud, (no auto-answer,) auto-originate (pulse dialing),
T-SMART software, Centronics DB-25 parallel printer port

==> Auto-Print Microconnection, by The Microperipheral Corp.
 - Bell 103, 300 baud
 - autodial and autoanswer
 - Centronics parallel printer port
 - Can simultaneously print whatever appears on your screen as it comes over
   the telephone
 - T-SMART software

==> MPP-1000C, by Microbits Peripheral Products
joystick port 2, Bell 103, 300 baud, auto-answer, auto-originate,
Smart Terminal cartridge software

==> MPP-1000E, by Microbits Peripheral Products
300 baud, joystick port 2, Smart Term software
 From: "Steven J Tucker" Sun, 13 Jan 2002 16:14:38 -0500
 The 1000E..had this strange problem in that it could never hang up the phone

==> MPP-1200A, by Microbits Peripheral Products
Released? Vaporware?
1200 bps, joystick port 2

==> 300 AT, by Supra (same as MPP-1000E)
300 baud, joystick port 2, Smart Term software

==> 1200 AT, by Supra
1200 baud, Hayes compatible, connects to SIO via SupraVerter/R-Verter cable,
Smart Terminal software

==> Volksmodem + F Cable, by Anchor Automation
- 300-baud, "industry standard" direct-connect modem 
- (no auto-dial, no auto-answer)
- F Cable, sold separately, allows direct connection of Volksmodem to the
  Atari via joystick port 2
- F Cable shipped with software tape cassette for the Atari

==> Q-Modem, by Quantum Microsystems
300 baud, two SIO connectors, QuanTerm disk or cartridge

Beyond the above modem models, most any "industry-standard" external serial
modem can work well with the Atari.  These have been commonly sold for PCs for
many years.  The Hayes Smartmodem more or less defined the market for these,
initially.

One common way to use an industry standard external serial modem with the
Atari is to connect it to the SIO port via an Advanced Interface Devices
(A.I.D., later Supra) R-Verter Serial Bus Modem Adapter cable, or
equivalent.

The other common way to use an industry standard external serial modem with
the Atari is to attach it through the 9-pin RS-232-C serial port of the Atari
850 Interface Module or equivalent (such as the ICD P:R: Connection).  One
gotcha here is that the serial port on the 850 is DB9 female, where the PC
world ended up standardizing on a DB9 male connector for this purpose.  But
gender converters are readily available.

For using modems at speeds of 2400 bps and up with the Atari, it will be
useful to have an understanding of data flow control.  Here is a definition
of flow control from www.modems.com:

 Often, one modem in a connection is capable of sending data much faster than
 the other can receive.  Flow control allows the receiving modem to tell the
 other to pause while it catches up.  Flow control exists as either software,
 or XON/XOFF, flow control, or hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control.  With software
 flow control, when a modem needs to tell the other to pause, it sends a
 certain character, usually Control-S.  When it is ready to resume, it sends a
 different character, such as Control-Q.  Software flow control's only
 advantage is that it can use a serial cable with only three wires.  Since
 software flow control regulates transmissions by sending certain characters,
 line noise could generate the character commanding a pause, thus hanging the
 transfer until the proper character (such as Control-Q) is sent.  Also,
 binary files must never be sent using software flow control, as binary files
 can contain the control characters.  Hardware, or RTS/CTS, flow control uses
 wires in the modem cable or, in the case of internal modems, hardware in the
 modem. This is faster and much more reliable than software flow control.

Some 2400 bps modems, and probably all modems with 9600 bps speed capabilities
and up, normally use V.42 standard error correction and V.42bis standard data
compression.  But V.42 requires either software or hardware flow control, and
V.42bis requires hardware flow control (and V.42 error correction).

Hardware flow control is not available with the Atari 850 serial ports.

As a result, just before dialing out with your Atari telecom software, it's
usually desirable, if not necessary, to disable your modem's flow control.

The Hayes modem command to disable flow control looks like:
     AT&K0

The top speed of the Atari 850 serial ports is 9600 bps.

Clay Halliwell offers a tip on utilizing 9600 bps through the 850 Interface:
 On 11 Feb 1996, Marc G. Frank said:

 > I'm having problems getting a modem attached to my Atari 850 to
 > communicate at 9600 baud.  When I set my communications program to 2400
 > baud, everything works fine.  However, when I set it to 9600 baud, the
 > modem echoes my characters but doesn't act on them.  That is, at 2400,

 The problem with the 850 is that some of them (like mine) don't produce a
 PERFECT 9600 baud signal.  As a result modems can't train on it, and while
 they will echo characters back, for some nitpicky reason they won't pick up
 on the "AT" attention code.

 The solution is to do all your dialing at 2400 baud, but set the S37
 register to force the modem to try to connect at 9600.  Then switch your
 Atari to 9600 after connecting.

Through the use of an ICD MIO or a CSS Black Box, it is possible to utilize
modems at speeds up to 14.4 Kbps (V.32bis) at full speed with no loss of data.
The serial R: device handler for the Black Box supports hardware flow control
natively.  Optional for the Black Box, but essential for the MIO, is the
HyperSpeed handler by Len Spencer.

Hyperspd.arc is available at:
http://www.lenardspencer.com/Lenspencer/hyperspd.html

Modern external modems designed for "modern" PCs now normally utilize a USB
connector rather than the older standard DB9 RS-232-C serial connector.

------------------------------

Subject: 5.3) How can my Atari utilize my PC's modem/network?

==> Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE), by Steven Tucker

David A. Paterson writes:
"Steven J. Tucker took SIO2PC one better and wrote new software.
The Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE for short):

- lets your PC act as high-speed drives.
- It lets you print to your PC printer.
- And it lets you use your PC modem on the 8-bit."

Greg Goodwin writes (2005):
Steven Tucker made this wonderful ability in the Windows version of Atari
Peripheral Emulator (APE, the program and cable that lets you make a PC an
Atari's bit...er..slave.  :D)  There is a great ability to tap into the PC's
Internet.  Bring up the APE program on the PC, BobTerm on the Atari, and
BobTerm will notice the Internet out there.  Now you can enter in a telnet
address and it will take you right to it.  Nice and basically cheap setup, and
great way to take advantage of the Internet setup on your PC.

http://www.atarimax.com/


==> Sio2OSX, by Mark Grebe

Sio2OSX is a peripheral emulator for the Atari 8-bit computers that allows
the Atari computer to use an OSX based Macintosh as a disk drive, a cassette
drive, and a printer. Sio2OSX performs functions similar to APE or SIO2PC on
Windows based computers.

http://www.atarimac.com/sio2osx.php

------------------------------

Subject: 5.4) What networking hardware is there for the Atari?

==> CSS Deluxe Quintopus
Share SIO devices between 2 computers.  The Deluxe Quintopus consists of a box
with two switched SIO ports and 4 unswitched SIO ports.

http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/quintopus.htm

==> Supra MicroNet
Supports the connection of one SIO chain of peripherals to up to 8 computers.
When one computer accesses a peripheral device, the entire bus is occupied so
that the other computers on the "network" must wait.  The bus is freed five
seconds after a computer finishes interacting with the peripheral.

A printer/data buffer can make the MicroNet more practical.

Supra also provided a modified Atari DOS 2.5 that would re-try disk accesses
repeatedly in response to SIO timeouts.

http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n10/productreviews.html

==> CSS Multiplexer ("MUX")
Description from the CSS online catalog:

The Multiplexer is a collection of cartridge interface boards that allow up to
8 Ataris to read and write to the same drives (typically a hard disk), access
the same printer(s), and talk to each other.  It is the first practical
networking system for the Atari 8-bit computer.

One "master" computer (any 8-bit) is equipped with the master Multiplexer
interface.  Then up to 8 "slave" computers hook up to this master, each having
their own slave interface.  The slave interface consists of a cartridge that
plugs into the cartridge port.  It has its own socket on the top so you can
use whatever cartridges you desire with the system.

The "common" peripherals (things that are to be shared) are connected to the
master.  On each slave, all disk and printer I/O is routed through the master
so no extra disk drives are needed.  The master computer can be configured in
any manner you wish.  You may have certain peripherals local to the slave or
routed to a different number on the master.  Note that serial ports (R: RS-232
interfaces) are not multiplexed.  All slaves are independent and do not need
to have the same program running on them.

http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/multiplexer.htm

==> GameLink and GameLink II
This text by Andreas Koch:

In the late 80`s and early 90`s Chuck Steinman and Jeff Potter ("The ADGA
Group") developed some networking-computer-hardware to link two or more Ataris
together, so that multiplayer games are possible, where each user has its own
computer and tv/monitor screen. The hardware was/is computer independent and
will run fine on any Atari 8Bit computer (whereas most software for it will
only work on XL/XE computers). During a 3-4 year period of development two
different hardware add-ons were developed:

a) Gamelink-1: This hardware was developed in 1989/90. It links two
   computers together via the joystick ports. It is limited to a maximum
   of 2 computers and thus 2 or 6 players, meaning one free port per
   XL/XE computer and 3 free ports per 400/800 computer. However, the
   few existing games for this hardware merely support 2 players, no
   matter, which computer you have...

b) Gamelink-2: This hardware was developed in 1991/92. It links 2 to 8
   computers together via the SIO-port. One computer will then act as
   the master and has to boot up the software (from tape, disk, hard disk,
   etc.) first. Then all other "slave" computers connect to it and boot
   off of this master computer (one after another of course). In Europe
   we call this device "Multilink", mostly because of the games written
   by Bewesoft (Jiri Bernasek) called Multi-Dash, Multi-Race, Multi-Worms.
   A two-computer link-network can easily be done with one SIO cable, just
   open the end of the SIO cable and exchange cables number 3 and 5. You
   now have an easy two-computer (2-4 players) network-cable.

For some available software, that supports this networking-computer
hardware, see 8.16 which programs support networking computer hardware...

==> AT-Link (Alphasys)
Arianne Slaager writes:
I was actually surprised to read about the Gamelink-1, as I made a similar
cable myself, called the AT-Link.  This cable could also be used to
communicate with Commodore 64 computers, and I made driver software for both
systems at the time.  There were 2 drivers.  One as relocatable machine code,
and another as device driver.  Also in the package was a 2 player Battleships
type game where Side A had the Atari version, and Side B the Commodore 64
version.

...wasn't more than two old joystick cables in a crosslink configuration,
(Pin 1 and 2 linked to pin 3 and 4 of the other cable respectively) 

==> EightLink (Alphasys)
Arianne Slaager writes:
I also made a special high-speed Atari to Atari cable, called the EightLink.
This one was cartridge based system, with a PIA inside, which boasted a 8 bit
bidirectional, parallel databus, and a 4 bit crosslinked control bus. Transfer
speeds were such that two Ataris on opposite ends of a large hall could
transfer disk data faster than it could be read or written.  The actual cable
connecting the two was a flatcable with 33 leads, alternating ground and a
dataline across the width to minimise crossover disruption of data.  Also for
this link system, I made drivers both in relocatable code, as well as a device
driver.

------------------------------

Subject: 5.5) How can I connect my Atari to a high-speed/Ethernet network?

Marius Diepenhorst has pioneered the following technique.  He writes (2004):

"Try to get a LANTRONIX UDS-10 device.  It acts like a modem but it is a LAN
-> RS-232 converter.  So with that device you can have incoming and outgoing
'calls' like modem ones via the internet.

I ran my Atari 8bit bbs with such a thing. The Lantronix MSS-10 or MSS-100
will do too.  But in that case you have to make a custom RS-232 cable (easy
job).

More info www.lantronix.com

this is the info of the UDS-10

www.lantronix.com/device-networking/external-device-servers/uds-10.html
  Now see the newer model, the UDS1100:
  www.lantronix.com/device-networking/external-device-servers/uds1100.html

It is REALLY a cool thing. Not only for you, but for more atari fans I guess."

Other, similar serial-to-Ethernet interfaces from Lantronix have been
successfully utilized, including the MSS100:
www.lantronix.com/device-networking/external-device-servers/mss100.html

as well as the discontinued MSS1-T.

Note that the UDS-10 lacks DNS support, while the MSS100 and MSS1-T include
DNS support.

------------------------------

Subject: 6.1) What is the Atari 850 Interface Module?

While the Atari's SIO and controller ports did not conform to established
industry standards, Atari produced the 850 Interface Module to address this
issue.  The 850 connects to the SIO port on the Atari, and provides:

   - Four 9-pin RS-232-C serial ports
   - One 15-pin Centronics-type parallel Printer Port

Many "industry standard" (of the time) printers, modems, and various other
devices can be used with the Atari computer in combination with an 850
Interface Module.  Also, Atari's own 825 printer and 830 modem are connected
to the computer via the 850 Interface Module.

RS-232-C is a technical standard of the Electronic Industries Association
(EIA).  Published in August of 1969, it is titled "Interface Between Data
Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment Employing Serial Binary
Data Interchange."  The standard specifies electrical signal characteristics
and names and defines the functions of the signal and control lines which make
up a standard interface, called RS-232-C.

The 850 should be thought of as an RS-232-C "data terminal" (DTE, or Data
Terminal Equipment).

The 850's RS-232-C serial ports support the following baud rates:
    45.5 bps*, 50 bps*, 56.875 bps*, 75 bps**, 110 bps, 134.5 bps, 150 bps,
    300 bps, 600 bps, 1200 bps, 1800 bps, 2400 bps, 4800 bps, 9600 bps
  * These Baud rates are useful for communications with Baudot teletypes, for
    RTTY (radioteletype) applications.  They are more commonly referred to as
    60, 67, and 75 words per minute.
 ** This Baud rate is sometimes used for ASCII communications, and may also
    be used for 5-bit Baudot RTTY.  The latter is commonly referred to as
    100 wpm.

The resident P: Printer Handler of the Atari Operating System is able to
fully utilize a printer attached to the printer port of the 850 Interface
Module.  

However, in order to utilize a device attached to one of the RS-232-C serial
ports of the 850, an R: RS-232 serial port device handler must be loaded
into memory.  The 850 contains an R: handler, supporting devices R1: through
R4:, in its ROM.  The R: handler of the 850 can be loaded into the computer's
RAM via a "Power-On Bootstrapping Operation" as follows:

Bootstrapping Operation Without Disk Drive:
When the Atari computer is turned on, it issues a disk request via SIO.  If no
Drive 1 is present with power ON, the 850 responds to the disk request.  The
computer then loads the bootstrapping program from the 850, as if it were
reading from a disk.  The bootstrapping program is then run, and it gets the
RS-232-C handler from the 850 and relocates it into the computer's RAM.  The
memory occupied by the bootstrapping program is then freed (but the handler
remains).

Bootstrapping Operation With Disk Drive:
If there is a disk drive attached to the system (Drive 1 only), it responds to
the disk request issued by the computer at power-on.  The computer then reads
a start-up program from that disk, such as a DOS.  The 850 does not respond to
the disk request if a disk drive responds first; therefore, the program loaded
from disk must load the handler from the 850.  Many varieties of DOS for the
Atari include an explicit provision for loading and executing the
bootstrapping program from the 850, such as through the use of an AUTORUN.SYS
file.  When the 850 bootstrapping program is executed, it gets the RS-232-C
handler from the 850 and relocates it into the computer's RAM.  The memory
occupied by the bootstrapping program is then freed (but the handler remains).

PINOUTS
=======
850 Serial Port No. 1 (9-pin female connector):
                1. Data Terminal Ready (DTR, Ready Out)
                2. Carrier Detect (CRX, In)
  5         1   3. Send Data (Out)
   o o o o o    4. Receive Data (In)
    o o o o     5. Signal Ground
   9       6    6. Data Set Ready (DSR, Ready In)
                7. Request to Send (RTS, Out)
                8. Clear to Send (CTS, In)

Use a cable with the following connections to attach a standard RS-232 MODEM
to an Atari via the 850's Serial Port No. 1 (equivalent to the Atari CX87
Interface/Modem Cable):
        DB25P (RS-232 MODEM)    |    DB9P (850 Interface)
               20                         1 - DTR
                8                         2 - CRX
                2                         3 - XMT
                3                         4 - RCV
                7                         5 - GND
                6                         6 - DSR
                4                         7 - RTS
                5                         8 - CTS
    Frame - to the shield wire  |  No connection to shield

850 Serial Port Nos. 2 and 3 (9-pin female connector):
  5         1   1. Data Terminal Ready (DTR, Ready Out)
   o o o o o    3. Send Data (Out)
    o o o o     4. Receive Data (In)
   9       6    5. Signal Ground
                6. Data Set Ready (DSR, Ready In)

850 Serial Port No. 4 (9-pin female connector):            When used with a
                1. Data Terminal Ready (DTR, Ready Out)*   20 mA loop device:
  5         1   3. Send Data (Out)                          1. Send data +
   o o o o o    4. Receive Data (In)                        3. Send data -
    o o o o     5. Signal Ground                            7. Receive data +
   9       6    7. Request to Send (RTS, Out)*              9. Receive data -
                9. - 8V
    *These pins are not computer-controlled and are always ON (+10v).

850 Printer Port (15-pin female connector):
                     1. Data Strobe'
                     2. Data bit 0
                     3. Data bit 1
 8               1   4. Data bit 2
  o o o o o o o o    5. Data bit 3
   o o o o o o o     6. Data bit 4
 15             9    7. Data bit 5
                     8. Data bit 6
                     9. Data pins pull-up (+5v)
                     11. Signal ground
                     12. Fault' (Must be +5 for printer port to operate)
                     13. Busy
                     15. Data bit 7

Use a cable with the following connections to attach a standard Centronics-
type parallel printer to an Atari via the 850's Printer Port (equivalent to
the Atari CX86 Printer Cable):
      36-pin Centronics (male)  |     DB15P (850 Interface)
                1                         1 - Data Strobe
                2                         2 - D0
                3                         3 - D1
                4                         4 - D2
                5                         5 - D3
                6                         6 - D4
                7                         7 - D5
                8                         8 - D6
               16                        11 - Gnd
               32                        12 - Fault
               11                        13 - Busy
                9                        15 - D7
    Frame - to the shield wire  |  No connection to shield

Very early 850s are in an all-black brushed steel case, but most are in a
beige plastic case matching the 400/800 computers.

Because the 850 was relatively expensive, provided more capabilities than the
average user was looking for, and was at times unavailable from Atari despite
high demand, there were many 3rd-party interfaces designed to provide some
compatible subset of the 850's features.  Perhaps the most prominent example
of such a product is the P:R: Connection from ICD.

------------------------------

Subject: 6.2) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module?

(text from Atari's XEP80 documentation)

The XEP80 is a video output device that also supports an 8 bit type parallel
port.  The video hardware generates an 80 column by 25 line text display
through a video connector/cable plugged into a separately purchased monitor.
The monitor can be any Composite Video input type, although for the best
display a monochrome is strongly advised.

Internally, the XEP80 is a 256 character wide by 25 line high storage device
with an 80 column wide display window.  Characters may be placed anywhere
within the device independent of the window location.  The window may be
scrolled across the 256 column wide field.

Optionally, the XEP80 may be placed into Pixel Graphics mode.  This mode
supports a bit mapped (pixel) screen of 320 dots (40 bytes) horizontal by 200
dots (lines) vertical.  The output window displayed is approximately half the
size of the text window.

Communication to and from the XEP80 is established through a joystick type
cable that extends from the back of the unit.  This cable will plug into
either joystick port (1 or 2) on all Atari 8 bit computers.  Through this
cable the XEP80 receives commands and data from the computer and sends them to
either the screen or the printer.
(Pin 1: computer -> XEP80; Pin 2: XEP80 -> computer)

The 8 bit parallel port allows Epson, Centronics, etc. type printers to be
connected to the XEP80, which means the Atari Computer may now output to these
printers.  The parallel connector is a female 25 pin D type.

Audio may be supplied via a video cable from the Atari computer DIN plug to
any suitable audio speaker input.  This is required for any SOUND commands or
keypresses.

Software is provided on diskette in the form of a DOS binary file named
AUTORUN.SYS.  This file is automatically loaded into memory and initialized by
the DOS at boot (power on) time.

Contents of the XEP80 Boot Disk: (DX5087)
  DOS.SYS       DOS 2.5 FMS
  DUP.SYS       DOS 2.5 Disk Utility Package
  AUTORUN.SYS   XEP80 Handler and Relocator.
                Substitute versions for three OS-resident device handlers:
                 - S: Display Handler
                 - E: Screen Editor
                   Designed to be compatible with the standard E: device but
                   for the 80-column screen display.
                 - P: Printer.
                   Default configuration supports 8 different printer devices:
                      P1: XEP80 parallel port
                      P2: 850 Interface Module parallel port
                      P3: 1025 Printer
                      P4: 1020 Color Plotter
                      P5: 1027 Printer
                      P6: 1029 Printer
                      P7: XMM801 Printer
                      P8: XDM121 Printer
  RELOC.SRC     Relocater in assembly source
  XEP80HAN.SRC  Handler in assembly source
  DEMO80.BAS    Demonstrates overall XEP80 features
  MAKER.BAS     Program to generate an AUTORUN.SYS from a custom-made Handler
  ATRIBUTE.BAS  Demonstrates special text features
  WINDOW.BAS    Demonstrates the 256-character wide window
  EIGHTY.BAS    Displays a spreadsheet-like grid using the full XEP80 display
  GRAPHICS.BAS  Demonstrates graphics capability by drawing a sphere on screen
  PRINTER.BAS   Program to revise the default printer port configuration
  XEP80.DOC     Product Specification For XEP80 hardware and software
***********************
The key engineer/designer of the XEP80 was Jose Valdes at Atari.
Lane Winner was software developer for the XEP80 at Atari.
The XEP80 was made in Taiwan.

Editors for the XEP80:
(This should someday be expanded into a separate list of XEP80 software. -mc)
 - AtariWriter 80 by Atari
 - TurboWord by MicroMiser
 - emacs subset by Stan Lackey
 - MAE and its previous standalone editor ED

XEP80 P: Parallel port (female) pinout:
   13                         1
     o o o o o o o o o o o o o
      o o o o o o o o o o o o
    25                       14
    1. Strobe
  2-9. Parallel Data
   10. Not Used
   11. Busy
12-17. Not Used
18-25. Ground

The XEP80 draws 400mA of current from an external power supply.  Use a power
supply that delivers 500mA 9V DC, such as Atari#CX261/CO16353/CO18084 or
equivalent.

------------------------------

Subject: 6.3) How can I use a SCSI/SASI device with my Atari?

SCSI background sources include:
http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=scsi

SCSI - Small Computer Systems Interface.  Pronounced "scuzzy."

SCSI is an ANSI standard for connection peripherals/devices to your computer
via a hardware interface, which uses standard SCSI commands.

In the early 1980s, Adaptec's founders, while at disk drive manufacturer
Shugart Associates, developed a parallel I/O interface called SASI for Shugart
Associated System Interface.  When this specification was finalized, it was
released to several different manufacturers and enjoyed commercial success.
In 1982, SASI was presented to ANSI as a basis for standard.  Because of the
commercial success and widespread market use of SASI, ANSI formalized and
extended the SASI specification and changed the name to SCSI (in part to
separate the specification from any one vendor in particular).  In June 1986,
SCSI was formally adopted by ANSI.

The following hardware interface devices allow SASI/SCSI devices (such as hard
disk drives) to be connected to the Atari:

==> ICD Multi I/O (MIO)
- Parallel printer interface
- Serial interface, for modem or serial printer.  will handle 19.2Kbps
- 256K or 1 MB RAM, for RAMdisk or printer spooler
- SASI/SCSI interface, supports up to 8 controllers.
- Limited to drives with 256-byte sectors.
Attaches via PBI, or ECI with adapter.

==> CSS Black Box
- RS-232 Serial Modem Port (19.2Kbps) w/ hardware flow control
- Parallel Printer Port
- SASI/SCSI Hard Disk Port
- Operating System Enhancements
- optional 64K printer buffer
- Supports drives with 512-byte sectors
PBI/ECI device.
Available: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/black.htm

Mathy van Nisselroy's Black Box page:
http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/blackbox.htm


ASPI - Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
Originally developed by Adaptec.  It is a software layer that enables programs
to communicate with SCSI (and ATAPI) devices.

Mathy van Nisselroy's Atari ASPI page:
http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/aspi.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 6.4) How can I use an IDE device with my Atari?

IDE background from TechWeb,
http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=ide

IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics

IDE is a type of hardware interface widely used to connect hard disks, CD-ROMs
and tape drives to a PC.  IDE was always the more economical interface,
compared to SCSI.

With IDE, the controller electronics are built into the drive itself,
requiring a simple circuit in the PC for connection.  IDE drives were attached
to earlier PCs using an IDE host adapter card.  Today, two Enhanced IDE (EIDE)
sockets are built onto the motherboard, and each socket connects up to two
drives via a 40-pin ribbon cable for CD-ROMs and similar devices and an 80-
wire cable for fast hard disks.

IDE drives are configured as master and slave.  Jumper pins on the drive
itself are used to set up the first drive on the cable as master and the
second one, if present, as a slave.

The IDE interface is officially known as the ATA (AT Attachment)
specification.  ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface) defines the IDE standard for CD-
ROMs and tape drives.  ATA-2 (Fast ATA) defined the faster transfer rates used
in Enhanced IDE (EIDE).

The following hardware interface devices allow IDE devices (such as hard disk
drives) to be connected to the Atari:

==> SmartIDE project by Bob Woolley
Uses 256 of the normal 512 byte sectors.  Point-to-point wiring project.
Articles and software at http://www.wolfpup.net/atarimods/
(Atari page by Clarence Dyson)

==> KMK/JZ IDE Hard Drive Interface
by Jacek Zuk and Konrad Kokoszkiewicz (Draco)
KMK writes (March 2005):
  This is sort of cartridge fitting in ECI+CARTRIDGE slot in XE computers.
  The box is about 1,5 cm high, 15 cm long, and its width is less or more
  equal to the XE ECI+CARTRIDGE slot. You have an ECI+CARTRIDGE connector
  at one end, and an IDE cable at the other end. The whole is cased with
  black plastic case.
  What advantage does it have over similar products?
  1) it is available and still being made;
  2) the software is maintained, you can download an upgrade for the
     internal handler, for example;
  3) it uses a well defined Atari parallel bus interface, thus no OS
     modifications or other hacks are necessary to get the machine booting
     from this device;
  4) it works fine with unmodified SpartaDOS X, SpartaDOS 3.x, MyDOS (and
     other DOS-es, but using it with DOS 2.x lacks sense);
  5) it allows you to make true partitions (up to 16);
  6) it can currently address up to 8 GB (and this is not a hardware
     limit, so an upgraded internal ROM can do more);
  7) it works with all devices which are ATA-compliant;
  8) you can use two drives (master/slave);
The Interface's internal software provides two modes: native and emulation.
The native mode uses a 512 byte physical block as a logical data sector, the
emulation mode uses the physical block to store two 256 byte logical data
sectors.  ALL existing DOSes require the emulation mode to work properly.
Maximum drive capacity: 8388607 physical blocks on each device.
Maximum number of partitions: 16
Maximum capacity of a partition: 8388607 logical sectors
Logical sector length:  256 or 512 bytes
Average speed: 58 kilobytes per second (native mode, R/W)
               32 kilobytes per second (emulation mode, reading)
               7 kilobytes per second (emulation mode, writing)
Booting from any partition
Write protection capability
8 jumpers to set the device number for the operating system
Note, that ALL existing DOSes limit the partition size to 16 MB.
Available: E-mail to: jurekQrembertow.net (q = @)
User's Manual and software downloads:
http://drac030.krap.pl/  or  http://drac030.atari8.info

==> Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe) Multi I/O II (MIO II) interface
An IDE interface.  Several exist, but it was never really released

==> msc-IDE Controller, by Matthias Belitz
*  real device for the parallel-port (PBI/ECI) of the Atari XL/XE
*  up to 240 partitions per hard disk supported
*  emulates D1: until D9: of disk devices (access to 9 partitions at one time)
*  full bootable from any partition (with standard XL-OS)
*  write protection capability
*  supports master/slave configuration
*  more than 30 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (reading)
*  more than 10 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (writing)
*  software partially supports CD-ROM and ZIP drives.
Sold out.  http://www.birmanns.de/atari/

==> Gary Morton's BadSector"A" Project
 Wants to connect his IDE drive to the SIO bus.
 http://www.alma.demon.co.uk/Atari/AtariProjects.html

==> MyIDE interface and software by Mr.Atari, Sijmen Schouten
Point-to-point wiring project.  Different units for 800 and XL, including a
cartridge version for the XL.
http://www.mr-atari.com/

==> Atarimax "MyIDE+Flash" Cartridge
Atarimax "MyIDE+Flash" Cartridge is a professionally produced IDE interface
cartridge for all 64k Atari 8-bit computers.

The new MyIDE+Flash interface combines Sijmen "Mr. Atari" Schouten's popular
"MyIDE" interface with an Atarimax 1Mbit reprogrammable flash cartridge.

The cartridge's built in 1Mbit flash system allows you to utilize the
interface and your hard disk setup in any 64k XL/XE computer, using the built-
in boot OS, without modifications to the existing hardware or operating
system.
http://www.atarimax.com/myide/documentation/

==> SIO2IDE, by Marek Mikolajewski (MMSoft)
     The SIO2IDE is a simple interface that allows you to attach any IDE
  Disk Drive to your 8-bit Atari computer. Latest interface version has the
  following main features:
      * ATARI side:
        - uses standard Atari SIO at a speed of 19200 baud
        - works with Atari High Speed SIO (US and Happy) at a speed of 52000
          baud
        - emulates Atari disks D1: to D8:
          disk D1: can be swapped with Common disk D1: (HD1_ZW jumper)
        - can be used with any Atari DOS and OS
        - can be used without any problems with other SIO devices (disk
          drivers, printers, modems, SIO2PC, second SIO2IDE etc)
        - can be easy installed inside your Atari with 2.5' laptop HD
        - is easy to configure via special fdisk.com utility software
          (changing disks sequence and active directory)
      * IDE device side:
        - all IDE ATA/ATAPI devices can be used: Disk Drives (2.5' and 3.5'),
          CD-ROMs, Compact Flash cards etc.
        - supports PC file systems, FAT16 and FAT32
        - supports CD file system, ISO9660
        - supports ATR disk images (SD, DD up to 16MB)
        - supports directory change (multiconfig)
        - is easy to configure, many text configuration files (sio2ide.cfg)
          can be stored in different directories
        - disk configuration can be checked by special checkfs.exe PC utility
          NOTE: checkfs.exe does NOT work with HDD connected via USB port
        - standard disk utilities can be used (defrag.exe, scandisk.exe etc)
        - Long File Name (LFN) support for HDD
        - TEST mode for checking HDD initialization
      * USB port side:
        - interface works as Mass Storage Class device (removable drive)
        - no drivers are needed for Windows 2K, ME, XP
        - driver for Win98 is included in this SIO2IDE package
http://www.atariarea.krap.pl/sio2ide/
http://mega-hz.no-ip.com/Angebote/SIO2IDE33/SIO2IDE33.html

==> Nathan Hartwell's IDE projects
http://www.magelair.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 6.5) Can I attach an ISA card to my Atari?

ISA background from TechWeb,
http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=isa

ISA - Industry Standard Architecture.  Pronounced "eye-suh."

An expansion bus formerly commonly used in PCs (but since phased-out in favor
of PCI).  It accepts plug-in boards that control the sound, video display and
other peripherals.

Originally called the "AT bus," it was first used in the IBM AT, extending the
8-bit bus to 16 bits.

RoBue (Roland Buehler) of the Stuttgart ABBUC Regional Group has produced
project plans for an ISA-Bus Interface for Atari 800XL/130XE Computer, ARGS.

Carsten Strotmann has released source code showing how to access a Hercules
video card with the ISA-Bus Interface.

Visit: http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/Main//PgmFardwDriverHerc

------------------------------

Subject: 6.6) How can I use a USB device with my Atari?

Background from TechWeb,
http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=usb

USB - Universal Serial Bus

A hardware interface for low-speed peripherals such as the keyboard, mouse,
joystick, scanner, printer and telephony devices.  USB has a maximum bandwidth
of 12 Mbits/sec (equivalent to 1.5 Mbytes/sec), and up to 127 devices can be
attached.

USB ports began to appear on PCs in 1997.  It has now essentially replaced the
older RS-232 serial and Centronics-type parallel ports on modern PCs, and USB
has become the primary means for connecting most external devices to today's
computers.

The following project aims to provide USB compatibility to the Atari:

MicroUSB.org - Microprocessor USB Project, http://microusb.org/
Project USB Cartridge
    * Project Name  : USB Cartridge with two USB Slots
    * Project Start : Summer 2002
    * Project Member: Marc Brings, Thomas Grasel, Harry Reminder,
                      Guus Assmann, Carsten Strotmann
http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/MicroUSB//ProjUSBCart

In cooperation with the above,

Atarimax(Steven Tucker)/ABBUC USB Cartridge:
http://www.atarimax.com/usbcart/

------------------------------

Subject: 6.7) What are the power requirements for my Atari components?

  Some of the pictures were scraped from various Internet web sites by MC;
  Some of the pics are originals by: MC (generally, common 120V supplies),
  Laurent Delsarte (many of the 220V supplies, the 16804, the 9W CX261,
  the CO17945/566T), wood_jl ("Black Brick"), Dan of www.southtown-homebrew.com
  (830 supply), dean_rambler (C062195)

The household "mains" electricity supply is an alternating current (AC) that
can be described with two parameters: the voltage (in volts) and the frequency
(in Hz).

In North America, the standard household wall outlet offers 120V/60Hz power.
In some of the rest of the world, the mains is now standardizing to 230V/50Hz.
However, other combinations of voltages of 100V-127V or 220V-240V paired with
frequencies of either 50Hz or 60Hz remain standard.  Here is the Wikipedia
article listing current household power outlet standards in use throughout the
world: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mains_power_around_the_world

In the time of 8-bit Atari computers and peripherals, North America still used
120V/60Hz, most of continental Europe used 220V/50Hz, and the UK used
240V/50Hz.

In any case, the household alternating current must be converted to a
direct current (DC) for use by electrical devices such as Atari computers
and peripherals:

 o In some cases, the entire conversion is done via an external "power supply"
   that sits between the wall outlet and the electrical device.  Such power
   supplies both transform the household power to a lower voltage, and they
   also rectify the current from AC to DC.

 o In some cases, the external "power supply" is simply a transformer that
   lowers the household voltage.  The lowered AC voltage is rectified to DC
   inside the device.

 o In some cases, both the transformer and the rectifier are located inside
   the computer or peripheral itself.  The device plugs directly into the wall
   outlet, with no external "power supply" needed.

The INPUT of an external power supply will indicate:
  1) Input voltage in units of volts (120V for N.Am., 220V Euro, 240V UK)
  2) Input frequency in units of hertz (60Hz for N.Am., 50Hz Euro)
  3) Peak power rating.  The power rating is the highest amount of power the
     unit can supply, according to the manufacturer, but this is only for a
     very brief time.  This peak power rating may be indicated in units of
     volt-amperes (VA) or in units of watts (W).

The OUTPUT of an external power supply will indicate:
  1) Output Voltage, in units of volts (V)
  2) Whether the output voltage is AC or DC
  3) Either:
    - Sustained Output Current, in amperes ("amps") (A) or milliamps (mA)
    - Sustained Output Power, in volt-amperes ("volt-amps")(VA) or watts (W)

Higher-than-specified sustained power and current capacities are entirely
usable, and often preferable because such supplies run cooler and last longer.

The power units VA and W are not identical:

  Direct Current (DC):
     Power (in watts) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts)

  Alternating Current (AC):
     Apparent Power (in voltamps) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts)
     Effective/True Power (in watts) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts)
                                       * cosine(phase, or angle of lag)
     cosine(phase) is known as the "power factor"

N O R T H   A M E R I C A   INPUT = 117-120 VAC 60Hz
====================================================
AC supplies (external transformers)

Atari#: CO61516
    "Plug in Power Supply"
    "For Use With Atari Inc. Model 1010 Program Recorder"
    UL Listed: 34J2, Made in Hong Kong
    Input: 120 VAC  60 Hz  7.5 VA
    Output: 9 VAC  500 MA
    Shipped with: 1010
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-top.jpg

Atari#: C062195
    "Power Adaptor" "For Use With 1030 Modem Only"
    UL Listed: 967Z, Made in Taiwan
    Type: DV-9750 
    Input: 120VAC 60Hz 12VA
    Output: 9VAC 5.4VA 
    Shipped with: 1030
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/62195-top.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/62195-bottom.jpg

Atari#: CO14319 (unit) / C014319 (box) / CA014748 (box, USA)
    "Power Supply" (unit) / "Power Adaptor" (boxes)
    "Use with ATARI 400/800 Computer Systems (C014319 box)
    "For Use With Atari 400/800 Personal Computer System" (top, some units)
    UL Listed: 205E, Made in Sunnyvale CA
    Input: 120 VAC  60 Hz  20W/18.5W (unit) / 105-125 V.A.C.  60 Hz (boxes)
           (early units rated at 20W; most units rated at 18.5W)
    Output: 9 VAC  15.3 VA (unit) / 9.5 V.A.C.  1.7 A (boxes)
    Shipped with: 400,800,810(earliest),822,850,1200XL(earlier)
    Also works with: 1010
    Works with, but NOT recommended (too weak) for: 810,1020,1050,XF551
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-top.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-alt-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-alt-top.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14319-box.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14748-usa.jpg

Atari#: C016804
    "Class 2 Transformer"
    UL Listed: 622T, Made in Taiwan
    Input: 120V  60Hz
    Output: 9V AC  31 VA
    Shipped with: 810 (rarely, 1981?)
    Also works with: 400,800,822,850,1200XL,1010,1020,1050,XF551
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/16804-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/16804-top.jpg
    Atari seems to have briefly (1981?) substituted this unit for the CO14319
    for 810 disk drives.  At least some C016804 units came in C014319 boxes.

Atari#: CO17945 (unit) / C017945 (unit) / CA017964 (box, USA)
    "Power Supply" (unit) / "Power Adaptor" (box)
    "For Use With Atari 400/800 Personal Computer System" (top, 566T units)
    UL Listed: 566T (uncommon/rare) or 771K (very common), Made in Taiwan
    Input: 120V  60Hz  50W (unit) / 105-125 V.A.C. (box)
    Output: 9V AC  31 VA (unit) / 9 V.A.C. 3.4A (box)
    Shipped with: 810(later),1020,1050,1200XL(later),XF551
    Also works with/recommended for: 400,800,810(all),822,850,1010
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17945-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17945-top.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17945-566T-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17945-566T-top.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17964-usa.jpg

Atari#: CO61636 (unit/box)
    "Power Supply" (unit) / "Power Adaptor" (box)
    UL Listed: 771K, Made in Taiwan
    Input: 120V  60Hz  53W  (unit/box)
    Output: 9.5V AC  4.2A (unit/box)
    Use with: 1027
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61636-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61636-top+box.jpg

Atari#: CO61636 (unit)
    "Power Supply"
    UL Listed: 566T, Made in Japan
    Input: 120V  60Hz  60W 
    Output: 9.5V AC  40VA
    Shipped with: 1027
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61636-alt-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61636-alt-top.gif

  20 VAC  330 mA  (6.6 VA)  Max:7W  Power Adaptor
    Atari#CO60479(unit)/CA060535(box)
    835
    PICTURE WANTED!

Novation#: 901017 (unit) / Atari#: CA016751-01 (box?)
    Top: "Use with 830 Modem Only"
    Bottom: "Novation AC Adaptor"
    UL Listed: 883K, Made in Taiwan
    Type: DV 2040  
    Input: 117V AC 60Hz 15W
    Output: 20V AC 400 mA
    Use with: 830
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/901017-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/901017-top.jpg
      NOTE: Both the 830 box and the 850 Interface Technical Manual
      indicate that the 830 requires:
        Input: 117 VAC (4 watts) 
        Output: 24 VAC/150mA
      Is there an Atari-branded supply like this?

DC power supplies (external adapters)

Atari#: CO70042-01  "The Logo"
    Atari logo molded into case, at lower-left of top
    "Power Supply" ; "For Use With Atari Computer"
    UL Listed: 13JS, Made in Singapore
    Input: 117V 60HZ 22VA
    Output: 5VDC 1A
    Shipped with: 65XE(most),XE Game System(later)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70042-01-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70042-01-top.jpg

Atari#: CO70042-011  "The Mini"
    "Power Supply"
    UL Listed: ?????, Made in Taiwan
    Type: DV-51AAT
    Input: 120V AC  60Hz  17W
    Output: +5V DC  1A
    Shipped with: XE Game System(most)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70042-011.jpg (better pic wanted!)

Atari#: C061982  "The White Brick" or "The Beauty Queen" 
    XL colors (light top, dark bottom), "ATARI Power Supply" on top
    "Power Supply"
    UL Listed: 34J2, Made in Hong Kong
    Input: 120V AC 60Hz 30W
    Output: 5V DC 1.5AMP
    Shipped with: 600XL(earliest),800XL(earliest)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-White_Brick-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-White_Brick-top.jpg

Atari#: C061982  "The Black Brick" or "The Black Beauty"
    all black; top up-left: "For Use On Atari 600XL Atari 800XL" or Atari logo
    "Power Supply" 
    UL Listed: 94H6, Made in Taiwan
    Type: DV-512CM
    Input: 120V AC 60Hz 40W
    Output: +5V DC 1.5A
    Shipped with: 600XL(rarely),800XL(rarely)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Black_Brick-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Black_Brick-bottom-label.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Black_Brick-top.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Black_Brick-top-alt.jpg

Atari#: C061982  "The Ingot" or "The Ugly Klunker"
    "Power Supply"
    UL Listed: 94H6, Made in Taiwan
    Type: DV-512CM
    Input: 120V AC  60Hz  40W
    Output: +5V DC  1.5A
    Shipped with: 600XL(most),800XL(most),65XE(early),130XE(early)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Ingot.jpg

Atari# C061982  "The Box" or "The Peanut"
    "Power Supply"
    UL Listed: 771K, Made in Taiwan
    Type: SA R05-18
    Input: 120V~60Hz 25W
    Output: 5V-1.5A 7.5VA
    Shipped with: 130XE(most)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61982-Box.jpg
    
Atari#: CO16353-101 (unit) / CX261 (box)
    "Plug-In Power Supply For Use With Models 2600, XEP80 or SX212" (unit)
    "Power Adapter" (box)
    "For Use with Atari Video Computer System Game, XEP80 or SX212" (box)
    "For Use with Atari Video Computer System Game" (alt box)
    UL Listed: 17J2, Made in Taiwan
    Type: SPA-4190-1
    Input: 120V 60Hz 12W
    Output: 9V DC 500mA (center positive)
    Shipped with: 2600,XEP80,SX212
    Also works with: CX42
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/16353-101-12w.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-back.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-front.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-alt.jpg

Atari#: CO16353-101 (unit) / CX261 (box)
    "Plug-In Power Supply For Use With Models 2600, XEP80 or SX212" (unit)
    "Power Adapter" (box)
    "For Use with Atari Video Computer System Game, XEP80 or SX212" (box)
    "For Use with Atari Video Computer System Game" (alt box)
    UL Listed: 20J8, Made in Taiwan
    Type: SA 9500-1
    Input: 120V 60Hz 9W
    Output: 9V DC 500mA (center positive)
    Shipped with: 2600,XEP80,SX212
    Also works with: CX42
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/16353-101-9w.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-back.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-front.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/cx261-alt.jpg

Databyte#: DV-9319A
    "Power Supply"
    UL Listed: 883K, Made in Taiwan
    Input: 120V AV 60Hz 33W
    Output: 11.5V DC 1.95AMP (center positive)
    Shipped with: Indus GT
    Also works with: 5200
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/DV-9319A-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/DV-9319A-top.jpg


UK  and  E U R O P E   INPUT = 216~264V 50Hz
============================================
AC supplies (external transformers)

Atari#: CO61516/34
    "A.C. Mains Adaptor"
    "For Use Only With Atari 1010 Program Recorder"
    "Disconnect The Mains Plug From The Supply Socket When Not In Use"
    Made in the U.K.
    Input: 240v~ 50Hz 5VA
    Output: 8.5v~ 4.25VA
    Shipped with: 1010 (UK)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-34.jpg

Atari#: CO61516
    "AC/AC Adapter"
    Type: FW6399
    Input: 220V~/50Hz/7VA
    Output: 9V~/0.5A
    Shipped with: 1010 (Europe)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-6399-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-6399-top.jpg

Atari#: CO61516-11
    "AC/AC Adapter"
    Type: FW6399
    Input: 220V~/50Hz/7VA
    Output: 9V~/0.5A
    Shipped with: 1010 (Europe)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-11-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61516-11-top.jpg

Atari#: CO61516-13
    Input: (220v 50Hz)
    Output: 8.52vac 4.26VA
    Shipped with: 1010 (New Zealand)
    
  9.3 VAC  15.44 VA  (1,66 A)  Max:?  FW 6799/Atari#CA014748?(box?)
    400,800,822,850,1010
  
  9.5 VAC  1.5 A  (14.25 VA)  Max:?  TaMOD M 5496  Input: 240V 50 Hz (UK)
    400,800,822,850,1010  (shipped with UK PAL 400)

Atari#: CO60592-34 (unit), CA017964 (box, UK)
    Type: TM 7498, SA 8547 
    Input: 240VAC 50Hz 0.037Kw
    Output: 9VAC 3.4A
    Use with: 400,800,810,822,850,1010,1020,1025(240V version),1050,XF551
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/17964-uk.jpg (box)
    PICTURE OF THIS UNIT STILL NEEDED!

Atari#: C060592 (most units) or C060529 (rare? units)
    "AC/AC Adapter"
    Type: FW6699
    Input: 220V~/50Hz/42VA
    Output: 9V~/3A
    Use with: 400,800,810,822,850,1010,1020,1050,XF551
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60592-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60592-top.jpg

Atari#: C060592-11
    "AC Power Supply"
    Type: PL028, Made in U.K.
    Input: 220v~37W 50Hz
    Output: 9v~27VA
    Use with: 400,800,810,822,850,1010,1020,1050,XF551
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60592-11-PL028.jpg

Atari#: C060592-11
    "Power Supply"
    Type: DV-9034A  UP, Made in Taiwan
    Input: 220V~ 50Hz 35W
    Output: 9V~ 3A 27VA
    Use with: 400,800,810,822,850,1010,1020,1050,XF551
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/60592-11-DV-9034A.jpg

Atari#: C061605-11
    "AC/AC Adapter"
    Type: FW6699
    Input: 220V~50Hz/50VA
    Output: 9V~/4,2A
    Use with: 1027
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61605-11-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61605-11-top.jpg

Atari#: 14750 "AC/AC Adapter"
    Type: 102501
    Input: 220V~/50Hz/38VA
    Output: I 29V~/600mA
            II 8,6V~/1A
    Use with: 1025 (220V version)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14750-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/14750-top.jpg

DC power supplies (external adapters)

Atari#: C061763-34
    Type: DV-515UK, Made in Taiwan
    Input: 240V~50Hz 0.11A
    Output: +5V - 1.5A
    Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-34.jpg

Atari#: CO61763-11
    Type: DV-515UP, Made in Taiwan
    Input: 220V~50Hz
    Output: 5V=/1.5A  7.5VA
    Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-DV-515UP.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-DV-515UP-top.jpg

Atari#: C061763-11
    "AC/DC Adapter"
    Type: FW1599
    Input: 220V~/50Hz/26VA
    Output: 5V-/1.5A
    Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-FW1599-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-FW1599-top.jpg

Atari#: C061763-11/T
    "Stromversorgungsgeraet"
    Type: PS40, Made in Singapore by Magpower Manufacturers Pte Ltd
    Input: 220V~, 50Hz 32VA
    Output: 5V - 2A
    Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-T-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/61763-11-T-top.jpg

  5 V DC  1.8 A  (9.0 W)  Atari#CO61763-107  (Poland)
    600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE Game System

Atari#: C070045-01
    "Power Supply"
    Type: DV-51AUP, Made in China
    Input: 220V~50Hz 19VA
    Output: 5V - 1A  5VA
    Shipped with: 800XE
    Use with: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,800XE,XE System
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70045-01-bottom.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/70045-01-top.jpg

Atari#: n/a
    "AC/DC Adapter"
    Type: FW3199
    Input: 220V~/50Hz/5,5VA
    Output: 6V-/300mA
    Shipped with: 410 ("410-P" or "410 P" 220V version)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/3199-top.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/3199-bottom.jpg
   
Atari#: CO18084-117
    "AC/DC Adaptor"
    "For use with models CX2600 XEP80 or SX212"
    Input: AC 220V 50Hz 9W
    Output: DC 9V 500mA (center positive)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/18084-117.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/18084-117-top.jpg
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/18084-117-bottom.jpg

Atari#: CO18084-117/A
    "AC/DC Adaptor"
    "For use with models CX2600 XEP80 or SX212"
    Input: AC220V 50Hz 9W
    Output: DC9V 500mA (center positive)
    http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/18184-117-A.jpg

  9 V DC  500 mA  (4.5 VA)  Max:9W  Input: 240V 50Hz (UK)
    Atari#CO18084-309/CO18084-306?
    XEP80,SX212,2600,CX42 (center positive)

  9.5 V DC  650 mA  (6.2 VA)  Max:15W  Input: 220V 50 Hz  (France)
    Atari#C016507
    XEP80,SX212,2600,CX42 (center positive)


M O R E  I N F O
================
These draw their power from the SIO +5 V:
  XM301 (60 mA),XC11,XC12,ICD P:R: Connection,Wizztronics MidiMax,R-Verter

Draws power from the 600XL PBI:
  1064

These have built-in power supplies (plug directly into the wall):
  410(120V versions),815,820,825,1025(120V version),1029,XMM801,XDM121

OTHER:

Multi I/O (MIO), all versions, can use both AC and DC supplies, BUT:
     stick to voltages of at least 6.2-7.2 V.
     On 2003.09.01 James Bradford wrote: "Doesn't matter what polarity the
     centre is, the MIO has a fullwave bridge rectifier in it.
     AC would be better because the diodes would be used half the time."

Rana 1000: 9 VAC  3.4 A  (30.6 VA)

MPP1000C modem: 9 V DC  200 mA  (1.8 W)

References:
 - "Secrets of XL/XE Power Supplies" by Benjamin L. Poehland, Current Notes,
   Vol. 10, No. 9, pp. 42-49.
   http://mcurrent.name/powersupplies/poehland.pdf
 - http://www.best-electronics-ca.com/power%20guide.htm
 - B&C ComputerVisions http://stores.ebay.com/Atari-Sales-and-Service

------------------------------

Subject: 6.8) What accessories/kits did Atari make for their 8-bit computers?

(Thanks Laurent Delsarte for CX404 details.)

This should be a complete list of Atari accessories and kits, marketed for or
usable with the 8-bit computers.

Controllers marketed by Atari for the 2600 VCS and/or the 7800 also work on
the 8-bit computers.

Accessories
===========
CX10 Joystick PCB replacement
CX11 Joystick plastic insert replacements
CX12 Joystick cable replacement
CX20-01 Pair of Driving Controllers. One controller per plug.
        Used by Indy 500 for 2600
CX21 Video Touch Pad for 2600 Star Raiders. Compatible w/ CX23 and CX50.
CX22 (Pro-Line) Trak-Ball. Works in joystick or trackball modes. Round buttons.
     The trackball controller from the Atari Consumer Division (2600/7800).
     Various stylings (after the black 2600), functionally identical:
       1) "Atari 2600 Trak-Ball": cream ball, black top, black buttons, black
          label beneath ball with black lettering, black bottom.  (Rare?)
       2) "Atari 2600 Pro-Line Trak-Ball": cream ball, black top, black
          buttons, black label beneath ball with silver lettering, black
          bottom.  (Rare?)
       3) "Atari Trak-Ball": black ball, black top, black buttons, black label
          beneath ball with silver lettering, white bottom.  (Rare?)
       4) "Atari Trak-Ball": cream ball, black top, black buttons, black label
          beneath ball with silver lettering, white bottom.  (COMMON)
     See: "Programming the CX-22 Track Ball" by William Bartlett (10/26/1983):
          http://www.atariarchives.org/cfn/05/07/0037.php
CX23 Kid's Controller.  Used by 2600 Sesame Street titles.
     Compatible w/ CX21 and CX50
CX24 Pro-Line Joystick / Deluxe Joystick / Super Controller Joystick
CX30-04 (One Set Standard) Paddle Controllers (One Pair) / 
CX40 Joystick Controller / Standard Joystick Controller / Standard Joystick
CX40-04 Joystick Controllers (One Pair)
CX41 Joystick Repair Kit
CX42 Remote Control Wireless Joysticks
     (requires XEP80/SX212/2600 power adapter)
CX43 (Pro-Line) Space Age Joystick
CX50 Keyboard Controllers (One Set). Compatible w/ CX21 and CX23
CX70 Light Pen (beige; the rare original Atari light pen.  
     Prototypes exist, but never shipped)
CX75 Light Pen and AtariGraphics (cartridge)
CX77 Touch Tablet With AtariArtist software (cartridge)
     + DOS 2.0S or DOS 3 disk
CX78 Joypad Controller (not marketed in USA)
CX80 Trak-Ball.  Works in joystick or trackball modes.  Triangular buttons.
     The trackball controller from the Atari Home Computer Division.
     XL computer styling: black ball, black top, black buttons, silver label
     above ball with black "Atari Trak-Ball" lettering, white or black bottom
     2 versions, externally identical:
       1) Trackball mode in earlier-production CX80s is compatible with the
          trackball mode of the CX22 Trak-Ball.
       2) Trackball mode in later-production CX80s is NOT compatible with the
          trackball mode of the CX22 Trak-Ball, but IS compatible with the
          Atari ST Mouse.
CX81 Atari I/O Data Cord (5 ft.)
CX82 B & W Monitor Cable.  Package includes (thanks Laurent Delsarte):
      - Connection instructions
      - RCA-type adapter, part no. C016828
      - BNC adapter, part no. C016829
      - UHF adapter, part no. C016830
CX85 Numerical Keypad
     + CX8139 Numerical Keypad Handler Master Program Diskette
CX86 Printer Cable (connect 825 printer to 850 interface parallel port)
CX87 Modem Cable (connect 830 modem to 850 interface serial port)
CX88 Terminal Cable (null modem cable)
CX89 Color Monitor Cable

Kits (actually marketed as kits: CX418,CX419,CX481,CX482,CX483,CX484,CX488)
====
CX401 General Accounting System (Atari Accountant series)
      [package details go here]
CX402 Accounts Receivable System (Atari Accountant series)
      [package details go here]
CX403 Inventory Control System (Atari Accountant series)
      [package details go here]
CX404 Atari Word Processor (Atari 810 Version)
       * Easel-Back Notebook CA017717
       * Training Manual
       * Reference Manual
       * Program Master Diskette CX8119 (2 duplicate disks)
       * Training Data Diskette CX8120
       * Audio Master Cassette CX4122
       * Reference Card
CX405 PILOT (Educators' Package)
       * PILOT Programming Language cartridge CXL4018
       * PILOT Primer: The PILOT Programming Language Instruction Manual
         CO17809 (c1980 DYMAX)
       * Student PILOT: Reference Guide CO17811
       * Pocket Reference Card C017812
       * 2 Demonstration Program Cassettes
         - CX4113A Side 1: PILOT Programs for Children
                   Side 2: A PILOT Teaching Program
         - CX4113B Side 1: PILOT "Turtle Graphics" Demonstration
                   Side 2: PILOT Do-It-Yourself Slide Show 
       * PILOT Demonstration Programs: Users Guide C017810
       * binder CA017805
CX406 Personal Financial Management System
      [package details go here]
CX412 Dow Jones Investment Evaluator
      [package details go here]
CX414 The Bookkeeper
       * Data Entry Diskette CX8131
       * Reporting Diskette CX8133
       * Sample Data Base Diskette (Benson) CX8134
       * Data Base Diskette CX8132
       * The Bookkeeper User's Guide
       * Simplified Guide
CX415 The Home Filing Manager
       * The Home Filing Manager Program Diskette CX8129
       * Formatted Diskette II CX8111
       * Users Guide
CX418 The Home Manager Kit or The Home Manager
      v.1: Personal Financial Management System + The Home Filing Manager
      v.2: The Home Filing Manager + Family Finances
CX419 The Bookkeeper Kit (CA060294 G-C060295 box)
       * CX414 The Bookkeeper
       * CX85 Numerical Keypad
       * Bookkeeper Kit Manual
CX421 Family Finances
      [package details go here]
CX481 The Entertainer
      v.1: Star Raiders + Missile Command + 2 CX40 joysticks
      v.2: Star Raiders + Pac-Man + 2 CX40 joysticks
      Trivia: Text on the box itself (thanks Bill Demian) indicates Computer
      Chess as the second game complementing Star Raiders.  And the
      illustration on the box actually shows a Music Composer box underneath
      the Star Raiders box.
CX482 The Educator
      410 + BASIC (cart.) + States & Capitals (cassette)
CX483 The Programmer
      v.1: BASIC cart. + BASIC Reference Manual + BASIC Self-Teaching Guide
      v.2: BASIC cart. + BASIC Reference Manual + Inside Atari BASIC + 
            $5 rebate coupon for An Invitation to Programming 1, 2, or 3
CX484 The Communicator (850 Interface + 830 Acoustic Modem + TeleLink I cart)
CX488 The Communicator II (835 Direct Connect Modem + TeleLink II cart.)

ROM/RAM Modules (used with the 800 only)
===============
CX801 10K ROM Operating System
CX801-P 10K ROM Operating System
CX852 8K RAM Memory Module
CX853 16K RAM Memory Module

Kits/Add-A-Paks/All-In-One-Paks
===============================
KX7097 Logo (kit).  Consists of two boxes plastic-wrapped together:
       - Atari Logo: Programming Language Cartridge (RX8032) box contains: 
          * Atari Logo Computer Program cartridge RX8032
          * Atari Logo: Quick Reference Guide C061583
       - Atari Logo: Atari Logo User Manuals (BX4208) box contains:
          * Atari Logo: Introduction to Programming Through Turtle Graphics
            C061590
          * Atari Logo: Reference Manual C061589
KX7098 The Atari Accountant Add-A-Pak (same as CX419).  Released??????
KX7099 The BASIC Tutor I Add-A-Pak (An Invitation to Programming 2: Writing
       Programs One and Two + An Invitation to Programming 3: Introduction to
       Sound and Graphics + Inside Atari BASIC book + 101 Programming Tips &
       Tricks book/cassette)
       http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari_basic_tutor.html
KX7100??? The Home Manager Add-A-Pak (same as CX418).  Released??????
KX7101 The Entertainer Add-A-Pak (same as CX481???).  Released??????
KX7102 The Arcade Champ Add-A-Pak (Pac-Man + Qix + 2 joysticks + cartridge
       storage case).  http://www.rhod.fr/pages/the-arcade-champ.html
KX7110 AtariWriter System All-In-One-Pak (600XL + 1027 + AtariWriter)
       pre-release name: The Writing System
       http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/hardwarewriterpackkompleet.jpg
KX7111 Entertainment System All-In-One-Pak.  Released?????
KX7114 Programming System All-In-One-Pak (800XL + 1010 + ????)
       http://www.rhod.fr/ataripics/8001010.JPG
KX7400 Game Kit (Donkey Kong cart. + two (standard) Atari Joysticks)
       http://www.rhod.fr/pages/atari/kx7400.html

Other Controllers
=================
XES2001 XG-1 Light Gun
Track & Field Controller

------------------------------

Subject: 6.9) What preventative maintenance can I do on my Atari system?

This new section could use more contributions!  For starters, Russ Gilbert
writes (2004.11.05):

The main suggestion I have is to use your A8s. This keeps the keyboard
working.  I didn't have a problem with my 800XLs, but my 1200XLs required
typing the keys a bunch to get them to respond to every keypress.  USE YOUR
A8s.

The problem, I suspect, is oxidation of contacts, in the keyboard, at the
cartridge slot, maybe the SIO port.  Use of a soft eraser on cart edge
connector is one thing I think helps.

I would guess one could take the 1200XL keyboard apart and clean the mylar
traces with ???  90% isopropyl alcohol and a Q-Tip.  I still have my
original 800XL, it has copper switches in the keyboard, no mylar.  I don't
know what my 800s have in the keyboard, but I would guess copper switches.
My original 800XL has all socketed chips also.

=-=-=

Here is a thread at AtariAge concerning cleaning the heads of Atari floppy
disk drives:
http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/150716-disk-drive-cleaning/

------------------------------

Subject: 6.10) What graphics tablets were produced for the Atari?

According to Wikipedia, a graphics tablet (or digitizing tablet, graphics pad,
drawing tablet) is a computer input device that allows one to hand-draw images
and graphics, similar to the way one draws images with a pencil and paper.
At the time of the Atari computer the more popular term was: touch tablet

Several graphics tablets were produced and marketed for the Atari 8-bit
computers:

o Animation Station by Suncom
  - Shipped with DesignLab disk (Suncom version of Blazing Paddles)
  - Fully compatible with the earlier, popular KoalaPad
  - Work surface is about the same size as the one on the Atari Touch
    Tablet - about 50% larger than the KoalaPad's
  - A list of compatible software is elsewhere in the FAQ list.

o Atari Touch Tablet
  - Shipped with AtariArtist cartridge (Atari version of Micro Illustrator)
  - Also shipped with CX8104 Atari 810/1050 Master Diskette II disk (DOS 2.0S)
  - Similar to the popular, earlier KoalaPad, but returns reversed
    y-position values compared to the KoalaPad/Animation Station tablets
  - Device measures 7.5" x 9.5" x 1.25"
  - Drawing surface measures 5" x 6.5"
  - A list of compatible software is elsewhere in the FAQ list.

o KoalaPad Touch Tablet by Koala Technologies
  - Shipped with Micro Illustrator disk or KoalaPainter disk or cartridge
  - Device measures 8.5" x 6.5" x 2"
  - The square drawing area is 4.25" on each side.
  - Very popular
  - A list of compatible software is elsewhere in the FAQ list.

o Kurta Graphics Tablet by Kurta Corporation
  - Very early device
  - 400/800 only: requires controller ports 1, 2, and 3
  - Device measures 13" x 15.5"
  - Shipped with Kurta Demo Disk
  - Kurta Atari Graphics System, sold separately, includes software:
    o Road Map Distance Analysis
    o Length
    o Area - Calculation of areas (any shape)
    o Sound - display pen location by means of sound
    o Drawing
    o Graphics
  - See ANALOG #1 for a review (p. 16) and an ad (p. 17)

o PowerPad by Chalk Board, Inc.
  - Shipped with Micro Illustrator cartridge (Chalk Board PowerPad version)
  - A unique and very large device
  - Device measures 17" x 19" x 1.5"
  - 12" x 12" square drawing area
  - A list of compatible software is elsewhere in the FAQ list.
  - Chalk Board released several cartridges for the PowerPad:
    - BearJam
    - CodeBreaker
    - Leo's 'Lectric Paintbrush
    - Leo's Links
    - LogicMaster
    - MicroMaestro

o Super Sketch by Personal Peripherals Inc. (PPI)
  - Shipped with Graphics-Master cartridge
  - a 10" X 14" tablet
  - Similar to the earlier VersaWriter - trace or freehand a drawing
    into the computer.

o VersaWriter Drawing Tablet by Versa Computing, later by Peripherals Plus
  - Shipped with Graphics Software (2 disks)
  - trace or freehand a drawing into the computer
  - Dimensions: 12" x 13.5"
  - See ANALOG #4 (1981) p. 46 for ad, p. 47 for review
  - See Creative Computing vol. 8 no. 4 April 1982 p. 79 for another ad.
  - Reviewed (with picture) in Atari Classics June 1993 pp. 26-28

------------------------------

Subject: 6.11) What light pens were produced for the Atari?

- Atari Light Pen CX70 (beige; the rare original Atari light pen.
  Prototypes exist, but never shipped)
- Atari Light Pen CX75 (came with AtariGraphics cart.; it produces pictures
  with 127 sectors in length, thus not DataSoft Micro-Painter, nor Island
  Graphics Micro Illustrator compatible; however appropriate converter
  programs can be found in the public domain, e.g. the Rapid Graphics
  Converter)
- The Light Pen by Programmer's Institute / Futurehouse
- Edumate Light Pen by Futurehouse
   - sold with 5 or 6 programs for the Atari
   - improved version of The Light Pen by Programmer's Institute / Futurehouse
- McPen light pen by Madison Computer (came with a disk with 4 BASIC programs)
- Stack Light Pen by Stack Computer Services
- Symtec Light Pen by Symtec
- Tech-Sketch LP-10 Light Pen (ad: Compute Aug83p117)
  - sold with Demo Cassette
- Tech-Sketch LP-15 Light Pen (ad: Compute Aug83p117)
  - sold with Demo Cassette
- Tech-Sketch LP-10S Light Pen (ad:CC Jan84p.230) Shipped with one of:
   o Paint-N-Sketch Level I
   o Micro Illustrator by Island Graphics for Tech-Sketch
- Hoyt Light Pen by Hoyt Corporation (ad: Compute#49Jun84p48)
   - released????

------------------------------

Subject: 6.12) What light guns were produced for the Atari?

This section started by Andreas Koch.

- Atari XES2001 XG-1 Light Gun
- "The Best" Light Gun by Best Electronics (a sort of self-made (?)
  Light Gun);
* Sega Light Phaser for the Sega Master System (normally not Atari compatible;
  but can be converted into an Atari compatible light gun easily);
- other light guns (most of these have to be converted)...

Note: After having 3-4 Atari and at least one (converted) Sega light gun,
it is my personal impression, that the Atari light gun merely works ok 
on/with TV-sets (and not at all with a monitor), whereas the Sega light gun
works alright on TVs and (most) monitors. Since I never had a Best
light gun I cannot comment on this one... (Andreas Koch);

------------------------------

Subject: 6.13) What paddles were produced for the Atari?  

This section by Andreas Koch.

- Atari Paddles (usually a pair of Paddles);
- Telegames Paddles (available as a) a single paddle and b) a pair 
  of paddles);
- Reston Paddles (available as a) a single paddle and b) a pair 
  of paddles);
- and many others...

Note: Both single and duo (pair) paddles are compatible to each other,
using only one port-connector (only one joystick port). Thus, with a pair 
of paddles you can connect up to 4 paddles (2 pairs) to the XL/XE models
and up to 8 paddles (4 pairs) to the Atari 400/800 models.

------------------------------

Subject: 6.14) What voice/sound synthesis hardware was produced for the
Atari?

This section started by Andreas Koch.

- Voice-Box II by The Alien Group (a software and hardware package);
- Talk is Cheap by Ed Stewart, Antic Volume 2 Number 4, July 1983,
  pages 64-66; hardware schematics only (a test/demo program is
  mentioned in the text, but not printed in the magazine!);
- Cheap-Talk by Lee Brilliant, ANALOG #29, April 1985,
  pages 59-67; hardware schematics and software demos, for example 
  "First Words");
- many other voice synthesizers (mostly self-made and based on a chip by 
  National Semi Conductor);

------------------------------

Subject: 6.15) What sound-digitizers/samplers were produced for the Atari?

This section started by Andreas Koch.

- Parrot (2-Bit) by Alpha Systems, Anthony Ramos;
- Parrot-2 (2-Bit or 4-Bit?) by Alpha Systems, Anthony Ramos;
- Replay Cartridge (4-Bit) by 2-Bit Systems
- Sound N'Sampler (2-Bit) by Ralf David;
- Sound Digitiser (2-Bit) by Ralf David;
- Sound-Meister (2-Bit) by Irata;
- Sound-Digitizer (2-Bit) by Irata;
- Digitales Mikrofon (2-Bit) by Compy-Shop;
- Voice-Master (2-Bit) by Covox Inc.;
- Analog-Sample-Processor (2-Bit) by Steven Lashower (ANALOG Magazine);
- Atari-Sound-Sampler (2-Bit) by Andreas Binner and Harald Schoenfeld 
  (German Atari Magazin 1/1989, pages 44-49, complete with schematics,
   documentation, sample-program and assembler-source);
- Alphasys Sample Cartridge (8-Bit) by ANG/Mirage;
  Accompanied software, made by Solarsystems, only used the upper 4 bits;
  Cartridge also has a "Replay Cartridge compatibility mode" so people could
    use it with the software by 2-bit systems.
- ARGS-XE-Sampler (8-Bit) by ABBUC regional group ARGS (only one or
  two prototypes exist, alas the hardware was never released due to lack
  of (sampling/digitizing) software; maybe a good idea for the hardware
  and software experts out there!);
- and many others ...

------------------------------

Subject: 6.16) What sound-enhancement upgrades were produced for the Atari?

This section started by Andreas Koch.

a) enhancements for 2- or 3-channel sound:

- POPS, polyphonic-pokey-sound by Lee Brilliant (3-channel support with one
  Pokey!); refer to ANALOG #66, november 1988, pages 
  54-60; only 1-2 programs exist for this mod., see: 8.14 stereo-software
  for the Atari;

Lee Brilliant writes: (2006.08.09)
    In reality, the POPS device was only a set of connections to the Atari.
    The internal circuitry (Simple to build) was used ONLY to control the
    volume of the sound and to add amplification to power speakers.  One
    could do without the amplifiers if they have their own.  But the POPs
    did not give just two channel sound, it gave _three_.  My design
    allowed for left, center, and right amplifiers and speakers.  It always
    caused a stir at Atari conventions and user groups. The software I used
    with it was POKEY Player which was commonly available then.  One had to
    get that separately and then modify it slightly to drive the three
    channels separately.  At the time there was a lot of support for that
    program and lots of music for it.

- stereo with two Ataris (and thus 2 Pokey chips); use computer/pokey 1
  for the left channel and computer/pokey 2 for the right; no special
  hardware required for this trick (but specially programmed software!);
  see also: 8.14 stereo-software for the Atari;

- stereo with 2 Pokey chips (in one Atari!); refer to an article written
  by Chuck Steinman (which probably appeared in Atari classic?) on how 
  to upgrade your Atari internally with a second Pokey chip; or ask 
  Freddy Offenga for a deluxe-stereo-version, that uses a PCB instead of 
  the piggy-back method. For a list of software that supports this mod. 
  see also: 8.14 stereo-software for the Atari;

- Stereo-Blaster and Stereo-Phaser by Portronic/AMC-Verlag, these were
  hardware add-ons that connected via the monitor port to the Atari and
  gave you "another" monitor port and 2 cinch connectors to connect to
  the monitor and/or the hifi-system; various small paddles (4-10,
  depending on the model you have) make it possible to change amplitudes,
  frequencies, etc. and thus generate a "pseudo-stereo" sound. These
  add-ons also amplified the sound and thus made quality recordings of
  Atari sounds much easier. Alas, these hardware add-ons were quite
  expensive and thus not many (less than 100) were sold. Therefore no
  special software is required, every A8 sound can be changed or 
  enhanced to "simulated-stereo"...

- Stereo-Blaster-Pro, a hardware add-on by Portronic/AMC-Verlag similar
  to Stereo-Blaster and Stereo-Phaser, but programmable! This add-on had
  only 1 small paddle, to amplify the sound-volume; the stereo-sound 
  could be generated via two simple Poke-Statements, a demo-disk therefore
  was included. Alas, not many items were sold and as far as I know no-one
  else programmed stereo-software for it. See also: 8.14 stereo-software
  for the Atari...

b) other sound enhancements:

- Covox Sound enhancement, originally developed in Poland; digital to analog
  (DAC) converter, uses a PIA and a resistor ladder to produce 8-bit sound
  playback. (A viable way to reproduce the 8-bit samples captured from the
  Alphasys Sample Cartridge.) (see also 8.14)
  
- SID-upgrade, the SID is the standard sound-chip in the C64 computers.
  Some Polish freaks/nerds have found a way to include it into an A8,
  but although I have seen quite a lot of pictures (for example at 
  atariarea.nostalgia.pl) with this mod. and already found 1 or 2 
  programs that detect it (for example System Info 2.x by Draco), I 
  have not yet found any schematics for this upgrade. Anyway, it exists, 
  and with some programming skills it would surely be possible to write 
  programs then, that playback SID sounds on those Ataris which have this 
  upgrade installed... 

- AMY sound-chip, the AMY sound-chip was originally produced by
  Atari and installed into the 65XEM computer. Alas, it was never
  available to the public and only very few prototypes of this 65XEM 
  (maybe less than 10?) do exist. Besides of that RUMORS say, that
  Atari had quite some problems with this sound chip and never finished 
  it completely/successfully. If the rumors are true, then this 
  sound chip provided many more sound channels, more octaves and even 
  more and better sound power than two Pokeys together (for more infos 
  take a look at this URL:
  http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8bits/xe/xe_protos/65xem.html )

- guess there are dozens of other sound enhancements, for example sound
  cards (like Adlib, etc.), sound-chips, midi-interfaces, etc. that could
  be attached or converted to the A8; I won't name them all here...(A.K.)

------------------------------

Subject: 6.17) What MIDI enhancements are there for the Atari?

This section started by Andreas Koch. 
 
Midi is standard on the Atari ST computers, because it is built-in into 
these computers. Nevertheless, Midi was long before the arrival of the 
ST computers on the market and thus, it is no surprise that there are 
even midi-interfaces and enhancements for the classic 8Bit Ataris. The 
following "types" do exist: 
 
- "Midi-Mate" and "Midi-Track" by Hybrid Arts (USA), comes with hardware 
  + software, see reviews & tests in Antic, ANALOG and other magazines. 
  MidiTrack requires 48k RAM, MidiTrack II 64k RAM and MidiTrack III 
  128k RAM (XE compatible, not Axlon compatible). MidiMate features 
  MIDI IN+OUT and SYNC IN+OUT ports, but lacks a second SIO port.
  MMS (MIDI Music System) is a MIDI version of AMS, also sold by Hybrid 
  Arts and comes with AMS to MMS converter software...

- "MIDI Master" by 2-Bit Systems (UK), comes with hardware+software.
   Features MIDI IN+OUT ports, but no SYNC ports.
   See also reviews and ads in (New) Atari User...

- "MIDI interface" by DIGICOMM (UK), comes with hardware + 'example
  programs'. Features MIDI IN, THRU and OUT ports. There`s no word
  about a second SIO port or any SYNC ports. See also reviews and ads
  in (New) Atari User...

- "MIDIMAX" by Wizztronics (UK), comes with hardware and software.
  Features MIDI IN+OUT ports and a second SIO port. The MMS software 
  that comes with MidiMax requires 48k RAM and is fully compatible to 
  the Hybrid Arts hardware+software. This means, one can use the 
  software with both Midi-interfaces or use the interfaces with the 
  software of both vendors...

- "Atari-Midi-Interface" by Karlheinz Metscher (appeared in the German 
  magazine Computer Kontakt June/July 1986, pages 69-75, complete with 
  documentation, schematics and its first program "Midi-Receiver"; 
  in Computer Kontakt October/November 1986 appeared the second program, 
  called "Midi-Disk" - a Midi Recorder and Player program); 
 
- "Midi-Interface for Atari XL/XE" by Ireneusz Kuczek (appeared in the 
  German ABBUC magazine, issue 65, pages 3-6); the paper-mag. includes 
  a schematic for the midi-interface and some translated descriptions for 
  the software (translated from Polish to German language), whereas the 
  disk-magazine contains the midi-programs "Midiplay Version 1.3" by I. 
  Kuczek, "Midi-Recorder Version 1.2" by I.Kuczek, "Rec to Mid" by I. 
  Kuczek (a converter program for the IBM-PC!), "Midi-Sequencer V.1.15" 
  by Maciej Sygit and "Midi-Pattern-Editor MPE V.2.3" by Radek Sterba. 
  These programs and many additional demo sounds are also available in 
  the ABBUC PD library (PD numbers 625-632).

- guess there are several other (self-made) midi-interfaces for the Atari 
  8Bit available, alas they also require a keyboard or synthesizer and 
  self-created (or downloaded) midi-sounds can only be played back via 
  such a midi-interface and the aforementioned keyboard/synthesizer. 
  As of yet, it seems there exists no midi-player program, that can 
  playback any midi-sound via the Atari Pokey chip, nor any converter 
  program, which can convert *.MID sounds into other Atari sound formats 
  (that could be played back on the Atari then)... 

------------------------------

Subject: 6.18) What graphics enhancements are there for the Atari?

This section started by Andreas Koch.

- some 80 column interfaces made by Atari and third parties. Although 
  these interfaces are there to provide a better text display with 80 
  chars. per line, they can somehow be used as a simple graphic 
  enhancement; think I have seen a graphic demo for the XEP-80 device 
  somewhere, that used a higher graphic resolution in Gr. 0 or Gr. 8 
  and also provided some animation (not only text, but also graphics), 
  alas I don`t remember the name of that demo...;
- Antic and GTIA upgrade by Chuck Steinman. As far as I
  know, an article about that topic appeared in Atari Classic, since I do
  not own it, I can merely speculate that it adds a second Antic and GTIA
  for higher resolution and/or more colors...;
- many self-made upgrades, using graphic chips or graphic cards from other
  computers...

------------------------------

Subject: 6.19) What types of memory upgrades are there for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Koch.

Just a short overview here, for a more detailed description (table), see
also 8.10 kinds of atari RAMdisks (and 8.11 + 8.12 for programs that
support or require a RAMdisk). The following memory enhancements do exist:
- Atari 400/800: RAMdisks on memory boards, that fit into the normal 
  Atari 800 memory slots (Axlon and Mosaic types);
- Atari XL/XE: a) internal memory enhancements: 
  - piggy-back versions,
  - professional PCB versions,
  - SIMM-module versions;
               b) external memory enhancements: 
  - via XL-Parallel-Bus, 
  - via XE-Cart.port+ECI, 
  - Flash-ROM cart. versions, 
  - other Cartridge versions, 
  - RAM-Card versions, 
  - SIO-cartridge versions, 
  - ...                
Note that many of these XL/XE memory enhancements are just hobbyist or
self-made projects. Most versions which use newer PC technologies
(Flash-ROM cart., RAM-Card, SIO-cart., etc.) are still under development!

------------------------------

Subject: 7.1) What versions of the Atari Operating System (OS) are there?

Atari 8-bit Operating Systems
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Version 3.6, 2009-05-05
By Freddy Offenga
http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/atari_dev.htm


400/800 10kB OS roms
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Rev. TV    Date        CRC-32      Part Nr(s)
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
A    NTSC  1979        0xc1b3bb02  CO12499A, CO14599A, CO12399B
A    PAL   1979        0x72b3fed4  CO15199, CO15299, CO12399B
B    NTSC  1981        0x0e86d61d  CO12499B, CO14599B, 12399B
B    PAL   (*)         (*)         (*)

(*) a real PAL.B rom hasn't been found.
If you do have this or have more information, please let me know!


XL/XE 16kB OS roms
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Rev. System  Date        CRC-32      Part Nr(s)
~~~~ ~~~~~~  ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
10   1200XL  10/26/1982  0xc5c11546  CO60616A, CO60617A
11   1200XL  12/23/1982  0x1a1d7b1b  CO60616B, CO60617B
1    600XL   03/11/1983  0x643bcc98  CO62024
2    XL/XE   05/10/1983  0x1f9cd270  CO61598B
3    800XE   03/01/1985  0x29f133f7  C300717
3B   65XE    07/21/1984  0x45f47988  C101700
4    XEGS    05/07/1987  0x1eaf4002  C101687


NOTES:
The 400/800 O.S. consists of three ROMs (two 4kB and one 2kB).
The 1200XL contains two ROMs for the OS (8k each), XL/XEs use a single
16k ROM and the 16k XEGS OS is stored in a 32k ROM (together with 8k
BASIC and 8k for Missile Command).


Origins of ROM information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
400/800 rev.A NTSC      
All information from OS board C012989 (Rev D) and ROM dumps.

400/800 rev.A PAL
All info found in two Atari 400s and Atari 800 ROM module CX801.P

400/800 rev.B NTSC
Information from a ROM dump and the rev.B source listing.
The part numbers were listed in the catalog from [BEST]. 
According to [MAPPING] rev.B ROMs have a 'B' at the end of the part number, 
therefore I figure these part numbers are from rev.B.

400/800 rev.B PAL
Could exist, since the NTSC version exists and there's some conditional
PAL/NTSC assembly in the rev.B source code.

1200XL rev.10
All info found in an Atari 1200XL (both US and Taiwan).
[REV2] refers to it as rev.10. [BEST] calls it rev.A.

1200XL rev.11
Information from ROM dump. Needs confirmation.
[REV2] refers to it as rev.11. [BEST] calls it rev.B.

600XL rev.1
All info found in an Atari 600XL.

XL/XE rev.2
All info from Atari 800XL machines (PAL, NTSC and SECAM).
This version is also used in 130XE and 65XE machines.

800XE rev.3
All info found in an 800XE machine.

65XE (Arabic) rev.3B
The OS rev.3B is a 16K rom dump from an 65XE Atari from Arabia.
It's probably based on rev.3. There are changes in the fonts
(Arab characters) and several patches in the code [ARABIC2].

XL/XE rev.4
All info found in an Atari XE Game System (confirmed).


O.S. Authors and dates
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The following info is from the Atari XL/XE rev.2 source code [REV2].

Revision A (400/800)
D.Crane / A.Miller / L.Kaplan / R.Whitehead

Revision B (400/800)
Fix several problems.
M.Mahar / R.S.Scheiman

Revision 10 (1200XL)
Support 1200XL, add new features.
H.Stewart / L.Winner / R.S.Scheiman /
Y.M.Chen / M.W.Colburn                          10/26/82

Revision 11 (1200XL)
Fix several problems.
R.S.Scheiman                                    12/23/82

Revision 1 (600XL/800XL)
Support PBI and on-board BASIC.
R.S.Scheiman / R.K.Nordin / Y.M.Chen            03/11/83

Revision 2 (600XL/800XL)
Fix several problems.
R.S.Scheiman                                    05/10/83
Bring closer to coding standard (object unchanged)
R.K.Nordin                                      11/01/83


Vapour-ware
~~~~~~~~~~~
The following OS roms originate from rare Atari 8-bit systems.
Since I don't own any of these (unfortunately), I don't have much
information about these roms. Who can help me?

1450XLD
~~~~~~~
I've got two 16K rom dumps from the 1450XLD. Both IDs are rev.3.
The first dated 3/23/1984 comes from the 'Pooldisk Too' CD-ROM [POOL2]
(filename: 1540os3.v0) and the second dated 6/21/1984 was send to
me by Nir Dary (filename: os1450.128). Main differences between
these two are in the first 3K ($C000 - $CBFF).

Rev. System   Date        CRC-32      Part Nr(s)
~~~~ ~~~~~~~  ~~~~~~~~~~  ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
3    1450XLD  3/23/1984   0x0d477aa1  ? 
3    1450XLD  6/21/1984   0xd425a9cf  ?

References
~~~~~~~~~~
[ARABIC] Arabic 65XE, http://www.savetz.com/vintagecomputers/arabic65xe/

[ARABIC2] Arabic 65XE (2), http://www.atari800xl.eu/public/65xearab/

[BEST] Best Electronics, catalog of Atari 8-bit parts.

[MAPPING] Mapping the Atari, revised edition, Ian Chadwick, Compute! books
publication, 1985.

[POOL2] Atari Pooldisk Too, 
http://members.home.nl/stack/Atari/atari-pooldisk.html

[REVB] The modified september Atari 400/800 computer operating system
listing, revision B, (c)1982 Atari.

[REV2] The Atari O.S. source code rev.2, (c)1984 Atari.

[XLADD] Atari XL addendum Atari home computer system operating system
manual: supplement to Atari 400/800 technical reference notes.


Thanks to
~~~~~~~~~
- Laurent Delsarte for Arabic ROM dump and additional info.
- Michael Current for good info about Rev.11 and the Arabic roms.
- Nir Dary for the rev.2 source code, rom dumps and the 1200XL.
- Sijmen Schouten for his reconstructed 400/800 Rev.B source code.
- Stephen Sheppard for 400/800 Rev.A/NTSC information and rom dumps.
- Steve Tucker for the 1200XL OS ROM dumps.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
(end of section content by Freddy Offenga)

Some additional info about the Rev. 3 XL/XE OS from ST*ZMAGAZINE #36, Sept. 1,
1989 (as reprinted in PSAN Nov 89):

by Mark Elliot, Innovative Concepts
The following changes have been incorporated in the 130XE computer.

The O.S. has minor changes like:
  A) The MEMORY TEST (from SELF TEST) tests the extra 64K now! (in 4 squares)
  B) Also, the MEMORY TEST checks the first 48K over TWICE as fast as before!
  C) The KEYBOARD TEST has the F1-F4 keys missing on top.  (function keys),
     although the code that interprets them is probably there (like XEGS).
  D) Also, it types out "COPYRIGHT 1985 ATARI" at the keyboard test, when all
     tests are done.  (compared to COPYRIGHT 1983 ATARI, before)
  E) And, the O.S. chip itself, is on a 27256 EPROM, but only half of it is
     used! (compared to the original, which was on a 16K x 8 ROM, 27128 comp.)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

In Atari BASIC, PEEK(65528) and PEEK(65527) return the following unique values
depending upon the version of the Atari OS that is running:

PEEK(65528)
  255 = 400/800 OS "Operating System 255" NTSC
  *** If your 400/800 runs Operating System 255, PLEASE contact Freddy Offenga
      (or Michael Current) to share your rare find!!
      http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/atari_dev.htm
      More info:
         http://mcurrent.name/os255/410insert-os255.htm
         http://mcurrent.name/os255/softside.htm
  221 = 400/800 OS Rev. A NTSC
  214 = 400/800 OS Rev. A PAL
  243 = 400/800 OS Rev. B NTSC
   34 = 400/800 OS Rev. B PAL  (DOES THIS VERSION ACTUALLY EXIST???)

PEEK(65527)
   10 = XL/XE OS Rev 10
   11 = XL/XE OS Rev 11
    1 = XL/XE OS Rev 1
    2 = XL/XE OS Rev 2
    3 = XL/XE OS Rev 3
   59 = XL/XE OS Rev 3B (Arabic)
    4 = XL/XE OS Rev 4

------------------------------

Subject: 7.1.5) What other operating systems have been produced for the Atari?

This section started by Arianne Slaager (Alphasys).

Args OS 3 CRC32: 0x5B1EADF3
- Mostly a copy of the REV 2 XL rom, but boasts a ROM disk driver by Ralf
David that activates by holding Select while resetting. How this works, I have
no clue. ARGS stands for Atari Regional Gruppe Stuttgart. Need extra info on
this one.

Bibomon V2.1 (c) 1084/85 E. Reuss CRC32: 0x41B80C28
- Option + Reset enters a built in machine language monitor. Also some colors
have changed. Looks like Basic is disabled by default, and no way to enable
it.

Highchip (c) Irata GmbH 1985 V.1.9 CRC32: 0x41BB4047
- Mostly a copy of REV 2 XL rom, but includes Happy Warp Speed boot and
changed colors. Special options menu can be initialised by pressing Option +
Select + Reset. Pressing Select + Start while booting, boots from casette.
Booting while holding Start tries to initialise Warp speed before booting.

Oldruner CRC32: 0x10ABFD80
- A copy of the OS-B for the 800, but tweaked to function with the XL/XE line
of computers. Makes the XL/XE line able to run 400/800 software.

Omnimon 87 CRC32: 0x9B4F8FAD
- Byte Eaters OMNIMON V_r 1987: Added monitor, through Select+Reset, which
replaced the self test, as was pretty much the standard at the time.
Compatible with most 800 software. Classified as translator rom.

Omnimon XL CRC32: 0xBFA09B66
- David Young OMNIMONXL (C)1984: Added monitor, through Select+Reset, which
replaced the self test, as was pretty much the standard at the time.
Compatible with most 800 software. Classified as translator rom.

Omnimon XE CRC32: 0x64B77137
- David Young OMNIMONXL (C)1984: Added monitor, through Select+Reset, which
replaced the self test, as was pretty much the standard at the time.
Compatible with most 800 software. Classified as translator rom.

Omniview 5 CRC32: 0x5987F5D8
- (c) 1985 David Young. Based on rev B 800 rom. The extra 6kB holds the main
feature: A 80 column E: handler that can be invoked from most programs
including basic. This mode uses a Graphics 8 screen, with a 4-bit wide font.
Not the best readability. Manual includes patches for (at the time) well known
word processor software: Speedscript 3.0.

Omniview 6 256K CRC32: 0xEB0C62EB
- Only difference with Omniview 5 is a change of tagline. David Young tagline
is replaced by the message "    OS-80+ ext.256K rev.(C)1986". There is no
extra support for additional ram. I suspect it's a rip-off.

Omniview XE CRC32: 0xE4BF5B98
- (c) 1985 David Young. Very alike Omniview 5. Same base, same feature, but
with a reworked character set, which is a slight bit easier on the eyes. Minor
changes in the code.

Pud CRC32: 0x95EC9329
- Proof of concept rom for a Power-Up display, made by Aegaeis Softscape.
There might be many versions of this now, because it was advertised to sell,
tailored to suit anyone with a name to stick in. Has no SelfTest, since that
area is replaced with custom graphics/routines for the power-up display. Based
on XE rom. Fully compatible. 
- If booted with Select, the startup screen will be skipped. If left by its
own devices, the startup screen will show for about 2.5 seconds. If  Select is
pressed in that time short time, it'll continue to show until Select is
released again.

Q-Meg V2 CRC32: 0x51939D37
- Q-Meg OS versions incorporate a Machine language monitor, support for
ramdisks, including BOOTING from them, without the need for a separate ramdisk
driver. HIO (high speed SIO for Speedy extended drives) is built in aswell.
- Compatible with the XL/XE roms for normal use. Not recommended for emulators
for all versions.
- Lower versions can adress drive 1-4 and 8, later ones can adress drive 1-8.
Configurable ramdisks with 256kB of memory can be either 2 single density
drives, 1 enhanced drive + one small x-drive, or one double density drive.
- Ramdisks may be filled from disk directly from the menu, aswell as written
to disk, including formatting. They can also be protected from being
overwritten by other software. Also Basic can be turned on/off.

Q-Meg V2.3 CRC32: 0xA1FB9BFA
Q-Meg V3.0 CRC32: 0xBE14E47E
Q-Meg V3.2 CRC32: 0x8CD48719
Q-Meg V3.8 CRC32: 0x78F2C102
Q-Meg V4.2 CRC32: 0x64CCFC53
Q-Meg V4.3 CRC32: 0xBE2442DA
Q-Meg V4.4 CRC32: 0x0547F499

Speedos CRC32: 0xA991769B
- I totally have no clue what this does, it just makes my computer crash like
there's no tomorrow. I get the feeling this has Happy extensions that my
drives just don't like, or something like that...

Supermon '85 CRC32: 0xBBD8A8BD
- All Supermon versions are based on the 800 rom, as far as I've noticed so
far.
- Machine language monitor through Select+Reset.

Supermon 2.0 CRC32: 0xFFDC4372
- This one is probably a rip off of the '86 version, as only the monitor
tagline differs.

Supermon '86 (BRD) CRC32: 0x28DD9BE4
- Same as Supermon 2.0, just gives a german header when invoking the monitor.

Supermon HTT CRC32: 0x1101FF93
- Same as Supermon '85, with different colors and charset. Modified build for
the High-Tech Team, a demo/developer group from the Netherlands.

Warpcopy CRC32: 0x21A89311
- Warp speed Happy extension included. Need extra info on this one.

Xos CRC32: 0x196C9B00
- Never found out how to get into special functions on this one yet. Need
extra info on this one.

------------------------------

Subject: 7.2) What is the ATASCII character set?

ASCII is an acronym for the American Standard Code for Information
Interchange. Pronounced ask-ee, ASCII is a code for representing English
characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127. For
example, the ASCII code for uppercase M is 77. Most computers use ASCII codes
to represent text, which makes it possible to transfer data from one computer
to another.

The 8-bit Atari computers use a modified version of the ASCII character set
called Atari ASCII, or ATASCII.

David Moeser produced this nice translation table.

        ASCII TRANSLATION TABLE -- IBM & ATARI 8-BIT (ATASCII)
        ======================================================          
             
        SECTION ONE: CONTROL CHARACTERS 
        ===============================  
          
 DECIMAL      ATARI    IBM <----> ATARI     ASCII
    -HEX  NAME KEY    GRAPHICS CHARACTER    FUNCTION
 =======  ==== ===  ======================  ========
   0  00  NUL  ^,   none        heart       Null
   1  01  SOH  ^A   smiley      |-          Start of header
   2  02  STX  ^B   [smiley]    right |     Start of text
   3  03  ETX  ^C   heart       (9:00)      End of last text
   4  04  EOT  ^D   diamond     -|          End of transmission
   5  05  ENQ  ^E   club        (9:30)      Enquiry
   6  06  ACK  ^F   spade       /           Acknowledge (handshake)
   7  07  BEL  ^G   rain dot    \           Bell
   8  08  BS   ^H   doorbell    L triangle  Backspace
   9  09  HT   ^I   o           low-R-sq.   Horizontal tab
  10  0A  LF   ^J   [doorbell]  R triangle  Line feed
  11  0B  VT   ^K   Mars        hi-R-sq.    Vertical tab
  12  0C  FF   ^L   Venus       hi-L-sq.    Form feed
  13  0D  CR   ^M   note        high bar    Carriage return
  14  0E  SO   ^N   2 notes     low bar     Shift out
  15  0F  SI   ^O   sun         low-L-sq.   Shift in
  16  10  DLE  ^P   R pennant   club        Data link escape (break)
  17  11  DC1  ^Q   L pennant   (3:30)      Device #1 (P:)
  18  12  DC2  ^R   V arrows    --          Device #2
  19  13  DC3  ^S   !!          cross       Device #3 (deselects P:)
  20  14  DC4  ^T   paragraph   cloudy      Device #4 (stop)
  21  15  NAK  ^U   section     low block   Negative acknowl. (error)
  22  16  SYN  ^V   short -     left |      Synchronous idle
  23  17  ETB  ^W   base-V-arrs.low T       End of block
  24  18  CAN  ^X   up arrow    hi perp.    Cancel memory (in buffer)
  25  19  EM   ^Y   DN arrow    left half   End medium (tape drive)
  26  1A  SUB  ^Z   R arrow     (3:00)      Substitute
  27  1B  ESC  EE   L arrow     escape      Escape
  28  1C  FS   E^-  (3:00)      up arrow    File separator
  29  1D  GS   E^=  ice needles DN arrow    Group separator
  30  1E  RS   E^+  up triangle L arrow     Record separator
  31  1F  US   E^*  DN triangle R arrow     Unit separator
  32  20  SPC  bar  space       space       Space    
     
  
        SECTION TWO: SPECIAL CHARACTERS
        ===============================
 127  7F  DEL  ETB  home plate  R pennant   Deleted
 155  9B  EOL  RETURN           box, etc.   ATASCII end of line (newline)
 13,10   CR/LF ENTER  ^M^J                  Windows,DOS,CP/M newline
 10   0A  LF   ENTER  ^J                    UNIX,Mac OS X,Amiga newline
 13   0D  CR   ENTER  ^M                    Apple II,MacOS (pre-X) newline
         
  
        KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS:
        ====================
 ^  = control key   L  = left          hi   = upper
 S  = shift key     R  = right         low  = lower
 E  = escape key    UP = points up     [  ] = inverse
 BS = backspace     DN = points down   V    = vertical
 TB = tab key       sq = square        perp = perpendicular
                    (time) = position of hands on a clockface
  
    Where possible, descriptions of graphics characters are taken 
 from standard symbols used in mathematics, weather, astronomy, etc.
 Note: Different computer platforms, operating systems, programs, 
 printers, etc. will produce different graphics characters.
  
  
        SECTION THREE: KEYBOARD CHARACTERS 
        ==================================   
           
 DECIMAL     IBM        ATARI      DECIMAL     IBM        ATARI 
    -HEX   KEY CHAR.  KEY CHAR.       -HEX   KEY CHAR.  KEY CHAR.
 =======   === ====   === ====     =======   === ====   === ====
  32  20   bar space  bar space    80  50    P     P    P     P
  33  21   S1    !    S1    !      81  51    Q     Q    Q     Q
  34  22   S'    "    S2    "      82  52    R     R    R     R
  35  23   S3    #    S3    #      83  53    S     S    S     S
  36  24   S4    $    S4    $      84  54    T     T    T     T
  37  25   S5    %    S5    %      85  55    U     U    U     U
  38  26   S7    &    S6    &      86  56    V     V    V     V
  39  27   '     '    S7    '      87  57    W     W    W     W
  40  28   S9    (    S9    (      88  58    X     X    X     X
  41  29   S0    )    S0    )      89  59    Y     Y    Y     Y
  42  2A   S8    *    *     *      90  5A    Z     Z    Z     Z
  43  2B   S=    +    +     +      91  5B    [     [    S,    [
  44  2C   ,     ,    ,     ,      92  5C    \     \    S+    \
  45  2D   -     -    -     -      93  5D    ]     ]    S.    ]
  46  2E   .     .    .     .      94  5E    S6    ^    S*    ^
  47  2F   /     /    /     /      95  5F    S-    _    S-    _
  48  30   0     0    0     0      96  60    `     `    ^.    `
  49  31   1     1    1     1      97  61    a     a    a     a
  50  32   2     2    2     2      98  62    b     b    b     b
  51  33   3     3    3     3      99  63    c     c    c     c
  52  34   4     4    4     4     100  64    d     d    d     d
  53  35   5     5    5     5     101  65    e     e    e     e
  54  36   6     6    6     6     102  66    f     f    f     f
  55  37   7     7    7     7     103  67    g     g    g     g
  56  38   8     8    8     8     104  68    h     h    h     h
  57  39   9     9    9     9     105  69    i     i    i     i
  58  3A   S;    :    S;    :     106  6A    j     j    j     j
  59  3B   ;     ;    ;     ;     107  6B    k     k    k     k
  60  3C   S,    <    <     <     108  6C    l     l    l     l
  61  3D   =     =    =     =     109  6D    m     m    m     m
  62  3E   S.    >    >     >     110  6E    n     n    n     n
  63  3F   S/    ?    S/    ?     111  6F    o     o    o     o
  64  40   S2    @    S8    @     112  70    p     p    p     p
  65  41   A     A    A     A     113  71    q     q    q     q
  66  42   B     B    B     B     114  72    r     r    r     r
  67  43   C     C    C     C     115  73    s     s    s     s
  68  44   D     D    D     D     116  74    t     t    t     t
  69  45   E     E    E     E     117  75    u     u    u     u
  70  46   F     F    F     F     118  76    v     v    v     v
  71  47   G     G    G     G     119  77    w     w    w     w
  72  48   H     H    H     H     120  78    x     x    x     x
  73  49   I     I    I     I     121  79    y     y    y     y
  74  4A   J     J    J     J     122  7A    z     z    z     z
  75  4B   K     K    K     K     123  7B    S[    {    ^;  spade
  76  4C   L     L    L     L     124  7C    S\    |    S=    |
  77  4D   M     M    M     M     125  7D    S]    }    E^< left-turn
  78  4E   N     N    N     N     126  7E    S`    ~    EBS L pennant
  79  4F   O     O    O     O     127  7F    none house ETB R pennant

A graphical ATARI / ASCII Table made by Florian Dingler is available at:
http://www.akk.org/~flo/ATASCII.pdf

------------------------------

Subject: 7.2.1) How can my program detect keypresses directly?

modified slightly from text by JB in Atari Customer Service Demopac #3, 5/82

For reading keypresses of most keys on the Atari keyboard, one can look
directly at the memory location where the keycode for the last key pressed is
stored.

To read directly from the keyboard buffer, check the value of memory location
CH (decimal 764; hex $2FC).  This location returns a keycode, rather than a
letter or ATASCII value.  The keycode is an arbitrary code which is unique for
each key.  It reflects whether SHIFT or CONTROL is pressed, and in some cases
whether SHIFT and CONTROL are both pressed.  If you use this method, you must
translate the keycode in your own program.  There is a translation table on
page 50 of the Operating System User's Manual, or you can PEEK the location
and create your own table.  This method is useful if you are simply checking
for a particular keypress, i.e. PRESS "C" TO CONTINUE.  The Atari BASIC
program code for this would be:
     10 PRINT "PRESS C TO CONTINUE"
     20 If PEEK(764)<>18 THEN GOTO 20
Checking CH, the keyboard buffer, bypasses the K: keyboard handler altogether.
A disadvantage is that you have to interpret the keycode yourself.  An
advantage is that you don't have to press RETURN, and in bypassing the
handler, you also bypass the keyboard beep.

------------------------------

Subject: 7.2.5) How is the Input/Output subsystem of the Atari OS organized?

Derived primarily from the Operating System User's Manual and De Re Atari.

The Input/Output (I/O) subsystem of the Atari Operating System (OS) comprises
a collection of software routines that allow you to access peripheral and
local devices at three different levels:  
 1) The CIO (Central I/O Utility) provides the highest level, device
    independent access to devices.
 2) Direct communication with system devices via device handlers.
 3) The lowest level is the SIO (Serial I/O bus Utility) routine.

Any lower level access to a device involves the direct reading and writing of
the hardware memory registers associated with the device.

1) CIO features:
  - The transfer of data is device independent.
  - Byte-at-a-time, multiple byte and record-aligned accesses are supported.
  - Multiple device/files can be accessed concurrently.
  - Error handling is largely device independent.
  - New device handlers can be added without altering the system ROM.
  - I/O is organized by "files," where a file is a sequential collection of
    data bytes.  Some files are synonymous with a device (e.g., a printer),
    while other devices can contain multiple files, each with a unique name
    (e.g., a disk drive).

2) Device handlers provided by the Atari OS:
  - K: Keyboard Handler
  - S: Display Handler
  - E: Screen Editor
         Uses the K: Keyboard Handler and the S: Display Handler to provide 
         "line-at-a-time" input with interactive editing functions, as well as
         formatted output.
  - C: Cassette Handler
  - P: Printer
  - Diskette Handler (not CIO-compatible)

3) The SIO bus Utility performs the following functions:
  - Control of all Serial bus I/O, conforming to the bus protocol
  - Bus operation retries on errors
  - Return of unified error statuses on error conditions
  - (The OS-resident K:, S:, and E: handlers do not use SIO.)

There are four types of I/O system control blocks, used for communications
between levels of the I/O subsystem:

1. Input/Output Control Block (IOCB)
   Eight IOCBs (0-7) in the OS are used to effect communication between user
   programs and CIO.  Each IOCB can be assigned to control any device/
   file.
   
   IOCB #0 is assigned by the OS to the E: Screen Editor at power-up and
   system reset.

   Software programming environments may reserve other IOCBs for internal
   use.  For example, Atari BASIC uses IOCB #6 to interact with the S: device
   when using graphics modes other than zero, and uses IOCB #7 for I/O with
   the printer, disk drive, and cassette.  (Patchett/Sherer,
   Master Memory Map, http://www.atariarchives.org/mmm/iocbs.php)

2. Zero-Page I/O Control Block (ZIOCB)
   Used to communicate I/O control data between CIO and the device handlers.

3. Device Control Block (DCB)
   Used by device handlers (including the OS-resident Diskette Handler) that
   require the use of I/O over the serial bus (SIO Utility).

4. Command Frame Buffer (CFB)
   Used by SIO bus Utility while performing serial bus operations.

------------------------------

Subject: 7.3) What is attract mode?

From the Atari Operating System User's Manual p. 215:

  Attract mode is a mechanism that protects the television screen from having
  patterns "burned into" the phosphors due to a fixed display being left on
  the screen for extended periods of time.  When the computer is left
  unattended for more than 9 minutes, the color intensities are limited to 50
  percent of maximum and the hues are continually varied every 8.3 seconds.
  Pressing any keyboard data key will be sufficient to remove the attract mode
  for 9 more minutes.

Laurent Delsarte contributes:

  To launch the attract mode from BASIC, use a "POKE 77,128"
  To disable the attract mode from BASIC, use a "POKE 77,0"

------------------------------

Subject: 7.4) What is Atari BASIC?

BASIC is an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
Developed by John Kemeney and Thomas Kurtz in the mid 1960s at Dartmouth
College, BASIC is one of the earliest and simplest high-level programming
languages, incorporating components of FORTRAN and ALGOL.

In October 1978 Atari contracted with Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI) to
create a version of BASIC for the upcoming Atari personal computers.  The
following worked together on the project at SMI, resulting in Atari BASIC:
  Paul Laughton    - project leader
  Kathleen O'Brien - major contributor
  Bill Wilkinson   - preliminary specifications for the language,
                     floating point scheme design
  Mike Peters      - "keypuncher, computer operator, junior programmer,
                     troubleshooter"
  Paul Krasno      - implemented the math library routines
  Bob Shepardson   - Modified IMP-16P cross-assembler to handle the syntax
                     table pseudo-operations

Revision A
----------
Atari BASIC Rev. A was produced by Atari on cartridge in mass quantities
before SMI had finished debugging it.  One place these bugs are documented is
in this article by Steve Hanson from Compute! magazine, Oct. 1981:
http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue17/171_1_DOCUMENTED_ATARI_BUGS.php

On February 25, 1981, the source code to Atari BASIC was purchased from SMI by
Optimized Systems Software (OSS), headed by former SMI employees Bill
Wilkinson and Mike Peters.

The Atari BASIC Source Book (Compute! Books, 1983, 0-942386-15-9), authored by
Bill Wilkinson, Kathleen O'Brien and Paul Laughton, made the source code to
Atari BASIC (Rev. A) available to the public.  Available:
http://users.telenet.be/kim1-6502/6502/absb.html

Revision B
----------
When the 600XL/800XL computers were released in 1983 they included a newly
debugged Atari BASIC Rev. B in ROM.  The new version was also produced on
cartridge (rare).  Unfortunately, while most existing bugs were fixed, Rev. B
introduced a new bug more serious than any of the earlier problems.  In his
article in the June 1985 issue of Compute!, Bill Wilkinson writes:
  Each time you LOAD (or CLOAD or RUN "filename") a program, rev B adds 16
  bytes to the size of your program.  If you then save the program, the next
  time you load it in it grows by _another_ 16 bytes, and so on.
  http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue61/323_1_INSIGHT_Atari.php
The problem can be alleviated by periodically, if not exclusively, using
LIST instead of SAVE or CSAVE to save your programs.

Revision C
----------
Atari BASIC Rev. C, introduced in 1984, is the final "fully debugged" version.
It is provided in ROM in late-production 800XL computers and in all Atari XE
systems, and it was also produced on cartridge (rare).

"Revision C Converter: Type-in fix for buggy BASIC revision B" by Matthew
Ratcliff was published in the September 1985 issue of Antic:
http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n5/revisioncconverter.html

Determining Revision version
----------------------------
When running Atari BASIC, memory location 43234 ($A8E2, BASIC ROM) indicates
which Revision of BASIC is running.  At the READY prompt, enter:
     ? PEEK(43234)

If the result is:  You have Revision:       Atari Part#:
     162                  A                 CO12402+CO14502 
     96                   B                 CO60302A 
     234                  C                 CO24947A 

All 3 versions of Atari BASIC may be available for download here:
http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/atari_dev.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 7.5) What is Atari DOS, and what versions did Atari release?

This FAQ section describes the various DOS versions produced by Atari for use
with their 8-bit computers: DOS I, DOS 2.0S, DOS 3, DOS 2.5, DOS XE, DOS XLE

On the Atari, a complete Disk Operating System (DOS) consists of a complex,
flexible combination of software components provided in the Atari OS on ROM
with software components loaded into RAM from disk:

  1) SIO (Serial I/O bus Utility) routine
      - Component of the Atari OS
      - Generalized low level communications with SIO bus devices, including
        disk drives
      - Utilized by the Resident Diskette Handler
      - Normally utilized by the FMS
  2) Resident Diskette Handler
      - Component of the Atari OS
      - Utilizes SIO for communications with disk drives
      - Supports just four functions:
         1. GET SECTOR 
             - Read a specified sector
         2. PUT SECTOR WITH VERIFY 
             - Write sector; check sector to see if written
         3. STATUS REQUEST 
             - Ask the disk controller for its status
         4. FORMAT 
             - Issue a format command to the disk controller
      - Except for Atari DOS I, only used to load the FMS from disk
  3) FMS (File Management System)
      - Must be loaded from disk (using the Resident Diskette Handler)
      - Normally utilizes SIO for disk drive communications
      - Except for Atari DOS I, does not utilize the Resident Diskette Handler
      - Normally provides a D: Disk File Manager device handler that is
        compatible with CIO
  4) CIO (Central Input/Output Utility) routine
      - Component of the Atari OS
      - Generalized high level, device independent access to device handlers,
        including any disk drive device handler provided by a FMS
  5) DUP (Disk Utility Package/Programs) or equivalent software program(s)
      - Optionally provided with a FMS
      - Must be loaded from disk using the FMS
      - Typically a DOS menu program, but could take any form of software
        that provides a user interface to FMS management functions
      - Normally utilizes CIO for carrying out disk management operations

In practice, those DOS components loaded into memory from disk, that is, a FMS
and any additional programs distributed with that FMS (such as a DUP), are
normally collectively described as a "DOS" on the Atari.

DOS I
-----
DISK OPERATING SYSTEM  9/24/79  COPYRIGHT 1979 ATARI
 - Developed at Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI) for Atari.  Team at SMI:
     Paul Laughton    - project leader (had earlier authored Apple DOS)
     Kathleen O'Brien - major contributor
     Mike Peters      - "keypuncher, computer operator, junior programmer,
                        troubleshooter"
     Bob Shepardson   - Modified IMP-16P cross-assembler to handle the syntax
                        table pseudo-operations
 - Shipped with 810 disk drives until 1981.
 - Disk Utility Package (DOS menu) is loaded into memory with the FMS
 - Uses the OS-resident Diskette Handler for all disk communications via SIO
 - Disk drive type supported: Atari 810
 - Disk utilization/filesystem: "DOS I"
    - 128 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to address
      the next sector
    - 40 tracks * 18 sectors/track = 720 total sectors, with 11 sectors used
      for software control or unused by the Disk File Manager.
    - Data capacity per diskette:
      709 sectors  x  125 bytes/sector  =  88,625 bytes/disk
    - Requires a 1 sector boot
    - Cannot read disks written with DOS II, which requires a 3 sector boot
    - 11 special sectors:
            1 FMS Boot record
          360 Volume Table of Contents
      361-368 File Directory
          720 unused by Disk File Manager
    - Maximum of 64 files for any volume
 - Uses binary file format unsupported by any other DOS version for the Atari
 - D: Disk File Manager can address drives up to 4, D1: through D4:
 - AUTO.SYS can be used to automatically poke data in RAM locations on
   system startup.
 - Files copied or duplicated in small buffer
 - Must redisplay menu before issuing new command
 - Can only write DOS system file to drive 1
 - Can open 3 files simultaneously (default setting)
 - N. DEFINE DEVICE menu option: "The full implementation of this selection is
   not supported, so use it with caution." --Atari DOS Reference Manual p.39
 - DOS I is not compatible with the 850 Interface Module R: device handler
 - Disk File Manager Master Copy (CX8101) disk contains:
    DOS.SYS  FMS with D: Disk File Manager, loaded by OS-resident Diskette
             Handler on system startup

DOS 2.0S
--------
DISK OPERATING SYSTEM II VERSION 2.0S  COPYRIGHT 1980 ATARI
 - FMS (DOS.SYS) developed by Paul Laughton at Shepardson Microsystems for
   Atari, based on Atari DOS I.
 - Shipped with 810 disk drives, and early 1050 disk drives, from 1981-1983.
   It also shipped with earlier CX77 Touch Tablets.
 - Disk Utility Package (DOS menu) is separate from the FMS, and optional
   for use of the FMS, freeing up memory for user programs when the DUP is not
   needed.
 - Does not use the OS-resident Diskette Handler once the FMS is loaded. 
 - Utilizes SIO for disk drive communications
 - MEM.SAV file can be employed to preserve the contents of memory to disk
   when DUP.SYS is loaded.
 - Introduces support for AUTORUN.SYS binary file launch upon system boot
   (replaces AUTO.SYS of DOS I)
 - Disk drive type supported: Atari 810
 - Disk utilization/filesystem: "DOS 2.0 Single Density"
    - 128 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to address
      the next sector
    - 40 tracks * 18 sectors/track = 720 total sectors, with 13 sectors used
      for software control or unused by the Disk File Manager.
    - Data capacity per diskette:
      707 sectors  x  125 bytes/sector  =  88,375 bytes/disk
    - Requires a 3 sector boot (provision for double density version)
    - 13 special sectors:
          1-3 FMS Boot record
          360 Volume Table of Contents
      361-368 File Directory
          720 unused by Disk File Manager
    - Maximum of 64 files for any volume
    - Backwards compatible with DOS I disk utilization/filesystem
 - Established standard binary file format supported by ALL other DOS versions
   for the Atari (exception: Atari DOS I)
 - CIO-compatible D: Disk File Manager can address drives up to 8, D1: through
   D8:
 - Files copied or duplicated into buffer which can be as large as user memory
   area
 - SAVE BINARY FILE has "/A" option allowing two files to be appended together
 - Can create load-and-go type file which enables you to select a file and
   have it automatically run without entering a RUN address
 - Diskette with bad sectors detected cannot be formatted
 - Screen margins are reset when DUP is entered
 - DUP: May enter another command or resdisplay menu after a command
 - Can write DOS files to any drive
 - Can have up to 8 files open simultaneously (default setting)
 - NOTE/POINT are available for random file access 
 - For much more about DOS II see Inside Atari DOS by Bill Wilkinson (1982)
   online at: http://www.atariarchives.org/iad/
 - Atari 810 Master Diskette II / Atari 810/1050 Master Diskette II (CX8104)
   contains:
    DOS.SYS      FMS with D: Disk File Manager, loaded by OS-resident 
                 Diskette Handler on system startup
    DUP.SYS      Disk Utility Package (DOS menu)
    AUTORUN.SYS  Loads the R: device handler from an 850 Interface Module
 - On February 25, 1981, the source code to the Atari DOS 2.0S FMS (DOS.SYS)
   was purchased from SMI by Optimized Systems Software (OSS), headed by
   former SMI employees Bill Wilkinson and Mike Peters.
 - DOS Utilities Source Listing (DOS II) (Atari# C017894, August 1981) made
   the source code to the Atari DOS 2.0S DUP (DUP.SYS) available to the
   public.  Source code version: 2.9, 11/18/80
 - Inside Atari DOS (Compute! Books, 1982, 0-942386-02-7), authored by
   Bill Wilkinson, made the source code to the Atari DOS 2.0S FMS (DOS.SYS)
   available to the public.  Available:
   http://www.atariarchives.org/iad/
 - Modified versions of DOS 2.0S were widely created and exchanged among Atari
   users.  Also notably, the first 3rd-party disk drive for the Atari, the
   Percom RFD40-S1, was initially (1982) distributed with a program that
   modifies Atari DOS 2.0S to support the double-density capability of the
   Percom drive.

DOS 3
-----
Atari DOS 3  Copyright 1983
 - Shipped with 1050 disk drives from 1983-1985.
   It also shipped with later CX77 Touch Tablets.
 - Disk drive types supported: 
    1) Atari 810
    2) Atari 1050
    3) Atari 1450XLD built-in (double sided, enhanced/dual density)
       Minimal support only: A single 1450XLD disk drive appears to DOS 3 as
       two Atari 1050 drives.  That is, side 1 is accessed as D1: and side 2
       is accessed as D2:.
 - Disk utilization/filesystems:
    1) "DOS 3 Single Density"
       - sector = 128 bytes
       - block = 8 sectors = 1024 bytes
       - track = 18 sectors = 2304 bytes
       - Disk contains 40 tracks, or 720 sectors, or 90 blocks;
         2 blocks are used for booting the system;
         1 block is used by DOS 3 for the index file
       - Data capacity per diskette:
         87 blocks  x  1024 bytes/block  =  89,088 bytes/disk
    2) "DOS 3 Double Density" (enhanced/dual density)
       - sector = 128 bytes
       - block = 8 sectors = 1024 bytes
       - track = 26 sectors = 3328 bytes
       - Disk contains 40 tracks, or 1040 sectors, or 130 blocks;
         2 blocks are used for booting the system;
         1 block is used by DOS 3 for the index file
       - Data capacity per diskette:
         127 blocks  x  1024 bytes/block  =  130,048 bytes/disk
    -- Smallest unit of disk utilization is the 1024-byte "block".
    -- Maximum disk size filesystem could support is 128K (limited by the
       index file size of 1 block)
 - Keyboard Command Processor (KCP) is separate from the FMS, and optional for
   use of the FMS, freeing up memory for user programs when the KCP DOS
   subfunctions and the DOS menu are not needed.
 - KCP Overlay (DOS menu) is separate from the FMS and KCP, and optional for
   use of the FMS and KCP, freeing up memory for user programs when the DOS
   menu is not needed.
 - MEM.SAV file can be employed to preserve the contents of memory to disk
   when the KCP Overlay (DOS menu) is loaded.
 - Supports AUTORUN.SYS binary file launch upon system boot
 - File manager and buffers now take up less space than the DOS 2 equivalents.
   All utilities, such as COPY, INIT, DUPLICATE (all UTL files) are called
   into memory only as needed.  Each is maintained in a separate file.
 - Provides a direct method for the user to modify the FMS parameters
 - Provides an online HELP feature
 - Compared to DOS 2: The NOTE and POINT commands return a pointer number
   relative to the start of a file (byte 0) rather than an absolute sector and
   byte location within the sector.
 - Master Diskette 3 (DX5052) contains:
    FMS.SYS      FMS with D: Disk File Manager, loaded by OS-resident 
                 Diskette Handler on system startup.  Contains subfunctions:
                 ERASE FILE, RENAME FILE, PROTECT FILE, UNPROTECT FILE, LOAD
    KCP.SYS      Keyboard Command Processor, loaded on system startup if a
                 cartridge is present.  Contains subfunctions: SAVE,
                 GO AT HEX ADDRESS, TO CARTRIDGE, COPY FILE, INIT DISK,
                 DUPLICATE DISK, ACCESS DOS 2
    KCPOVER.SYS  KCP Overlay, displays the DOS menu and process commands
    COPY.UTL     COPY/APPEND utility
    DUPDISK.UTL  DUPLICATE utility
    INIT.UTL     INIT Disk utility
    CONVERT.UTL  ACCESS DOS 2 utility, use to copy files from a DOS 2.0S disk
                 to a DOS 3 disk
    HELP.UTL     HELP utility
    HELP.TXT     Text information displayed by the HELP utility
    HANDLERS.SYS Loads the R: handler from an Atari 850 Interface Module
                 during system boot up, if this file is on the drive 1
                 diskette.
 - DOS 3 Anomalies (Atari DOS 3 Reference Manual Errata 05/01/84) -
   Early versions of DOS 3 used a random access method that was incompatible
   with large files.  To determine if you have an early version, boot your
   copy of DOS 3 with Atari BASIC, and execute the following BASIC command: 
            PRINT PEEK(1816)
   If the value returned is '53', your copy of DOS 3 is the latest released.
   If the value returned is '51' or '56', Atari Customer Relations offered a
   program to update DOS 3 to the latest revision level.

DOS 2.5
-------
DISK OPERATING SYSTEM II VERSION 2.5  COPYRIGHT 1984 ATARI CORP.
 - Shipped with 1050 disk drives and early XF551 disk drives from 1985-1988
 - Disk drive types supported: 
    1) Atari 810
    2) Atari 1050
    3) Atari 130XE RAMdisk (65,408 bytes)
 - Disk utilization/filesystems supported (detected automatically):
    1) DOS 2.0 Single Density
    2) "DOS 2.5 Enhanced Density" (or just "DOS 2.5")
        - 128 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to address
          the next sector
        - 40 tracks * 26 sectors/track = 1040 total sectors, with 30 sectors
          used for software control or unused by the Disk File Manager.
        - Data capacity per diskette:
          1010 sectors  x  125 bytes/sector  =  126,250 bytes/disk
        - 30 special sectors:
                1-3 FMS Boot record
                360 Volume Table of Contents
            361-368 File Directory
                720 unused by Disk File Manager
               1024 Extended Volume Table of Contents
          1025-1040 unused by Disk File Manager
        - Maximum of 64 files for any volume
        - Backwards-compatible with DOS 2.0 Single Density
    3) "DOS 2.5 130XE RAMdisk"
        - 128 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to address
          the next sector
        - 511 total sectors, with 12 sectors used for software control
        - Data capacity per diskette:
          499 sectors  x  125 bytes/sector  =  62,375 bytes/disk
        - 12 special sectors:
               1-3 FMS Boot record
               360 Volume Table of Contents
           361-368 File Directory
        - Maximum of 64 files for any volume
        - Backwards-compatible with DOS 2.0 Single Density
 - DOS 2.5 (DX5075) disk contains:
    DOS.SYS      FMS with D: Disk File Manager, loaded by OS-resident 
                 Diskette Handler on system startup
    DUP.SYS      Disk Utility Package (DOS menu)
    RAMDISK.COM  If present on startup disk on an XL/XE with 128K RAM or more:
                  1) Displays a message that it is initializing the RAMdisk
                  2) Sets up a 64K RAMdisk as D8:
                  3) Copies DUP.SYS to D8: and establishes MEM.SAV on D8:
    SETUP.COM    External utility has 3 functional options:
                  1) Change current drive number
                  2) Change system configuration.  3 configurable options:
                     i) Active drives numbers (1 to 4)
                     ii) Max number of simultaneous files (1-7)
                     iii) Disk writes with or without verify
                  3) Create an AUTORUN.SYS that does either one or both of:
                     - Load the R: handler from an Atari 850 Interface Module
                     - Load and RUN a BASIC program from the boot disk
    COPY32.COM   Utility to copy files from a DOS 3 disk to a DOS 2.5 or to a
                 DOS 2.0S disk
    DISKFIX.COM  DiskFix Utility can be used to:
                  - Unerase a file (under certain circumstances)
                  - Verify the soundness of every file on a disk
                  - Rename a file by number (solves problem of files with
                    duplicate names)
DOS XE
------
DOS XE DISK OPERATING SYSTEM  COPYRIGHT 1988 ATARI CORP.  VERSION 01.00
 - Shipped with XF551 disk drives after 1988; also sold separately
 - Developed by Bill Wilkinson for Atari.  Known as "ADOS" prior to release
 - Requires an XL/XE; does not run on the 400/800
 - Disk Utility Package (DOS menu) is loaded into memory with the FMS
 - Disk drive types supported: 
    1) Atari 810
    2) Atari 1050
    3) Atari XF551
    4) Atari 130XE RAMdisk (64K)
    5) SSDD 5.25" Single Sided, Double Density
 - Disk utilization/filesystems:
    1) "DOS XE" via the native D: Disk File Manager:
        - All disks are addressed in 256 byte sectors.  Simulates 256 byte
          sectors on 810 and 1050 disk drives, which have 128 byte sectors,
          by reading and writing sector pairs.
        - Filesystem could handle disk drives up to 64K sectors = 16 MB
          (64K x 256 bytes = 16 Megabytes)
        - Sector labels feature data, including a randomly-generated two-byte
          volume number, useful for restoring damaged files
        - Five different types of sectors:
           1) Boot sectors
               - 3 sectors, always disk sectors 1-3
               - Contain a 32 byte Drive Table describing the physical and
                 logical layout of the disk.  RAM disk has no boot sectors.
           2) Volume Table of Contents (VTOC) sector(s)
               - Starts in sector 4.  Contained entirely in sector 4 for
                 supported drive types
           3) Directory sectors
              The first directory block immediately follows the VTOC sectors.
              Additional directory blocks are allocated as needed and may be
              scattered throughout the disk.  (linked by pointers)
           4) File Map sectors
              2-bytes long, holding pointers to the data blocks
           5) Data sectors
        - Subdirectories
        - Date-stamping of files
        - Files can be up to 8 Megabytes long.
    2) DOS 2.0 Single Density via the optional DOS 2.x A: Disk File Manager
    3) DOS 2.5 Enhanced Density via the optional DOS 2.x A: Disk File Manager
 - Disk File Managers can address drives up to 8 (D1: to D8:, A1 to A8:).
 - Hybrid interface is both menu driven and command driven, including stacked
   command entry
 - Batch files can be used to automate tasks
 - DOS XE Master Diskette (DX5090) contains:
    DOSXE.SYS     FMS with D: Disk File Manager, loaded by OS-resident 
                  Diskette Handler on system startup
    DOS2.SYS      A: Disk File Manager for DOS 2.x filesystem support
    SETUP.COM     External setup utility.  Configures:
                   - The number and type of drives
                   - The number of file buffers
                   - Installation of the 130XE RAMdisk
                   - Whether the RS-232 handler should be loaded automatically
                     on system startup
                   - Whether a BASIC program should be run automatically
                     on system startup
    RDRIVER.SYS   Used by DOS XE to load R: handler from 850 interface
    COPY3_XE.COM  DOS 3 to DOS XE copy program
    WELCOME.BAS   Sample program provided for experimentation with SETUP.COM

DOS XLE
-------
DOS II Version XLE ("DOS XLE") (P) 1990 Atari (Germany)
  Andreas Koch writes (January 2010):
   "programmed by Reitershan in 1990 (as requested by Atari Deutschland then
   for the XF551 drive), it is not only similar, but fully compatible to
   Turbo-DOS XL/XE (also by Reitershan).  It uses the well-familiar DOS 2.5
   DUP-menu, with a few enhancements, like e.g. 1-8 for Dir. of drive 1-8,
   formats 90k-360k and ramdisks up to 256k; there is even an option (P) to
   switch back to standard DOS 2.5; this DOS has been written with the source-
   code of DOS 2.5 (made available for Reitershan by Atari Deutschland), so it
   is as compatible as possible to DOS 2.5 but still offers some enhancements;
   luckily all Turbo-DOS XL/XE utilities can be used with this DOS (e.g. the
   Ramdisk-driver from Turbo-DOS!);

------------------------------

Subject: 7.6.1) What are RealDOS, SpartaDOS X, and XDOS?

The continuing development of various modern mass storage options for the
8-bit Atari computers has necessitated ongoing development of supporting
disk operating systems.  This section describes full-featured disk operating
systems (DOS) for the Atari that remain actively developed today.

RealDOS
=======
RealDOS Ver 1.0a   12-Feb-10         Copyright (C) 2010 by ILS, Inc.
- also written: Real.DOS
- Shareware from Integrated Logic Systems (ILS, Stephen J. Carden)
- 64K RAM required.
- Disk utilization/filesystems:
   - RealDos uses the CLASSIC ICD SpartaDOS file system.
- RealDos contains both the mux and non mux sio.  
  This dos will realize how it is being called and will load the proper siov  
  handler for your needs.  RealDos will cofigure itself by detecting your  
  hardware configuration.
- RealDOS was written to fully utilize the Black Box (all Versions), ICD Mio,
  Ken Jones Mio, KPI interface, Supra Interface, IDEa, SIO2PC, Ape Register
  Version, SIO2SD and the Multiplexer.
- RealDos was also designed to work with the Atari800win emulator.
- RealDos does not support at this time the cart version of the MYIDE product.
Old version/Release history:
  RealDOS (or Real.DOS) shares its development heritage with disk-based
  SpartaDOS version 3.2c from ICD (which is described elsewhere in this FAQ
  list).  The features and capabilities of RealDOS may thus be further
  described in terms of changes and improvements made since ICD SpartaDOS
  3.2c...
   (NOTE: Prior to Real.Dos Build 0026, distribution of RealDOS was private.
    Exception: the Video 61 SpartaDOS 3.3C cartridge described below.)
-- SpartaDOS Ver 3.2p "30-Jan-86  Copyright (C) 1986 by ICD, Inc."
     o Support for the Multiplexer ("MUX") from Computer Software Services
       (CSS) in the form of a MUX-specific SIOV
     o Being based on SpartaDOS 3.2c, does not have the open file/directory
       bug/error found in later official SpartaDOS versions (3.2d, 3.2f, 3.2g,
       3.2gx), a problem known to be capable of trashing a hard drive
     o What was privately distributed as SpartaDOS 3.2p was initially
       developed from SpartaDOS 3.2c source code that was privately shared by
       ICD.  During the development process all new/modified sources were
       lost, so new sources were then reverse-engineered (by Ken Ames for
       Steve Carden) from surviving working executables and from memory,
       leading finally to SpartaDOS 3.2p.
     o Date of distribution unknown -- unreflected in the Version info
-- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3a  3-Nov-94  "Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe"
     o Support for a Drive 9
     o MS-DOS work-alike command set
-- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3b 25-Dec-95  "(S)hareware  1995 by IFYB, Inc."
     o Same as 3.3a but includes the Sparta High Speed SIOV (for US Doubler &
       compatible) instead of the MUX SIOV as in 3.3a.
-- SpartaDOS Pro Ver 3.3c 19-Dec-97  "(S)hareware  1997 by IFYB, Inc."
     o Same as 3.3a or 3.3b, but includes both SIOV versions, auto-selected
       based on hardware detected
-- Sparta DOS 3.3C  "(c) 1998 Video 61"
     o Same as Ver 3.3c 19-Dec-97 but modified by Video 61 to operate from a
       16K ROM cartridge.  Available commercially: http://www.atarisales.com/
     o According to Lance Ringquist of Video 61:
       K-Products (Bob Klaas) contracted with FTe (Mike Hohman) to develop
       SpartaDOS Pro 3.3 for exclusive use and distribution with K-Products'
       BBS Express! Pro.  When Video 61 purchased all rights associated with
       BBS Express! Pro from K-Products, the rights to SpartaDOS Pro 3.3
       were included.
     o According to Stephen Carden:
       The SpartaDOS Pro 3.3 versions were developed privately as hacks to
       ICD SpartaDOS 3.2c, the rights to which remain with FTe to this day.
-- SpartaDOS Ver 3.3d  1-Jan-98  "(S)hareware  1998 by IFYB, Inc."
     o Same as 3.3c, but further debugged for use with the ICD MIO
-- Real.dos Build 0003  10/21/2002 sjc 
     o added NTSC/PAL Control 
     o added KPI detection 
     o cleanup of lables 
-- Real.dos Build 0004  10/22/2002 sjc 
-- Real.dos Build 0005  10/27/2002 sjc  
     o Deciphered all the look up tables 
-- Real.dos Build 0006  10/30/2002 sjc 
-- Real.dos Build 0007  11/03/2002 sjc  
     o Changed some zpage definiation 
-- Real.dos Build 0008  06/08/2003 
     o Jeff Williams added Documentation to file. 
-- Real.dos Build 0009  07/28/2003 sjc 
-- Real.dos Build 0010  04/16/2004 sjc  
     o added some stuff for the bbs ack 
-- Real.dos Build 0011  12/28/2004 sjc 
-- Real.dos Build 0012   2/16/2005 sjc  
     o Fixing bugs                 
-- Real.dos Build 0013   2/17/2005 SJC  
     o Added APE Detection 
-- Real.dos Build 0014   7/01/2005 sjc  
     o Fixed a mio bug 
-- Real.dos Build 0015   8/07/2005 sjc  
     o Put a mux override need to use the Select key 
-- Real.dos Build 0016   8/22/2005 sjc  
     o Added some code not to lock up kpi 
-- Real.dos Build 0017  11/19/2005 sjc  
     o corrected a date problem 
-- Real.dos Build 0018  01/11/2006 sjc  
     o added ape warp + and My ide detection 
-- Real.dos Build 0019  02/18/2006 sjc  
     o added detection for IDE interface 4.1 and changed default 
-- Real.dos Build 0020  02/20/2006 sjc  
     o ciov handler to none high speed 
-- Real.dos Build 0021  03/03/2006 sjc  
     o Starting to convert to xasm..  got a lot to map out 
-- Real.dos Build 0022  03/31/2006 sjc  
     o Resolving a few parms and doing cleanup.  Has bugs. 
-- Real.dos Build 0023  09/30/2006 sjc  
     o Resolving a few parms and cleanup with support for pbi,mux,my-ide                                                     
-- Real.dos Build 0024  10/02/2006 sjc  
     o Trying to get a bit of memlow back added SIOV menu 
-- Real.dos Build 0025  01/04/2009 sjc  
     o Fixing bugs 
-- Real.dos Build 0026  02/12/2010 sjc  
     o put a switch function for upcase and unify 
Available:
 -  http://www.tcpipexpress.com/
 -  telnet tcpipexpress.com Port 8888 or 8889
 -  http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/158254-realdos-is-shareware/

SpartaDOS X
===========
SpartaDOS X 4.42 (25 Dec. 2008)
- Often abbreviated: SDX
- A 128K ROM cartridge (v.4.40+ ; earlier versions 64K)
  Can be hosted on the following hardware:
   - intSDX128
   - intSDX128 "flash"
   - upgraded SpartaDOS X cartridge from ICD
   - SDX 128 "flash" cartridge
   - AtraX SDX 128 cartridge
   - Atarimax Maxflash 1Mb
   - Atarimax Maxflash 8Mb
   - Turbo Freezer 2005
- Proprietary kernal does not rely on the Central Input/Output (CIO)
  portion of the Atari OS to communicate with devices.  Standard Atari CIO
  communcation is also supported for full software compatibility.)
- Disk utilization/filesystems:
   1) SpartaDOS
   2) Atari DOS 2
       - Can read MYDOS subdirectories
         (but cannot create, delete, or set working MYDOS subdirectories)
       - Can read extended sectors of DOS 2.5 (but cannot write to them)
   - Filesystems explicitely NOT supported include:
       - Atari DOS 3, Atari DOS XE, OSS OS/A+ Version 4
- Support for up to 15 disk drives (v. 4.40+)
- Supports subdirectories:
   - Up to 1423 entries of files and other subdirectories per directory 
- Supports disk sectors of 128, 256 and 512 bytes (v.4.40+) per sector
- Supports disks formats of up to 65535 logical sectors
- Maximum total disk size of 32 MB (v.4.40+ ; 16 MB in earlier versions)
- Support for up to 16 open files at the same time
- Supports high speed disk I/O with US Doubler, Atari XF551, and Indus GT
  Synchromesh.
- No source code in common with any version of disk-based SpartaDOS or
  RealDOS.
Old versions/release history:
  SpartaDOS X was originally developed by Mike Gustafson for ICD.  
  ICD SpartaDOS X release history: (version numbering started with 4.0)
   - SpartaDOS X 4.17 ??-??-88
   - SpartaDOS X 4.18 10-29-88 
   - SpartaDOS X 4.19 1-16-89
   - SpartaDOS X 4.20 2-06-89
   - SpartaDOS X 4.21 7-10-89
  The rights to SpartaDOS X were purchased from ICD by Fine Tooned Engineering
  (FTe, Mike Hohman) in 1993 (November?).
  FTe SpartaDOS X release history:
   - SpartaDOS X 4.22 11-05-95
  A group of SpartaDOS X enthusiasts calling themselves DLT Ltd. have taken it
  upon themselves to carry the development of SDX forward.
  DLT SpartaDOS X release history:
   - SpartaDOS X 4.39RC (1 Oct. 2006)
   - SpartaDOS X 4.41 (8 Feb. 2008)
   - SpartaDOS X 4.42 (25 Dec. 2008)
Available: http://sdx.atari8.info/

XDOS
====
XDOS 2.43 (c) 2009 by Stefan Dorndorf
 - "Extended Disk Operating System"
 - A compact yet more capable alternative to Atari DOS 2.5
 - Two versions: 
    1) XDOS 2.4N supports all standard ATARI drives (810, 1050, XF551), and
       supports XF551 and Hyper-XF high speed input/output. 
    2) XDOS 2.4F adds high speed input/output with: 
       SIO2USB, SIO2SD, Speedy 1050, Happy 1050, Turbo 1050
 - Disk utilization/filesystems:
    1) DOS 1 (not append)
    2) DOS 2.0
    3) DOS 2.5
    4) DOS 2.2/2.3 (931 sectors format)
    5) DOS XL
    6) (Happy) DOS II + / D (All versions)
    7) BIBO-DOS (except Quad-format)
    8) Turbo-DOS (except Quad-format)
    9) MyDOS (except sub-directories, disks with more than 1040 sectors, and
       append to MyDOS files)
 - RAM disks: 14KB-256KB
 - Command driven
 - Can use batch files
 - D: Disk File Manager supports D1: through D9:
 - H: device of Atari800Win emulator is supported
Old versions:
 - Happy-Computer DOS II+/D V:4.5M  Copyright 1985 by Stefan Dorndorf
    - Commonly known as "Happy-DOS"
    - Published in issue 3/1986 of Happy Computer magazine
 - DOS II+/D - Version 6.1  Copyright 1987 by Stefan Dorndorf
 - DOS II+/D - Version 6.4 (c) '87 by S.D.
 - XDOS 2.3 (p) 1990 S.Dorndorf
    - Adds DOS 2.5/MYDOS enhanced density compatibility
Available: http://std.gmxhome.de/atari/system.atr
Documentation: http://std.gmxhome.de/atari/xdos24.pdf

------------------------------

Subject: 7.6.2) What are MyPicoDOS and Micro-SpartaDOS?

A "miniature DOS" / "gameDOS" / "microDOS" is a DOS version that is designed
to provide minimal capabilities.  Typically, this type of DOS makes the disk
bootable, and supports the launching of files on the disk.  This section 
describes current miniature DOS versions for the Atari.

MyPicoDos
=========
MyPicoDos 4.05 (C) 1992-2010 by Matthias Reichl
A "game-DOS" for DOS 2.x/MyDOS compatible disks with the following features:
    - It supports loading of COM/EXE, BIN (boot image) and BAS files.
    - It works with single and double density (hard-) disks from
      720 up to 65535 sectors.
    - Drives D1: to D8: can be accessed.
    - It supports MyDOS style subdirectories.
    - It supports Bibo-Dos style long directories (128 files per disk).
    - It supports XF551 format detection.
    - Builtin highspeed SIO code: compatible with ultra speed (Happy, Speedy,
      AtariSIO/SIO2PC/APE/...), Happy 810 Warp Speed, XF551 and Turbo 1050,
      up to 126 kbit/sec (Pokey divisor 0)
    - It supports displaying long filenames and a disk/directory title.
    - On XL/XE-type computers MyPicoDos can automatically switch basic on
      when loading a basic program, and switch basic off when
      loading a COM/EXE/BIN file.
    - Joystick support: either use arrow keys or a joystick to select
      the file.
    - Optional builtin atariserver (AtariSIO) remote console.
    - Separate "barebone" version without highspeed SIO support and
      remote console support (for those who want to save space)
    - Separate boot-sector-only version "PicoBoot" supporting a single
      COM file on a disk
    - Separate "SDrive" version which configures the SDrive to use
      110 or 126 kbit/sec transfer speed.
Old versions/Changelog:
  MyPicoDos V2.1 1992-03-15
    - Only supports DD disks with more than 1023 sectors!
  MyPicoDos V3.0 2003-02-23
    - Initial GPL release.
    - Support for 128-bytes-per-sector disks.
    - Support for disks smaller than 1024 sectors.
  MyPicoDos V3.1
    - Rewrote density-check code to fix XF551 density recognition bug.
    - Fixed manual density selection code.
    - Added drive number selection to MyPicoDos initializer program.
    - Fixed old-OS bug in initializer program.
    - Added support for "large" Bibo-Dos directories (128 Files).
    - Fixed DOS2.5-format file display bug.
  MyPicoDos V4.0
    - Added support for long filenames in PICONAME.TXT.
    - Many changes in the internal structure to lower the
      memory usage of the BAS and COM loader.
    - Created separate "highspeed" and "standard SIO" versions.
      The highspeed version now contains a built-in Happy/Speedy/
      AtariSIO/SIO2PC/APE/... - compatible highspeed-SIO routine
    - Added long filename editor to init-program with support to
      read existing long names and with an option to alphabetically
      sort the long filenames,
    - "PICODOS.SYS" and "PICONAME.TXT" are excluded from the
      directory listings.
    - Internal basic can be automatically switched off when loading
      COM/EXE/BIN files, and switched on when loading BAS files.
    - Added "smart" highspeed mode: the built in highspeed code is
      automatically disabled in case a drive doesn't support
      highspeed SIO.
    - Used memory is now fully cleared before loading a file.
    - Fixed system crash with some Basic programs.
    - Fixed XF551 boot problems with QD disks.
   MyPicoDos V4.01 2004-10-28
    - Bugfix: Write protected directories were not displayed.
    - Pressing reset will now result in a cold-start instead of
      activating the selftest/memopad.
   MyPicoDos V4.02 2004-11-02
    - Fixed corrupted screen in standard SIO version.
   MyPicoDos V4.03 2005-03-01
    - Added joystick support.
    - Bugfix: Fixed KMK/JZ IDE interface problems in initializer program.
   MyPicoDos V4.04 2007-08-11
    - Added support for Turbo 1050, XF551 and 810 Happy highspeed SIO
    - Added atariserver remote console support
    - Fixed MyIDE density recognition problems
    - New "standalone" .COM version of MyPicoDos (can be loaded from DOS)
    - In AUTO disk format mode the file status bit 2 is used to activate
      16-bit sector links
    - APE PC-Mirror subdirectories are now handeled properly
    - Changed screen layout so that the file display is 15 instead of 12
      lines, added arrow indicators if more files are available by
      scrolling up/down
    - Major code cleanup to reduce the size of MyPicoDos
    - Added configurable "autorun" feature: if enabled and only one
      file is present, it will be loaded automatically
    - Added "barebone" version without highspeed SIO and remote console
   MyPicoDos V4.05 2010-11-25
    - Added boot-sector-only version "PicoBoot"
    - Updated highspeed SIO code to latest version (1.30)
    - Added option to enable highspeed SIO while booting MyPicoDos
    - Added fallback to OS SIO in case of highspeed SIO errors while
      booting MyPicoDos
    - Added SDrive version

MyPicoDOS is developed by Matthias 'Hias' Reichl.
Available: http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/

Micro-SpartaDOS
===============
Micro-SpartaDOS 4.5 (MSDOS.COM), 2010-06-12
 - By Jiri Bernasek - BEWESOFT, Continued by Pecus & Pirx
 - Disk allocation/filesystem:
    - SpartaDOS
    - Maximum number of directories entries is only limited by available RAM
Old versions/Changelog:
  MSDOS22.COM - original BEWESOFT version
    - by Jiri Bernasek - BEWESOFT (Prague, 93-05-03)
    - Version 2.2 supports also a high speed SIO for Speedy 1050, XF551 and
      the HDI.
Pecus & Pirx modifications:
  MSINI2.COM  - Pecus & Pirx variation on the menu editor.
  MSDOS23.COM - Pecus modified version with milti disc operation.
              - Keys 1-8 - select working drive and read the main directory.
  MSDOS30.COM - This version supports XF551 drives with HS, Happy Warp/
                US-Doubler drives with High Speed, and Speedy HS (only in
                US-Doubler mode).
              - Version 3.x+ are compatible with the SIO2IDE interface - 
  MSDOS43.COM - Warsaw, 2010-05-26
              - Version 4.3 of MSDOS is a serious rewrite, done primarily by
                Pecus.  It uses a novel approach to mapping index sectors. 
              - Version 4.3 supports quadruple sectors (512 bytes long);
                expands the available partition size to 32MB.
              - Version 4.3 contains only the most popular Happy / UltraSpeed
                routines. 
              - Holding [SHIFT] during booting turns off HS I/O entirely.
              - This version detects BASIC and QMEG. With QMEG the High Speed
                I/O is turned off as QMEG handles HS I/O by itself.
  MSDOS45.COM - Warsaw, 2010-06-12
              - Several bug fixes
              - Screen colors and TURBO mode configurable per directory.
              - Supports drives 1-15.
Available: 
http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/164418-microspartados-45-release/

------------------------------

Subject: 7.6.3) What other 3rd-party DOS versions were released for the Atari?

This section attempts to list all released 3rd-party "full-featured" DOS
versions, beyond RealDOS, SpartaDOS X, and XDOS (which are described in
another section of this FAQ list).

This list is presented in chronological order by date of first (known)
release.

OSS OS/A+  -  ATARI version 1.2  Copyright (C) 1981   OSS
OSS OS/A+  -  ATARI version 1.2e  Copyright (C) 1981   OSS
OSS OS/A+  -  ATARI version 2.00  Copyright (C) 1982   OSS,Inc.
OS/A+ version 2.1 (1982-1983) (MC is still looking for a copy of this ver.)
OSS OS/A+  -  ATARI version 4.10  Copyright (C) 1982   OSS
OSS DOS XL -  ATARI version 2.20  Copyright (C) 1983   OSS,Inc.
OSS DOS XL -  ATARI version 2.30  Copyright (C) 1983   OSS,Inc.
OSS DOS XL -  ATARI version 2.35I1  Copyright (C) 1983   OSS,Inc. (1984)
OSS DOS XL -  ATARI version 2.35I2  Copyright (C) 1983   OSS,Inc. (1984)
FTe DOS XL -  ATARI version 2.30  Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe (6/22/94)
---------------------------------
 - Developed by Optimized Systems Software (OSS)
 - Direct successors to Atari DOS 2.0S, from the developers of Atari DOS I and
   Atari DOS II.
   Original version of the Console Processor and the original version
   ("version 2") of the File Manager System (identical with Atari's DOS 2.0S)
   were written by Paul Laughton.  Other portions primarily by Mark Rose, with
   collaboration of Bill Wilkinson and Mike Peters.
 - Command line driven, with optional menu available
 - Versions 1.x
    - Disk drive type supported: Atari 810
    - Disk allocation/filesystem: Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density
 - Versions 2.x
    - Disk drive types supported: 
       1) Atari 810
       2) SSDD 5.25" Single Sided, Double Density
    - Disk allocation/filesystems:
       1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density
       2) "Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density"
           - Format developed with Atari & Percom for Atari 815 and Percom 
             single sided, double density disk drives
           - 256 total bytes/sector, with 3 bytes of each sector used to
             address the next sector.  Exception: sectors 1-3 are single
             density, 128 bytes/sector.
           - 40 tracks * 18 sectors/track = 720 total sectors, with 13
             sectors used for software control or unused by the Disk File
             Manager.
           - Data capacity per diskette:
             707 sectors  x  253 bytes/sector  =  178,871 bytes/disk
           - 13 special sectors:
               1-3 FMS Boot record (single density sectors, 128 bytes/sector)
               360 Volume Table of Contents
               361-368 File Directory
               720 unused by Disk File Manager
           - Maximum of 64 files for any volume (same as DOS 2.0S)
    - Supports any mixture of up to 8 single and/or double density disk drives
    - No smart density switching.  Drive 1 acquires the density of the booted
      master disk.  DOS XL automatically asks each drive what density it is
      during the boot process.  From then on, may use the CONFIG command to
      manually change a disk drive's density.
    - Versions 2.35I1 and 2.35I2 are 2.30 plus the Indus GT Synchromesh
      Engager, Copyright (C)(P) 1984, Indus Systems.
    - Sold with some of the most common 3rd party disk drives for
      the Atari, including: Percom, Indus, Astra, Amdek
 - Versions 4.x 
    - Requires minimum of 32K RAM to run
    - Disk allocation/filesystem:
       - Random access to data files
       - Disks with 128, 256, or 512 bytes per sector
       - Drives ranging in storage size from 128K bytes to 32 Megabytes
    - Associated with Percom double sided double density drives, the ATR8000
      by Software Publishers, Inc. (later known as SWP), and with the Amdek
      Amdisk III drives.
 - Rights purchased from OSS by ICD in January 1988
   (but ICD discontinued DOS XL in favor of their own SpartaDOS)
 - Rights purchased from ICD by Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe) in 1993

K-DOS By K-Byte  Copyright 1981 Kay Enterprises Co.
---------------------------------------------------
 - by Kay Enterprises Co. (John Mathies, K-Byte general manager)
   (the makers of K-Razy Shoot-Out and K-Razy Kritters)
 - Disk drive types supported: Atari 810
 - Disk allocation/filesystem: Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density
 - Command line driven
 - Memory resident

DOS-MOD (1983)
(c) 1984 R.K.Bennett TOP-DOS v1.1
(c) 1984 R.K.Bennett TOP-DOS v1.20
TOP-DOS 1.4 (1984)
TOP-DOS 1.5  (c) 1985 R.K.Bennett
TOP-DOS 1.5a (c) 1985 R.K.Bennett
TOP DOS 1.5 Plus (1986)
TOP DOS Professional (1986)
---------------------------
 - Developed by R.K. Bennett for Sunny Software / Eclipse Software 
 - Sold commercially by Sunny Software (original DOS-MOD release) or
   Eclipse Software (later DOS-MOD release and all releases of TOP-DOS)
 - DOS-MOD: Enhances Atari DOS 2.0S
    o Menu-driven, Full screen use
    o Command files
    o Expanded wildcard capability
    o Fixes 11 bugs in DOS 2.0S
    o Single and Double Density versions
    o DD version supports HELLO command file option on startup
    o DD version supports cartridge-bypass feature on startup
    o DD version can also run in the SD mode
 - TOP-DOS: Standalone product, includes all the features of DOS-MOD
    o Uses Atari DOS 2 single and double density filesystems, or 
      proprietary variations on the DOS 2 filesystem.  The TOP-DOS unique
      filesystem is not supported by any other DOS for the Atari.
    o 1 to 8 disk drives
    o alphabetization and compression of the disk directory
    o drive support: 5.25": SD, DD, DSDD. 8": DD
    o specify the number of sectors desired, up to 944 per side in single
      density and up to 1968 in double density
    o Reformat only the VTOC, on a previously formatted disk
    o RAMdisk support: Axlon and Mosaic 64 boards
 - TOP-DOS 1.5:
    o RAMdisk support: 130XE Extended
    o 1050 Enhanced Density Support
    o "WISE" Density Control
    o High Speed Data Transfer (Happy Warp Speed support)
    o Improved Status Display
    o Hex-Decimal Conversion
    o 90K buffer for one-pass disk duplication
    o Four-level command file nesting
    o Ad: Antic v4n9 Jan86 p.44
 - TOP DOS 1.5 Plus:
    o Allows multiple RAM disks, SD or DD
    o Accesses Atari DOS 2.5 files
    o Supports other RAM boards
    o New sector number display and tone control 
    o Better warp speed and group autorun control
    o BASIC enable/disable for XE/XL with built-in BASIC
 - TOP DOS Professional:
    o Up to 16 Megabyte disk capacity
    o Sub-directories
    o Sector read, write & compare
    o File compare
 - 1.5 Plus / Professional ad: Antic v5n2 Jun86 p.27
 - Apparently released into the public domain, approximately 2005:
   http://www.abbuc.de/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=420

MYDOS 3.07 -- copyright 1983,WORDMARK (August 16, 1983)
MYDOS 3.08 -- copyright 1983,WORDMARK
MYDOS 3.010 - copyright 1983,WORDMARK
MYDOS 3.12 -- copyright 1983,WORDMARK ATR8000 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett
MYDOS 3.013 - copyright 1984,WORDMARK
MYDOS 3.18 -- copyright 1984,WORDMARK ATR8000 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett
MYDOS 3.014 - copyright 1985,WORDMARK (February 18, 1985)
MYDOS 3.19 -- copyright 1985,WORDMARK ATR8000 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett
MYDOS 3.016 - copyright 1985,WORDMARK
MYDOS 3.216 - copyright 1985,WORDMARK ATR8500 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett
MYDOS 3.216A--copyright 1986,WORDMARK ATR8500 RS232 Version, by C. Marslett
MYDOS 4.2C -- copyright 1985,WORDMARK
MYDOS 4.3B -- copyright 1986,WORDMARK
MYDOS 4.50 -- Copyright 1988,WORDMARK (11/28/88 release from Bob Puff)
MYDOS 4.50T - Copyright 1988,WORDMARK
MYDOS 4.51 -- copyright 1989,WORDMARK (6/14/89)
MyDOS 4.53/3 and 4.53/4 (David R. Eichel rel.ver.1/1/90)
MyDOS 4.55 Beta (Lee Barnes March 17, 2003)
-----------------------
 - Primarily developed by Charles W. Marslett
 - Menu driven, modelled after Atari DOS 2
 - Uses Atari DOS 2 single and double density file systems, with added support
   for smart density changing, subdirectories, and higher capacity floppy and
   hard disk drives.
 - Versions 3.x variations:
    - 3.0x are the main releases
    - 3.1x are for use with the SWP ATR8000
    - 3.2x are for use with the SWP ATR8500
 - Versions 4.x have full read compatibility with the Atari DOS 2.5 format,
   but will only write to the first 720 sectors of the disk.  (MYDOS has its
   own format for enhanced density disks that allows full access.)
 - Bob Puff/Computer Software Services offers version 4.50:
   http://www.nleaudio.com/css/files/MYDOS45M.ARC
 - Charles Marslett/Wordmark Systems makes version 4.51 source code available:
   http://www.wordmark.org/mydos.html
 - MyDOS 4.53 was released by David R. Eichel on 1/1/90, making minor changes
   from the released 4.50 and 4.51 source code.
    - Supports multiple AUTORUNs at boot up (*.AR0 through *.AR9).
      (Support for the traditional AUTORUN.SYS is removed.)
    - Fixes broken Axlon RAMdisk support
    - Version 4.53/3 gives 3 character file length/free sector count instead
      of MyDOS's normal 4. 
    - Version 4.53/4 is the same as 4.53/3, but uses a minimum of four
      characters in the sector count just like most versions of MyDOS.
 - More recent work on MyDOS by Lee Barnes is available, along with many
   earlier MYDOS versions, from Mathy van Nisselroy's MyDOS page:
   http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/mydos.htm

DOS 4.0 (1984)
--------------
 - Developed at Atari.  Known before its release as "QDOS"
 - Copyright 1984 Atari, published 1984 by Antic Magazine
 - Copyright 1984 Michael Barall, published 1984 by Antic Magazine
 - Supports "a variety of different disk drives, single-density or double-
   density, and single-sided or double-sided"
 - Disk drive types supported, by bus connection: 
    1) internal (1450XLD)
    2) external (parallel bus)
    3) external (serial bus)
 - Filesystem could support disks up to 384k (drac030, AA Forums 2010.07.21)
 - Filesystem uses logical sector size of 1.5K (drac030, AA Forums 2010.07.21)
 - Supports 8 physical drives (1-8), and 10 logical drives (D0:-D9:)
 - DOS 2 to DOS 4 Conversion Program
 - DOS 3 to DOS 4 Conversion Program

SmartDOS Beta Test Version 1.5R (1984)
SmartDOS 6.1D (C)1984 John Chenoweth & Ron Bieber
              distributed by Rana Systems
SmartDOS 8.1D (1985)
SmartDOS 8.2D (???)
--------------------
 - Developed by John Chenoweth & Ron Bieber
 - Disk drive types supported: 
    1) Atari 810
    2) SSDD 5.25" Single Sided, Double Density
 - Disk allocation/filesystems:
    1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density
    2) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density
 - Menu additions that allow sector copying, drive speed checking, bad sector
   testing, write verify on/off, and drive reconfiguration
 - Version 8.1D by Astra Systems, shipped with Astra disk drives

Mach DOS v2.1 XL (c) 1984 stace
Mach DOS v2.6 XL (c) 1984 stace
MachDOS v3.7a (c) 1985 stace
--------------------
 - Released directly into the public domain
 - Disk drive types supported: 
    1) Atari 810
    2) SSDD 5.25" Single Sided, Double Density
 - Disk allocation/filesystems:
    1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density
    2) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density
    3) DOS 2.0 Double Sided, Double density
 - Intelligent detection and support for double density and double sided disks
 - v.3.7a RAMdisk support: 130XE, 800XL; 800 with MOSAIC, INTEC, AXLON, MACE,
   and 800+ memory expansion systems.
 - [SELECT] key toggles menu on-screen
 - Distributed with the 810 Turbo (810 drive upgrade from NCT)

SpartaDOS  Version 1.1 Copyright (C) 1984  by ICD, INC.
SpartaDOS  Version 2.3b  D  Copyright (C) 1985 by ICD, INC.
SpartaDOS  Version 2.3b  C  Copyright (C) 1985 by ICD, INC.
SpartaDOS Ver 2.3e 1-Nov-85  D  Copyright (C) 1985 by ICD, INC.
SpartaDOS Ver 2.3e 1-Nov-85  C  Copyright (C) 1985 by ICD, INC.
SpartaDOS Ver 3.2c 30-Jan-86  Copyright (C) 1986 by ICD, Inc.
SpartaDOS Ver 3.2d 17-Feb-86  Copyright (C) 1986 by ICD, Inc.
SpartaDOS Ver 3.2f 25-Feb-94  Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe
SpartaDOS Ver 3.2g 04-Jun-94  Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe
SpartaDOS Ver 3.2gx 04-Jun-94  Copyright (C) 1994 by FTe
---------------------------------------------------------------
 - SpartaDOS was developed by Mike Gustafson for ICD.
 - Native SpartaDOS file system, supporting:
    o Subdirectories, up to 128 files per directory
    o Time/date stamping
    o Disks have volume names
    o Up to 16 MB per drive
 - Version 1.1:
    o Requires 32K RAM 400/800/XL/XE
    o Not Atari DOS 2 compatible
 - Several flavors of Version 1.1:
    o SPEED.DOS - RAM resident full powered DOS; UltraSpeed supported
    o STANDARD.DOS - RAM resident full DOS; no UltraSpeed support
    o NOCP.DOS - No command processor; tries to load an AUTORUN.SYS file
                 before it passes control onto the cartridge; UltraSpeed
                 supported
    o NOWRITE.DOS - Can only read from disk, very low memory usage,
                    UltraSpeed supported; useful as a game loader
 - Changes for Version 2.3:
    o Requires a 64K XL/XE
    o An enhanced Atari DOS 2 handler: Can read, write, and run Atari DOS 2
      formatted diskettes in both single and double density
    o Supports 8 disk drives (as opposed to 4)
    o UltraSpeed High Speed built in 
    o 14 new internal command processor commands
    o 8 new XIO functions
    o Extra 4K program area
 - Two flavors of 2.3 (2.3b, 2.3e) versions:
    o XD type (XD23B.DOS or XD23E.DOS) is the full powered DOS; recognizes
      the STARTUP.BAT file when booted and priority is given to DOS (rather
      than the cartridge).
    o XC version (XC23B.DOS or XC23E.DOS) is the same as XD versions except
      AUTORUN.SYS is recognized when booted and control priority is given to
      the cartridge.
 - Changes for Version 3.2:
    o Better time and date support (internal TD, TIME, DATE commands)
    o Internal R-Time 8 interface
    o Internal JIFFY clock interface (for non-R-Time 8 users)
    o Internal 32 character keyboard buffer (and KEY command)
    o Automatic mini-buffer system for fast byte PUT and GET functions
    o New vectors added for machine language support
    o Control returned to DOS if DOS was active during RESET
    o Supports both a STARTUP.BAT and an AUTORUN.SYS file
    o Compatible with BASIC XE, 1200XLs and many modified Operating Systems
    o BASIC ON/OFF command operation from within a batch file (not end only)
    o NOISY I/O flag recognized
    o Support for the Supra Hard Disk Interface
    o All command entry in upper or lower case
    o Full read capability for Atari DOS 2.5 type enhanced density format
 - Several notable patches to SpartaDOS 3.2d have been developed, such as:
    o Bob Woolley created a patch utility program that will modify SpartaDOS
      3.2d to support the XF551's high speed I/O
    o "SpartaDOS 3.2z" was the result of a patch developed and distributed by
      Computer Software Services (CSS, Bob Puff) for SpartaDOS 3.2d to allow
      SpartaDOS to support the CSS Multiplexer (MUX).
      See: http://nleaudio.com/css/products/Mux_docs.htm
 - Rights purchased from ICD by Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe, Mike Hohman) in
   1993 (November?).
 - FTe SpartaDOS 3.2g changes included:
     o Support for a ninth drive, D9:
     o D: means current working drive, instead of D1:
     o Full support for upper/lower case
     o CWD, CREDIR, DELDIR commands changed to CD, MD, RD
     o TDLINE Y2K bug fixed
     o 1200XL function keys work properly     
   SpartaDOS 3.2gx differs only in that it locates the disk buffers under the
   OS to save RAM.  3.2gx is intended for use in systems that include a PBI
   device (MIO, Black Box); it is not compatible with BASIC XE nor any other
   programs using RAM under the OS.
 - Many disk-based SpartaDOS versions are available for download from
   Thunderdome, kept by SysOp Fox-1:  http://thunderdome.atari.org/ or
   http://www.mixinc.net/atari/download_a8/sdsys.htm

Warp Speed DOS V 2.0
Warp Speed 7 (1985)
-------------------
 - From Happy Computers (USA)
 - For use with Happy 810 Enhancement or Happy 1050 Enhancement
 - Disk allocation/filesystems:
    1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density
    2) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density
 - Supports Warp Speed read and write with verify

SuperDOS V2.9 (C) 1986 Paul Nicholls
SuperDOS for Happy (c)1986 by H.C.I.
SuperDOS V4.3T(C) 1986 Paul Nicholls
SuperDOS V4.4 (C) 1988 Paul Nicholls
SuperDOS V5.0 (C) 1988 Paul Nicholls
SuperDOS V5.1 (C) 1988 Paul Nicholls
------------------------------------
 - Developed by Paul Nicholls for Super Products (Australia), Happy Computers
   (USA), Technical Support (USA), Antic Arcade Catalog (USA)
 - Disk drive types supported: 
    1) Atari 810
    2) Atari 1050
    3) SSDD 5.25" Single Sided, Double Density
    4) Supermax Highspeed (versions 4.x and up)
    5) XF551 Highspeed (versions 5.x)
    6) US Doubler UltraSpeed (versions 5.x)
 - Disk allocation/filesystems:
    1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density
    2) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density
    3) Atari DOS 2.5
    4) "Atari DOS 2 Skewed Sectors" for Supermax drives
       Antic: "Skewed sector disks read and write much faster than standard
       format disks (while Atari DOS 2.0 and 2.5 can still read and write
       them).
 - Menu driven.  Density-smart: Automatic density detection.
 - Fully RAM-resident.  Highly configurable.
 - Supports four floppy disk drives and assumes that any drive reference above
   4 is a RAMdisk.
 - RAMdisk support is provided for the Atari 130XE and upgrade formats 
   including 128K and 256K Axlon, 256K XL and 320K XE.
 - V5.0 changes:
      1. Full support for the Atari XF551 disk drive, including Double
         sided/Double density and high speed transfer.
      2. Complete XF551 compatibility with previous disk drives. Double
         density drives can read files on Double sided disks (just as
         Single density drives can read Enhanced density disks).
      3. High speed transfer and skewed sectors for US Doubler, XF551, and
         SUPERMAX.
      4. Full sector count displayed, no more 999+.
      5. Full support for Newell 256K memory upgrade for 800XL.
      6. Hold down [Esc] during boot up to reserve the 130XE memory banks
         for your program. 256K and 320K computers can use BASIC XE and a
         RAMdisk.
      7. Bug in RAMdisk reboot (coldstart) routine fixed.
      8. The right margin is no longer set to 37.
 - Rights and source code purchased by James Bradford (1994?)

BiboDOS V 5.1N (p) E.Reuss (c) 1987  COMPY SHOP
BiboDOS V 5.2F (p) E.Reuss (c) 07/1987 Compy-Shop
BiboDOS 5.4RF (p) E.Reuss (c) 06/1988 Compy-Shop
BiboDOS 6.4RF (p) E.Reuss (c) 06/1988 Compy-Shop
BiboDOS 5.4AN Turbo-BASIC-Version/R-Disk Jan/89
Bibo-DOS 7.0 (p) E.Reuss (c) 1990 by J.Kruszona
--------------------
 - Densities supported: single, medium, double
 - Disk allocation/filesystems:
    1) Atari DOS 2.0 Single Density
    2) Atari DOS 2.5 Enhanced Density ("Medium Density")
    3) Atari DOS 2.0 Double Density
    4) "Atari DOS 2.0 Quad Density" (XF551 DSDD 360K)
       - Version 6 and up only
    - Extension to above standards:
       Long/large directories (128 files per disk)
 - F-versions support high speed with the Speedy 1050 and Happy Enhancement

XF-DOS (date of release????  MC is still looking for a copy of this!)
Turbo-DOS XL/XE 1.5 (1988)
Turbo-DOS XL/XE 1.7 (1988)
Turbo-DOS XL/XE 2.0 (1989)
Turbo-DOS XL/XE 2.1 (1990)
--------------------------
 - Developed by Martin Reitershan, Herbert Barth, and Frank Bruchhaeuser
   for Martin Reitershan Computertechnik
 - Supports a wide range of relatively advanced hardware while maintaining a
   very high degree of compatibility with Atari DOS 2.5.
 - According to Andreas Koch, Reitershan worked with Atari Germany to gain
   access to the DOS 2.5 source code for development of XF-DOS and Turbo-DOS.
 - Master-Disk produces 4 different versions:
    1) Normal Version
    2) HS: Version for 1050 with Happy Enhancement or Speedy 1050
    3) XF: Version for XF551
    4) EX: Full version (all three versions)
 - Andreas Koch contributes:
supports 256k Xtra RAM / RD and supports use of batchfiles; has converter for
DOS 3 and DOS 4; supports 4 formats, up to 360k; does not use RAM under OS
ROM; DUP uses a Command Processor; all commands are available via HELP key;
works with XL/XE computers only, does not load/boot on Atari 400/800.
 - Atari DOS XLE (1990), developed by Reitershan, was built upon Turbo-DOS.

BW-DOS Ver. 1.00 (C) BEWESOFT 1994 (Jiri Bernasek)(94-06-16)
BW-DOS Ver. 1.10 (C) BEWESOFT / ABBUC 1994 (94-07-14)
  - Update #1 Released: 4/95
BW-DOS Ver. 1.30 (C) BEWESOFT 1995 (Jiri Bernasek)(95-12-17)
  - Update #2 Released (with Ver. 1.30): 95-12-17
------------------
Another popular, powerful DOS is BW-DOS (it is pronounced "Bay Vay Dos"),
freeware by Jiri Bernasek - BEWESOFT.
Andreas Koch writes:  "SpartaDOS compatible.  Does not use any
speeder internally, but comes with external XF551 speeder.  Supports 4 drives
and RAMdisk, comes with RAMdisk driver for XE compatible RAMdisks up to
1Megabyte; supports 4 densities: a) Single (90k), b) Enhanced/Medium (130k),
c) Double (180k) and d) DSDD (360k); does not use any RAM under OS ROM (so it
works on an Atari 800 and with Turbo BASIC); unlike SpartaDOS most commands
are external, thus the DOS is only 5kbytes short; supports a PAL clock (made
by ABBUC regional group "ARGS"); comes with many great utilities (which can
also be used with SpartaDOS)."
 - Ver. 1.10 distributed by ABBUC as the "Jahresgabe" 1994
 - BW-DOS Update #1 Released: 4/95
    - New versions of: MENU, RAMDISK, DIRMAST.
    - New commands: MOVE, RTIME8, ARGSRTC
    - New driver: ARGSPRN
    - New program: BWDFUNCT.BAS
 - New in BW-DOS 1.30:
    - Reading the last byte of a file is now indicated by status 3.
    - Installation of new "E:" drivers is now allowed. 
    - The command "TYPE" is no more limited to 64 characters per line.
    - The method of handling the allocation pointers (positions 18 and 20 in
      sector 1) was changed.  The new method provides much better protection
      of the directory-area on disk, and so the directories are not mixed
      between data sectors as often as under older BW-DOS versions or
      SpartaDOS.  This results in faster access to directories.  100% read/
      write compatibility with every SpartaDOS versions 2.x and later
      retained.
 - BW-DOS Update #2 Release: 12/95 with BW-DOS 2.30
    - New versions of: BACKUP, COPY, UNERASE
    - New commands: DOSDRIVE, NEWED
    - New driver: RAMBOX
Available:
http://wiki.strotmann.de/wiki/Wiki.jsp?page=BEWE%20DOS%201.30%20Manual

------------------------------

Subject: 7.7) How do I modify Atari DOS to support more than two drives?

When running Atari DOS II and compatibles, memory location 1802 ($70A,
DRVBYT) indicates the number of disk drives allocated.  At the Atari BASIC
READY prompt, enter "? PEEK(1802)" to read the value of this location.
Possible values include:
   1 = Drive 1 only
   3 = Drives 1 and 2 (default value)
   7 = Drives 1, 2, and 3
  15 = Drives 1, 2, 3, and 4

The value of DRVBYT can be changed with the Atari BASIC POKE command.  For
example, "POKE 1802,7" to set DOS to support drives 1-3.

To save a changed value for DRVBYT that will be in effect when the computer
starts up, go to the DOS menu (enter "DOS" at the READY prompt), then choose
menu option H, Write DOS Files.  This disk will now boot with support for the
number of disk drives of your choosing.

------------------------------

Subject: 7.8) Are there Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) for the Atari?

Much of this section by: Andreas Koch
Other contributors: Mathy van Nisselroy, Kathleen Ferrante

- G.O.S. by Total Control Systems (David Sullivan), 1986, public domain

- RAOS (Rat Actuated Operating System) by Zobian Controls, 1986/1987
   o  Z-DOS desktop DUP.SYS replacement
   o  For use with SuperRAT mouse by Zobian Controls
   o  Released?

- GOE, developed by Total Control Systems (David Sullivan)
(co-marketed by Merrill Ward & Assoc. / Shelly Merrill as "ST Jr." early 1988)
Demo disk version(s?) released 1988, full cartridge version unreleased.

- Diamond GOS, developed by Reeve Software / ReeveSoft (Alan Reeve)
   (co-marketed by USA Media / Shelly Merrill as "ST Jr." Aug 1988 - Apr 1989)
   - Supports: DOS 2.5 and compatible, SpartaDOS, DOS XE
   o  Diamond GOS version 1 (1988)
      - Diamond DeskTop 1.0 (disk) DUP.SYS replacement
   o  Diamond GOS version 2 (1989) package:
      - Diamond DeskTop 2.0 (cartridge) + Utility Diskette
      - Diamond Programmer's Kit (Programmer's Manual)
      - Diamond Paint (disk)
   o  Diamond GOS version 3 (1991) package:
      - Diamond DeskTop 3.0 (cartridge) + utility diskette
      - Diamond Paint (disk)
      - Diamond Write (disk)

- Screen Aided Management (SAM) by RaindorfSoft for Power Per Post (Germany)
  - It is available in two different versions: 
    a) Type-in listing from Atari magazin and/or the Lazy finger disks (PD) 
    b) the commercial version 2.0 which has many add-ons
  - Supports: Atari DOS 2.5
  - V1.25i, 1994 is available from DGS, http://www.dgs.clara.net/
    DGS SAM page: http://www.dgs.clara.net/sam.htm

- BOSS-XL by Mirko Sobe (MS Software)
  - Requires 64K XL/XE
  - Supports: ATARI-DOS, Turbo-DOS
  - Current Version: v4.5 Edition 2000 (primary development 1993-1997)
  - System Software:
    - File Manager (Desktop was the BOSS-XL V2.0)
    - BOSS-font editor (XE-version) 
    - Icon Editor (XL-/XE-Version)
  - Written in Turbo-BASIC
  - Available: http://www.atarixle.de/

- BOSS-XE by Mirko Sobe (MS Software)
  - Requires 64K XL/XE, 128K or more recommended
  - Supports: ATARI-DOS, Turbo-DOS
  - Current Version: v8.1 Edition 2000 (developed 1997-2000)
  - Written in Turbo-BASIC
  - System Software:
    - BOSS parameter 
    - BOSS-font editor (XE-version) 
    - Icon editor (XL / XE version)
  - Available: http://www.atarixle.de/

- BOSS-X by Mirko Sobe (MS Software)
  - Requires 128K XL/XE, 256K or more recommended
  - Supports: MYDOS 4.50 and above; Atari ST Mouse
  - Current Version: 10:33, 2003 (developed 2000-2003)
  - Written in Turbo-BASIC
  - System Software:
    - File Manager 
    - BOSS parameter 
    - BOSS-font editor (X version) 
    - Icon editor (X version for colored symbols) 
    - BOSS-X framework 
    - multiple screen savers
  - Available: http://www.atarixle.de/

- XL-TOS a small and "cheap" GUI version from Atari magazin (i.e. a type-in
listing; the BASIC file, which consists of many data lines creates a short
object code file); unfortunately this GUI only looks good, it loads almost
nothing... PD;

- ST-TOS a small BASIC program, that looks like a GUI; it can merely load
BASIC files and do a few DOS commands, like lock, unlock, delete and such...
(PD)

- BASIC desktop, a GUI written in BASIC just as a sample, what can be done
with an 8-bit computer; this one loads BASIC and text files (maybe also ML
files); PD;

- DCS, the desktop construction set from Tom Hunt; there are 3 different
versions available, a) for DOS 2.5, b) for MyDOS and c) for Sparta-DOS; I have
tested the Sparta DOS version, which worked with batchfiles and could easily
load some ML files, text files and BASIC files (which were already on the DCS
disk); it also works with high densities and/or hard disk partitions up to
16MB and supports subdirs of course; hmm, freeware or shareware ?!?

- ATOS - GUI by Tom Hunt/Closer To Home.
  1) Lets you use any demo or intro as a screen saver!!
  2) Works with all Atari hardware, BB, MIO and Hard drives, SpartaDOS support
  3) Lets you run files like full games and demos and then
     return back to the desktop.  It uses Overlays.

- Atari Desktop by ABC software (Poland), includes editors, converters,
file copiers, sector copy, tape+turbo tape copy, small games, CMC finder
and player and much much more; works with 64k RAM and keyboard input;
disk manuals only in Polish language...

- Windows XL a Turbo-BASIC GUI with some nice add-ons, like calculator, editor
and other things. written in 1986-1988 by Joerg Forg.

- TRS Desktop by Tristesse.  A graphic user interface for SpartaDOS X to be
used with hard drives.
http://www.atari8.info/trsdesktop.php
http://trub.atari8.info/sdx_files/TRS_desktop_v09d_alfa.zip

- there are a lot more GUI programs, however many of them are written in BASIC
or Turbo BASIC and are very restricted; most of them merely look like a GUI
but need too much memory for everyday use. That's why most users still prefer
those DOS or Gamedos (Gameloader, Multiloader, etc.) programs...

------------------------------

Subject: 7.9) What should I know about modem device handlers?

In order to use a modem on the Atari, a modem software handler, or R: device
handler, must be loaded into memory.

There are several families of R: handlers, corresponding to the different ways
in which a modem may be attached to the Atari.

Except for family #7 below, these handlers are used in one of two ways. 
Either they are (A) loaded into memory from DOS just before running the main
terminal application, or (B) the terminal program is appended to the handler,
so that in practice, a single file is loaded from DOS which contains both the
R: device handler and the application itself.

1) 835/1030/XM301 modems.  Atari-only modems, interface via SIO

2) MPP/Supra modems.  Atari-only modems, interface via joystick port

3) R-Verter Serial Bus Modem Adapter.  
Standard Hayes-type RS-232 modems, interface via SIO

The R-Verter was distributed with four different R: handler versions:
  RHAND1.OBJ  - R: handler supporting DSR & RD
  RHAND1C.OBJ - R: handler supporting DSR & CD
  RHAND2.OBJ  - R: handler supporting DSR & RD and translation tables
  RHAND2C.OBJ - R: handler supporting DSR & CD and translation tables

The R-Verter handler was originally written by Royce W. Powell for A.I.D. in
1984.

4) SX212 modem.  Interface via SIO

The SX-212 Companion!
---------------------
Marc Ingle and Tom Neitzel of S*P*A*C*E (Seattle & Puget Sound Atari Computer
Enthusiasts) adapted the R-Verter R: handler for use with the SX212.  Carrier
Detect for the SX212 was added by Tom Neitzel and DTR emulation was added by
Marc Ingle, December, 1987.  Modifications to the Status routines were also
made.  Two versions of The SX-212 Companion! were distributed:
  1) LOADER.LOW
     This version loads at $1D00 and works with most DOSes in their standard
     configuration (generally 2 or 3 drives, with a LOMEM of $1D00 or lower).
  2) LOADER.HI
     This version loads at $2000 and allows more memory for drive buffers but
     will reduce your terminal buffer by about 750 bytes.
Available:
http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Telecomm/Handlers/sx212a.arc

Atari official SX212 handler
----------------------------
Atari SX Express! was distributed with an R: handler developed by Paul Swanson
called: HANDLER.OBJ

5) 850 Interface/P:R: Connection, internal

This type of "mini handler" simply loads the R: device handler code from a ROM
chip inside the RS-232 serial interface.  A long beep is heard through the
speaker when the handler is loaded into the computer's RAM.

Many varieties of DOS for the Atari include an explicit provision for loading
this type of R: handler into memory from the 850 or compatible interface.

Also, this type of R: handler is automatically loaded when any 8-bit Atari
computer is turned on with a P:R: Connection or powered 850 connected, but no
powered disk drive is present.

6) 850 Interface/P:R: Connection, external

Used with the 850/P:R: Connection in place of these interfaces' built-in
handlers.

The P:R: Connection was distributed with such a handler, called: PRC.SYS

7) ATR8000/ATR8500 interfaces by Software Publishers, Inc. / SWP,
   Standard Hayes-type RS-232 modems via this interface.

Richard Anderson writes (Oct 2 02): 
  Mine originally came with a driver program; and, I believe, a BASIC program
  to set up the driver from BASIC.  Later they shipped with a special version
  of MyDOS with the R: handler built in.

8) MIO/Black Box interfaces, internal 

These interfaces utilize the PBI or ECI parallel ports on the Atari.  They
include their own R: handlers in ROM, using no computer RAM at all.

9) MIO/Black Box interfaces, external: Len Spencer's Hyperspeed

This handler is "optional" for the Black Box, but "essential" for the MIO
in order to take full advantage of the high-speed hardware handshaking
capabilities of these two interfaces.

Hyperspd.arc is available at:
http://www.lenardspencer.com/Lenspencer/hyperspd.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 8.1) What programming languages are available for the Atari?

This section is by Freddy Offenga, reproduced here by permission from:
http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/atari_dev.htm

additions/edits to this version by mc:
2009.02 edits: The BASIC Compiler; BASIC XE;
        Microsoft BASIC; Microsoft BASIC II; CLSN Pascal; Logo; PILOT;
        Action!, Kyan Pascal, Lightspeed C versions from Atari Explorer mags
2006.01.16 added: Xasm 3.0.0, 2005 from Piotr Fusik

Revision : 2.0
Date.... : 2005-2-20

==============================================================
The goal is to give information about all available languages
for the Atari 8-bit computer. This information includes:
title, last version, author, date and a short description.
It would also be nice to know how to get it and where to get
more information (like reference cards, reviews and such).

Maintainer: Freddy Offenga
Email : taf.offenga [at] chello.nl (replace " [at] " with "@")
URL   : http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/atari.htm

==============================================================

There are quite a lot! To get some structure in this section it's
divided into the following categories;

        a) ASSEMBLER
        b) BASIC
        c) C
        d) PASCAL
        e) LISP
        f) FORTH
        g) PILOT
        h) LOGO
        i) All the rest

The following format is used:

    - Language title (medium)
      version, year  : version, year
      author/company : author/company
      available..... : where/how to get it
      package....... : programs, documentation
      features...... : main features
      Description.

The question marks (?) indicate that more information is
required about that topic.

Credits
=======
- The Multi-lingual Atari, Analog magazine 45, August 1986
- A bunch of manuals
- Some copy-pasted lines from the Atari 8-bit newsgroup
- umich (University of Michigan Atari archive)
- David Wyn Davies (PL65)
- Kevin Savetz (APX titles)
- Maury Markowitz
- Michael Current
- JT (ValForth)
- Andreas Koch
- Winston Smith
- Carsten Strotmann
- Brad Arnold

Revision history
================

2.0
- Added Atari Pilot info from Brad Arnold

1.9
- X-Assembler updated
- Added "QS FORTH" info from Winston Smith
- Added FORTH section work from Michael Current (thanks to Carsten Strotmann)
  (see also: http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/Main//LangForth)
- Several updates in the assembler section

1.8
Thanks to Andreas Koch for these updates:
- Added "Mesa-Forth"
- Added "130XE Assembler 4.32"
- Updated "SynAssembler"

1.7
Thanks to Maury Markowitz for these updates:
- Updated "A BASIC Compiler"
- Added "Der BASIC Compiler", "MMG BASIC Compiler"
- Added "Frost BASIC", "TT-BASIC XL"

1.6
Synchronized with Atari 8-bit FAQ May-2002 :
- Added "X-Assembler"
- Added "CTH Fast Basic"
- Added availability for "Deep Blue C"
- Added availability for "Atari Pascal"
- Ignored changes "Kyan Pascal" (need more info)
- Updated "ValForth"
- Updated "Extended fig-Forth"
- Updated "fun-Forth"
- Added "Extended WSFN"
- Removed e-mail addresses
- Added availability for "A65"
- Updated "PL65"

1.0 .. 1.5
Changes not noted.
Old versions are available on request.


a) ASSEMBLER

    - 130XE Makro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 4.32, ?
      author/company : Torsten Karwoth
      available..... : freeware, ABBUC PD #297
      package....... : assembler, editor, menu, monitor,
                       batch enhancement, linker/packer
      features...... : macros
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated menu, editor
      and monitor shell for 128KB RAM Ataris. Source format
      is derived from Atmas Makroassembler.
      
    - 130XE+ Makro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 2.2, 1992
      author/company : Torsten Karwoth
      available..... : freeware, ABBUC PD #368
      package....... : assembler, editor, menu, monitor,
                       batch enhancement, linker/packer
      features...... : macros
      New version with 128KB - 1088KB RAM support.
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated menu, editor
      and monitor shell. Needs extra RAM banks. Source
      format is derived from Atmas Makroassembler.

    - A65 (disk)
      version, year  : ?, 1989
      author/company : Charles Marslett, WORDMARK Systems
      available..... : abandonware, http://www.wordmark.org/
      package....... : assembler, manual
      features...... : source include
      Two pass 6502 assembler. Source format is based on the
      Atari Macro Assembler. Assembler source included.

    - Alfasm, Turbo-Assembler/16 (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1990
      author/company : Jeff Williams, DataQue Software
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, docs
      features...... : source include
      Two pass 6502/65816 assembler.

    - Assi (download)
      version, year  : 0.0.41, 2000
      author/company : MacFalkner
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, file linker
      features...... : source include, data include, code relocation
      Cross assembler for Win32. Source code is highly compatible with
      Atmas for the Atari.

    - Atari Assembler/Editor (cart)
      version, year  : ?, 1981
      author/company : Atari
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual
      features...... : -
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor

    - Atari Macro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0C, 1981
      author/company : Atari, APX
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, debugger, manual
      features...... : macros, source include
      Two pass 6502 assembler.

    - ATasm (disk)
      version, year  : 0.92, 1999
      author/company : Mark Schmelzenbach
      available..... : umich
      package....... : assembler
      features...... : macros, source include, optionally target .XFD
      disk images and machine state files (Atari800 / Atari800Win),
      conditional assembly. Two pass 6502 portable cross assembler.
      Highly compatible with MAC/65.

    - Atmas Makroassembler (disk)
      version, year  : 2, 1985
      author/company : Peter Finzel, Hofacker
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual
      features...... : macros
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor.

    - Bibo Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 13/12/1986
      author/company : E.Reuss, Compy-Shop
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor
      features...... : source include, data include
      Two pass 6502/65c02 assembler with integrated editor/
      monitor.

    - Datasm/65 assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 2.0, 1981
      author/company : DataSoft Inc.
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, menu, manual
      features...... : -
      Two pass 6502 assembler.

    - EASMD (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1981
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor
      features...... : -
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor.

    - Fast Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 1.5, 1995
      author/company : MMMG Soft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, disassembler
      features...... : -

    - Kasm65 (disk)
      version, year  : 2.51, 1997
      author/company : Ken Siders
      available..... : shareware, umich
      package....... : assembler, editor, linker, docs
      features...... : macros, relocation, source include,
                       conditional assembly
      Two pass 6502 assembler. Relocatable object files are
      compatible with ra65. Source format is derived from
      the Atari Macro Assembler.

    - MAC/65 Macro Assembler (disk|cart)
      version, year  : 1.01, 1984
      author/company : Stephen D. Lawrow, OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - MAC/65 Macro Assembler (disk|cart)
      version, year  : 2.00, 1982
      author/company : Stephen D. Lawrow, OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual
      features...... : macros, source include
      Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor.
      Mac/65 is a direct descendant of the Atari Assembler/
      Editor (via EASMD).

    - MAC/65 Macro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 4.20, 1994
      author/company : Stephen D. Lawrow, Fine Tooned Engineering
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - MAC/65 Macro Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 4.20 demo version, 1982
      author/company : Stephen D. Lawrow, OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - MAE (disk)
      version, year  : .96, 1996
      author/company : John Harris
      available..... : umich
      package....... : assembler, menu, editor, monitor, docs
      features...... : macros, source include, data include,
                       conditional assembly
      Two pass 6502/65816 assembler with integrated editor/
      monitor. Extra RAM supported.

    - NASM65 (disk)
      version, year  : ?, 1992
      author/company : Nat!
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, linker, librarian
      features...... : macros, relocation, source include
      One pass 6502 portable cross assembler (initially for
      the ST). Highly compatible with MAC/65.

    - PC-65 (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0 beta, 1996
      author/company : Jan Feenstra & Freddy Offenga
      available..... : -
      package....... : assembler
      features...... : macros, source include, data include,
                       boundary directive
      Two pass 6502 cross assembler for PC/DOS. The source
      format is highly compatible with the ST-65 assembler.

    - Quick Assembler (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1990?
      author/company : JBW, Avalon?
      available..... : ?
      package....... : assembler, editor, menu, debugger
      features...... : source include
      Two pass 6502 cross assembler with integrated editor.
      Very user friendly menu environment.

    - Ra65 (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1989
      author/company : John R. Dunning
      available..... : public domain, umich
      package....... : assembler, linker, librarian
                       part of cc65 (c-compiler)
      features...... : -

    - Synassembler (disk|cart)
      version, year  : 4.0, 1982
      author/company : Steve Hales, Synapse Soft
      available..... : http://www.atariland.com/members/oldatarian/
      package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual
      features...... : source include
      Two pass 6502 assembler.
      An Adaptation by Steve Hales of the S.C. Assembler II.

    - ST-65 (disk)
      version, year  : ?, 1991
      author/company : A. Stauffenberg, F. Offenga
      available..... : -
      package....... : assembler, menu shell, manual
      features...... : macros, conditional assembly,
                       source include, data include,
                       boundary directive
      Two pass 6502/65c02 cross assembler for the Atari ST
      written in 68000 assembly. As far as I know this is
      the first assembler with the boundary directive.

    - Xasm
      version, year  : 2.5.2, 2002
      author/company : Piotr Fusik
      available..... : http://xasm.atari.org
      package....... : assembler, docs
      features...... : conditional assembly, source include,
                       binary include, pseudo commands,
                       pseudo addressing modes
      Two pass 6502 cross assembler for PC/DOS. The source
      format is backward compatible with Quick Assembler.

    - Xasm
      version, year  : 3.0.0, 2005
      author/company : Piotr Fusik
      available..... : http://xasm.atari.org
      package....... : assembler, docs
      features...... : conditional assembly, source include,
                       binary include, pseudo commands,
                       pseudo addressing modes
      Two pass 6502 cross assembler for PC/DOS. The source
      format is backward compatible with Quick Assembler.


b) BASIC

    - A BASIC Compiler (?)
      version, year  : 1.05, 1987
      author/company : Monarch Data Systems
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC compiler
      features...... : -

    - Advan BASIC (disk)
      version, year  : ?, ?
      author/company : Advan Language Designs
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC compiler
      features...... : -

    - Atari BASIC (cart)
      version, year  : Rev.C, 1983
      author/company : Atari
      available..... : standard ROM in Atari XL/XE
      package....... : BASIC interpreter, manual
      features...... : pretty plain BASIC implementation

    - Atari Microsoft BASIC (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1981
      author/company : developed by Microsoft, published by Atari
      available..... : CX8126
      package....... : BASIC interpreter
      features...... : Based on the full language level of Microsoft BASIC

    - Atari Microsoft BASIC II (cart + extensions disk)
      version, year  : 2.0, 1983, c1982
      author/company : developed by Microsoft, published by Atari
      available..... : AX2025 box contains:
                       * Microsoft BASIC II Programming Language cart. RX8035
                       * Microsoft BASIC II Extension Diskette DX5046
                       * [User's Guide] C061251 REV. A (1982)
                       * Reference Manual C061257 REV. A (1983)
                       * Quick Reference Guide C061253 REV. A (1982)
      package....... : BASIC interpreter
      features...... : Based on the full language level of Microsoft BASIC
                       "Programs developed under the diskette-based version of
                       Atari Microsoft BASIC can be run using Atari Microsoft
                       BASIC II."

    - BASIC A+ (disk)
      version, year  : 3.05, 1981
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter
      features...... : -

    - The BASIC Compiler (disk)
      version, year  : 1.4, 1983
      author/company : Datasoft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC compiler
      features...... : four-pass compiler; compiles Atari BASIC programs into
                       6502 machine language; produces DATASM compatible
                       assembler files

    - BASIC XL (cart)
      version, year  : ?, ?
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter
      features...... : -

    - BASIC XE (cart + extensions disk)
      version, year  : 4.1, 1985
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter
      features...... : requires XL/XE; supports 130XE extended memory

    - CTH Fast Basic (disk)
      version/year   : ?
      author/company : Tom Hunt/Closer to Home
      available.......: PD, Freeware or Shareware;
      package........: language plus several test files
                       and examples; English docs;
      features.......: faster than Atari Basic, not much
                       slower than TB, does not use RAM under OS;
      available at Tom Hunt's homepage or elsewhere...

    - Frost BASIC (?)
      version, year  : 1.04, 1985
      author/company : Frank Ostrowski, Happy Computer
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter, compiler
      features...... : -
      Version of Turbo Basic XL that runs on 48k machines (400/800).
      
    - MMG BASIC Compiler 2.0 (?)
      version, year  : 2.0, 1984
      author/company : Special Software Systems
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC compiler
      features...... : -
      It appears that this is a newer version of Der BASIC Compiler,
      licensed to some other company.

    - TT-BASIC XL (disk)
      version, year  : 2.11, 1985
      author/company : Frank Ostrowski, Happy Computer
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter, compiler
      features...... : -
      Published in the German magazine "Happy Computer".
      Appears to be a newer version of Turbo Basic XL.

    - Turbo Basic XL (disk)
      version, year  : 1.5, 1985
      author/company : Frank Ostrowski, Happy Computer
      available..... : ?
      package....... : BASIC interpreter, compiler (V1.1)
      features...... : -
      Published in the German magazine "Happy Computer".


c) C

    - ACE C (disk)
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : John Palevich & Ralph Walden
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      This is a newer version of 'Deep Blue C'.

    - C/65 (?)
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      Probably derived from Dr.Dobbs "Small C". Compiles to 6502
      code which emulates the 8080 instruction set.

    - C65 (?)
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : Keith Ledbetter
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : good macro assembler
      This compiler does not support structs.

    - CC65 (disk)
      version, year  : 1989
      author/company : John R. Dunning
      available..... : umich archive,
      http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Languages/Cc65/
      package....... : compiler, linker, assembler, librarian
      features...... : -
      Public domain compiler. Also used as cross compiler.
      Relocatable object linkage files, and the most thorough
      K&R C for the 8-bit. Comes with an relocatable assembler.

    - CC8 (disk)
      version, year  : 2.3
      author/company : John Palevich & Steve Kennedy
      available..... : ?
      package....... : Compiler
      features...... : -
      ACE C with more "real" C support (e.g. arrays of pointers
      to structs). Requires ACE C runtime libs and linker.

    - Deep Blue C (disk)
      version, year  : 1.2, 1982
      author/company : John Palevich, APX
      available..... : http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20166
                       Source code "Deep Blue Secrets" downloadable at
                       http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20179
      package....... : Compiler, Linker
      features...... : -
      Deep Blue C was originally an independent product, but it
      then became available from APX. It converts C to pseudo-
      code and then interprets the pseudo code (8080 instruction
      set emulation).
      Drawn from Ron Cain's public domain C-compiler (Small-C).

    - DVC C (disk)
      version, year  : 1.05, 1985
      author/company : Ralph E. Walden
      available..... : ?
      package....... : Editor, Compiler, Optimizer, Linker
      features...... : Quite user friendly program
      The compiler generates special object files (.CCC)
      which can be optimized and linked. The package uses a
      special DOS called DVC DOS which contains runtime stuff.

    - Lightspeed C (disk)
      version, year  : 3.0, 1988
      author/company : Clearstar Softechnologies
      available..... : ?
      package....... : Compiler, Optimizer, Linker
      features...... : -
      Runs under CLI DOSes and MENU DOSes.
      
    - Tiny-C
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      First sold C compiler by OSS. This compiler was used to
      compile itself! First true language "bootstrap" on any
      8-bit machine (it was also available for Apple and CP/M
      machines). Derived from Dr.Dobbs "Small C". Compiles to
      6502 code which emulates the 8080 instruction set.


d) PASCAL

    - Atari Pascal (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1982
      author/company : APX
      available..... : APX-20102
      Information at http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20102
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      Needs two drives.

    - CLSN Pascal (disk)
      version, year  : 1989?
      author/company : CLSN Software
      available..... : ?
      package....... : editor, compiler
      features...... : generates 6502 machine code;
                       requires 128K XL/XE

    - Draper Pascal (disk)
      version, year  : 2.1, 1989
      author/company : Norm Draper
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - Kyan Pascal (disk)
      version, year  : 2.02, 1986
      author/company : Kyan Software
      available..... : ?
      package....... : editor, compiler, linker, macro-assembler
                       and manual
      features...... : -


e) LISP

    - INTER-LISP/65 (disk)
      version, year  : 2.1, 1981
      author/company : Special Software Systems, DataSoft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - INTER-LISP/65 (disk)
      version, year  : 2.2, 1982
      author/company : Special Software Systems, DataSoft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -


f) FORTH

    - ES-FORTH
      version, year  : 1.2, 1984
      author/company : The English Software Company
      available..... : 
           http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/Main//LangForthESForth
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      Seems to be based on fig-FORTH, but with some unique "Words".
      Works with normal DOS.

    - Extended fig-FORTH, (disk)
      version, year  : 11/10/1981
      author/company : Patrick Mullarky, APX
      available..... : APX-20029
                       http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20029
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - Extended fig-Forth (disk)
      version, year  : 1.1 Rev. 2.0, 01/15/82
      author/company : Patrick Mullarky, APX
      available..... : APX-20029
                       http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20029
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - fig-FORTH
      version, year  : 1/26/81 and 4/01/82 releases
      author/company : Steven R. Calfee  "Team FORTH"
      available..... : 
                 http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=unknown_fig
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - fig-FORTH
      version, year  : 4/10/82
      author/company : Peter Lipson / Robin Ziegler "Team FORTH"
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      based on 4/1/82 release of fig-FORTH by Steve Calfee

    - fig-FORTH
      version, year  : 5/5/82 - 10/16/82
      author/company : Harald Striepe "Team FORTH"
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      based on 4/10/82 release of fig-FORTH by Lipson/Ziegler

    - fig-FORTH, Antic (disk)
      version, year  : 1.4S REV.H, 18Jun85
      author/company : John Stanley/Antic Magazine "Team FORTH"
      available..... : 
             http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/Main//LangForthAntic
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      based on 10/16/82 release of fig-FORTH by Striepe

    - fun-Forth (disk)
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : Joel Gluck, APX
      available..... : APX-20146
                       http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20146
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -

    - Grafik-FORTH
      version, year  : 1990
      author/company : RAI Production
      available..... : 
      http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/Main//LangForthGraphicForth
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      based on fig-FORTH 1.4S and TURBO-GRAPHICS-SYSTEM 256

    - MesaForth
      version, year  : 12/03/81
      author/company : ?
      available..... : 
              http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/Main//LangForthMesa
      package....... : language, source code, documents, examples
      features...... : -
      based on 6502 fig-Forth. The major difference is in the size of the
      screen on disk (512 bytes instead of 1024 bytes).
      Runs under ATARI DOS 2.0S.

    - QS FORTH
      version, year  : 1.0, 3/27/81
      author/company : James Abanese / [QS] Quality Software
      available..... : 
                http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/Main//LangForthQS
      package....... : Editor, Assembler, I/O routines
                       Single Density 5.25 Floppy and Manual in Binder
      features...... : Editor, Assembler, I/O Routines.
      based on fig-FORTH.

    - Turbo-4th
      version, year  : January 1985
      author/company : Steven R. Calfee
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      compatible with fig-FORTH and Team FORTH. It's fast.
      Not threaded, it is a true compiler

    - ValForth (disk)
      version, year  : 1.1, 1982
      author/company : Valpar International
      available..... : ?
      package....... : (8) disks in the set including: 1)master disk,
      2)display formatter, 3)text compression and auto text formatting,
      4)valDOS-I, 5)valDOS-II, 6)player-missile graphics, character editor and
      sound editor, 7)general utilities and video editor, 8) Turtle &
      valGraphics and advanced floating point routines.
      features...... : -
      based on fig-FORTH

    - X-FORTH
      version, year  : 26 Jan 2003
      author/company : Carsten Strotmann
      available..... : 
                 http://atariwiki.strotmann.de/xwiki/bin/view/Main//ProjXForth
      package....... : binary, source, disk image with samples & editor
      features...... : aims to be compatible with new ANSI standard.
                       works with normal DOS.


g) PILOT

    - Programming Language Pilot Educators Package,
      Pilot with "Turtle" Graphics (CX405) (cart, tape)
      version, year  : 1980, 1981, 1982
      author/company : Atari
      available..... : ?
      package....... : 
      * Pilot Cartridge (CXL4018)
      * Two demonstration program cassettes (CX4113A/B)
      * Pocket Reference Card C017812 Rev2 - Program (c)1980, Manual (c)1981
      * Pilot Demonstration Programs Users Guide C017810 Rev1 - Program
        (c)1980, Manual (c)1981
      * Pilot Primer: The Pilot Programming Language Instruction Manual
        C017809 Rev2 - Program(c)1980 Atari, Manual (c)1980 Dymax
      * Student Pilot: Reference Guide C017811 Rev1 - Program (c)1980,
        Manual (c)1981.
      features...... : -


h) LOGO

    - Atari LOGO (cart)
      version, year  : 1983
      author/company : LCSI, Atari
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -


i) All the rest

    - Action! (cart)
      version, year  : 3.6, 1983
      author/company : Action! Computer Services (Clinton Parker), pub. by OSS
      available..... : ?
      package....... : compiler, editor, monitor and library
      features...... : fast compiler which generates good code
      Needs cartridge for runtime procedures. A PD runtime
      library is also available.
      All variables are static, so recursive routine calls
      are not possible. No floating point type (though a
      PD library should make this possible). No arrays of
      objects (arrays of POINTERS to objects are possible).

    - Extended WSFN, WSFN = Which Stands For Nothing
      version, year  : ?
      author/company : Harry Stewart, APX
      available..... : APX-20026
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      Info at http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/showinfo.php?cat=20026

    - Quick (disk)
      version, year  : 2.0, 1990
      author/company : Raindorf Soft
      available..... : ?
      package....... : ?
      features...... : -
      This is the "poor man's Action!". Same restrictions as
      Action! apply also to Quick. Further restrictions are:
      only simple assignment expressions, no records and no
      pointers.

    - PL65 (disk)
      version, year  : 1.0, 1987
      author/company : Noahsoft
      available..... : commercial, Extremely rare.
      package....... : compiler, editor, library, sample game
      features...... : Similar features to Action with same restrictions.
      Highly flexible language that includes inline assembler features and
      pointers. Robust and well-engineered editor. Does not require
      additional runtime library - automatically generated and included in
      the compiled code during compilation.

    - Test Computer Language (disk)
      version, year  : 2.2, 1985-1990
      author/company : D.Firth
      available..... : public domain, ?
      package....... : compiler and editor
      features...... : -
            
------------------------------

Subject: 8.2) What cartridges were released for the Right Slot of the 800?

This should be a complete list of commercial cartridges produced for use in
the Right Cartridge slot of the Atari 800.

ACE-80 by Claus Buchholz for Amiable Computer Enhancements / TNT Computing
  (80 column editor, compatible with Atari BASIC, and patches available for:
   OS/A+, EASMD, Letter Perfect v.6, Data Perfect, Atari Logo)
Austin 80 Console Software by Austin Franklin
Block (first right cart/first "backup" program hardware device)
Cartridge Maker by Radical Systems (EPROM burner)
KISS by Eastern House
Magic Dump by Geminisoft/Eric Wolz for Sar-An Computer Products (SCP)
Magic Dump II by Geminisoft/Eric Wolz for Sar-An Computer Products (SCP)         
Monkey Wrench by Eastern House
Monkey Wrench II by Eastern House
R-Time 8 by ICD (battery-backed clock, for left or right cart slots)
Real Time Cartridge by Sunmark

------------------------------

Subject: 8.3) What games support 4 or more simultaneous players?

Section started by Andreas Koch.

a) The following games support 4 joystick head-to-head play:
   (Only possible on the 400/800 since only these computer models have
    4 controller ports)

- Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves by Stuart Smith for Quality Software
- Aliens a PD-game by ??? using an altered Dandy program
  (the Dandy font and thus the graphics were changed, however,
   the levels remain the same and can be used in both games);
- Asteroids cart. by Atari,
- Basketball cart. by Atari,
- Battle Room (CIA vs. KGB) a PD game by SNACC
- Dandy disk by APX,
- Depth Warrior by ??? for ROM magazine (Canada) v1n7 ***
- Floyd of the Jungle
- Killa Cycle by Simon Goodwin & David Muncer
- Major League Soccer cart. by Thorn EMI,
- Major League Hockey cart. by Thorn EMI,
- Soccer by Gamma Software
- Hockey by Gamma Software
- Maze War disk or cart. by ???,
- M.U.L.E. disk by Electronic Arts
- The Return of Heracles by Stuart Smith for Quality Software
- Roadblock by Brian Holness from Compute! magazine
- Silicon Warrior disk or tape by Epyx,
- Sky Warrior by Jack Chung for ROM magazine (Canada) v1n6
- Survivor disk or cart. by Synapse,
- Tank Battle by Fred Pinho from Antic magazine:
  http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n2/animate.html
- Volleyball by ??? (PD game written in Atari BASIC);
- Yellow-Brick-Road by ??? for ROM magazine (Canada) v1n2 ***

*** these programs are reported to be 4-player programs, I'm
    not sure if they are meant to be 4-players simultaneously
    or 4-players - one after another (try to find out!);

b) The following games support 4 paddle head-to-head play:

- Castle Crisis by Bryan Edewaard, 2004
- IQ by David S. Maynard for CRL, 1987 (same game as "Worms?")
- JunkYard Racing (Tim Gearin, 1999)
- Space Arena by Fandal, 2009
- Warlords by ?, year? (pd version, unlicensed)
- Worms? by David S. Maynard for Electronic Arts, 1983

c) The following game supports 4 players on all machines, using special
4-button keypad controllers linked together with RJ-11 jacks (standard
phone jacks) to a box with 2 joystick port connectors:

- PQ: The Party Quiz Game by Suncom

d) The following programs support multi-joystick games, using extra
   hardware called Quadrotron (from the German Atari Magazin 2/1989): 
  
- test program for 4 joysticks (and assembler source);
- Quadro-Tron by H.Schoenfeld (4-player Tron-clone);

e) The following programs support multi-joystick games, using extra
   hardware called Multijoy (multijoy4 for up to 4 players, multijoy8 
   for up to 8 players and multijoy16 for up to 16 players; originally
   developed by Raster/Radek Sterba, but also available from ABBUC):

- Astro4Road by Fandal
- Bremspunkt (demo-version) by T. Butschke
- Bremspunkt (full-version) by T. Butschke
- Card Grabber by F. Dingler
- Cervi by R.Sterba
- Cervi 2 by R. Sterba
- Fujirun by Schmutzpuppe (see below!)
- Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008
- Icehockey by F. Dingler
- Multijoy-tester by Fandal or Raster
- Multris by R.Sterba
- Quadrotron-M4 by R. Sterba
- Sheep-Race by F.Dingler
- Shot'em All by R.Sterba

The following patches are available at:
http://mitglied.lycos.de/gunnarbusse/bajamar/download.htm
- Asteroids, modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe
- Basketball, modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe
- Tennis, modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe
- Dandy, modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe
- M.U.L.E., modified for Multijoy by Schmutzpuppe

And the following patches are available at:
http://www.atari.fandal.cz/
- Astrowarriors M4 modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- Wingman modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- (Thorn EMI) Hockey modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- (Thorn EMI) Soccer modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- (Gamma) Hockey modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- (Gamma) Soccer modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- Battle Room modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- Silicon Warrior by Epyx modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- Mazewar modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- Survivor modified for Multijoy by Fandal
- Floyd of the Jungle modified for Multijoy by Fandal

------------------------------

Subject: 8.4) What programs run only on the 400 and 800 models, and why?

The following are reported as incompatible with models other than the 
original Atari 400/800.  Many can nevertheless be made to run on XL/XEs
if you use the Atari Translator (DX5063 NTSC version or FK100807 PAL version)
or equivalent to run the original 400/800 OS on your XL/XE. 
 
Apple Panic                    Broderbund 
Aquatron                       Sierra On-Line 
Astro Chase                    (by First Star Software) Parker Bros.
Atari Word Processor           Atari
Atlantis (early only?)         Imagic (at least most copies OK on XL/XE)
Attack at EP-CYG-4             (by Bram) Romox
Bacterion!                     Kyle Peacock/Tom Hudson/ANALOG#20
   patch for XL/XE available:
   http://www.cyberroach.com/analog/an20/bacterion_patch.htm
Bandits                        Sirius Software
BearJam                        Chalk Board
Chicken                        Synapse
Crossfire                      Sierra On-Line (keyboard doesn't work on XL/XE)
Dancing Feats                  (by Softsync) Romox
Demon Attack                   Imagic (Activision re-release fixed for XL/XE)
Disk 50                        Star Soft International (SSI)
Dreadnaught Factor, The        Activision 
Drelbs                         Synapse 
File Manager 800+              Synapse
Forbidden Forest (early only?) Cosmi (at least most copies OK on XL/XE)
Fort Apocalypse -- cartridge   Synapse (all disk/tape releases OK on XL/XE)
Galahad And The Holy Grail     APX 
Go                             Hayden 
Gorf                           Roklan
Jawbreaker II                  Sierra On-Line
Jet Boot Jack (early only?)    English Software (at least most OK on XL/XE)
Juggler                        IDSI 
K-Razy Antiks                  (by Kay Enterprises for K-Byte) CBS 
K-Razy Kritters                (by Kay Enterprises for K-Byte) CBS
K-Razy Kritters                (by Kay Enterprises) K-Byte
K-Star Patrol                  (by Kay Enterprises for K-Byte) CBS
Kangaroo (prototype)           (Atari) 
KoalaPainter                   Koala 
Leo's 'Lectric Paintbrush      Chalk Board
Leo's Links                    Chalk Board 
Letter Perfect (before v6)     LJK (all version 6.x releases OK on XL/XE)
LogicMaster                    Chalk Board 
Mac/65 [ver. 1.00, orange]     OSS (all releases after 1.00 OK on XL/XE)
Maze                           Epyx 
Micro Illustrator              Chalk Board
MicroMaestro                   Chalk Board 
Monkey Wrench                  Eastern House
Monster Maze                   Epyx 
Ms. Pac-Man                    Atari (glitches with late-production XE units)
M.U.L.E. (early only?)         (by Ozark Softscape) Electronic Arts 
                               (most copies/releases OK on XL/XE)
Nautilus                       Synapse
  XL/XE workaround: hold down START to skip the title screen,
  which is where it locks up. --Scott Stilphen, 6 Jun 2007
Picnic Paranoia                Synapse 
Pool 1.5                       IDSI 
Pool 400                       IDSI 
Protector II                   Synapse 
QS Forth                       James Abanese / [QS] Quality Software
Rack 'Em Up                    Rocklan 
Shamus                         Synapse 
  XL/XE workaround: hold down START or SELECT to skip the title screen,
  which is where it locks up.
  A re-release by Americana/Synsoft corrects the incompatibility problem.
  (http://www.atarimania.com/game-atari-400-800-xl-xe-shamus_6174.html)
  --Scott Stilphen, 6 Jun 2007
Slime                          Synapse 
Snapper                        Silicon Valley Systems 
Space Dungeon                  Atari 
Squish 'Em                     Sirius
Story Machine -- cartridge     Spinnaker (disk release OK on XL/XE)
Synassembler                   Synapse
Text Wizard                    Datasoft
Zaxxon (early release?)        Datasoft (most copies/releases OK on XL/XE)

Konrad M.Kokoszkiewicz writes: 
 
XL/XE software won't work on 400/800 if: 
 
1) it uses shadow RAM at $C000-$CFFF and $D800-$FFFF 
2) it uses RAM expansions at $4000-$7FFF controlled by PORTB $D301 
3) it uses specific XL OS functions (like JNEWDEVC) 
4) it uses illegal XL OS addresses. 
5) it uses European Charset :) 
 
Andreas Koch adds:

To get an overview or see a chart of OS changes from the 800 to the XL
line, refer to Antic magazine Volume 3, Number 2 (June 1984), pages 10-14;
(online: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n2/insideatari.html )
Also note, that some software will not work correct (or not at all) on
newer XE/XEGS versions (which have a new OS with a new version number, 
a new Self Test/Memory Test/Keyboard Test, larger RAM chips, etc. etc.);

Thomas Richter contributes further details (16 Jan 2004):

There are a couple of reasons why some games don't run on the XL/XE
models.  I try to order them by "likeliness", of course biased by my
personal observations:

i) The printer buffer of the XL Operating System in page 3 is a couple
of bytes shorter.  The additional bytes are used for extended OS
variables not available in the 800 series.  Most prominent is the $3fa
location, holding a shadow register of GTIA's TRIG3 signal.  While a
true joystick trigger line in the 400/800 series, this signal is used
as "cart inserted" signal for XL/XE models.  Unfortunately, the OS
compares GTIA trig3 with the shadow register at $3fa in each vertical
blank, running into an endless loop if the register contents don't
match.  This causes hangs for games using page 3 either as copy-buffer
or for player-missile graphics.  (Hangs by Ms. Pac-Man and
Bacterion! are caused by this, and many others...)  This is "fixable"
either by the translator disk, or by a quick hack into the game,
replacing the OS vertical blank or poking TRIG3 frequently into its
shadow.  The reason for the OS behavior might be that Atari wanted to
prevent crashes if the cartridge is inserted or removed while the
machine is running.  The 400/800 is powered down when a cart is
inserted, the XL/XE lacks the cover of the older models that triggered
a little switch to interrupt the power line.

ii) Similar to the above, writes to $3f8.  This OS equate defines
whether on a warm start, the BASIC ROM shall be mapped back in.  If
its contents are altered, a program triggering a reset as part of its
initialization will find itself then with 8K less RAM occupied by
a BASIC ROM, making it crash.  Similarly, writes to the cartridge checksum
$3eb could cause a cold-start on a "reset initialization".  This is
fixable by the translator disk.

iii) Some games use a four-joystick setup, or at least initialize
PIA itself.  If this happens inadequately, PIA Port B, bit 0 gets changed,
disabling the ROM, and thus crashing the machine.  This is not fixable
by the translator since it is a hardware issue.

iv) Direct jumps into the OS ROM, not using the documented vectors in
the $e450 area.  Interestingly, this fault is not as common as it may
sound since games hardly ever use the OS.  It causes failures of
some "serious applications", most notably "QS Forth" and applications
compiled by it.  This is fixable by the translator disk.

As a side remark, it is interesting to note that no such documented
jump-ins exist for the math-pack ($d800 to $dfff).  It is not really
part of the OS, but looks more like a part of the BASIC interpreter
that didn't make it into the OS because there was no room left.  Thus,
direct jump-ins have to be used here that are documented in the De Re
Atari (for example).  Atari never changed them, but it seems likely
that this documentation happened more or less as an accident since the
same source also lists some mathematics-related jump-ins into the
Basic (namely, to compute SIN and COS and related) that are only valid
for the Rev. A BASIC.  Thus, the math pack might be a couple of
routines that have been originally intended for "private use" of the
BASIC ROM, but then have been found "too useful" by many others to
remain "closed".  Otherwise, it is hard to explain why the otherwise
pretty cleaned-up OS comes with a construction like this.

------------------------------

Subject: 8.5) What programs use a light pen or a light gun?

Contributor to this section: Bertrand M. (LEXX), Andreas Koch

The Atari computer reads the horizontal and vertical positions of a light pen
or a light gun in the same way.  Consequently, while software programs are
designed for one or the other, these two types of controllers may often
substitute for each other.

Programs designed for a light gun:

Alien Blast, Richard Gore for DGS, 1993
Alien Invaders (TB-XL or CTB) disk by R.Gore (available from DGS);
Barnyard Blaster, James V. Zalewski for Atari, 1987
Bembel Wo by Thorsten Butschke for Foundation Two, 1998
Bug Hunt, Alan Murphy and Rob Zdybel for Atari, 1987
Cementerio, Pelusa Software, 1989
Click!, Chris Martin, 2008
Crime Buster, Ron Andrzejewski & James Zalewski for Atari, 1988
Crossbow by Atari, 1988
Flyshot or Flyshoot a PD game by Kemal Ezcan
Gangsters by Houra, Pesout, Stefek, Sterba, Svoboda, 2007
Gangstersville, Emanuele Bergamini for Lindasoft, 1988
Geister-Schloss, KE-Soft, 1992
Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008
Hit the Mole by Phoenix-Softcrew / Carsten Strotmann;
Invasion, Pelusa Soft
Light Gun Blaster, Andre Willey, Atari User Feb. 1988
Light Gun Blaster (enhanced) by Pedrokko
Messe Hanau, Kemal Ezcan, 1995
Operation Blood (light gun) by Bulkowski & Kalinowski for ANG, 1992,
  light gun conversion by The Missing Link/John Maris
Operation Blood II - Special Forces disk, ANG/Mirage
Pajaki II, Arkadiusz Lubaszka for ArSoft, 1996
Schiessen, L. Franzky (Abbuc magazine)
Sharp Shooter, Matthew Ratcliff, 1989
Sniper, Premysl Stefek, Radek Sterba, Petr Svoboda and Fandal, 2007
Special Forces (light gun) by Mirage, light gun conversion by Homesoft
- See also Fandal site search for games that use a light gun:
  http://atari.fandal.cz/search.php?search=light+gun&butt_details_x=x
- See also AtariMania list of games that use a light gun:
www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-light-gun_control_5_8_G.html

Programs designed for a light pen:

- Alien Blast, Richard Gore for DGS, 1993
- Alphabet Construction Set (Playground Software) by Futurehouse
- Animal Crackers (Playground Software) by Futurehouse
- AtariGraphics by Steve Gibson for Atari, c1984 (RX8054, shipped with CX75)
- Blazing Paddles by Baudville, 1986
- Computer Crayons (Playground Software) by Futurehouse
- Concentration by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- Crossword Twister by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- Draughts by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- Go by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008
- Language Skills - Alphabet Recognition by Futurehouse, 1982
- Language Skills - Different Symbol Discrimination by Futurehouse, 1982
- Language Skills - Letter Sequences by Futurehouse, 1982
- Language Skills - Like Symbol Discrimination by Futurehouse, 1982
- Letter Tutor by Edgework for Atari, 1984 prototype
- Life by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- Light Pen Doodle by John and Mary Harrison for Antic, 1984
- Little Red Riding Hood (Playground Software) by Futurehouse, 1983
- Lost in the Labyrinth by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- Math Fun for the Young - Level I by Tech-Sketch, 1983
- Math Fun for the Young - Level II by Tech-Sketch, 1983
- Matrix by Dave Oblad, 1985
- Micro Illustrator by Island Graphics for Tech-Sketch
- Othello by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- Paint-N-Sketch Level I by Tech-Sketch, 1983
- Paint-N-Sketch Level II by Tech-Sketch, 1983
- Peripheral Vision by Futurehouse
- Seek and Destroy by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- Shape and Color Recognition by Tech-Sketch, 1983
- Shuffler by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- Simon by Stack Computer Services, 1983
- See also AtariMania lists of games and utilities that use a light pen:
www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-light-pen_control_6_8_G.html
www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-light-pen_control_6_8_U.html

Note that on the 400, the light gun / light pen will only work in joystick
port 4.  This renders much light gun and light pen software unusable on the
400.

------------------------------

Subject: 8.6) What programs have a trackball mode or support a mouse?

Programs that use the trackball mode of the Atari CX22 Trak-Ball or the 
earlier-production CX80 Trak-Ball:
- Catch 88 by Simon Trew, 1991
  - Supports Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew
- Centipede 5200 by Atari with trak-ball support by Peter Meyer, 2009
  ([CTRL+T] for trackball mode)
- Final Legacy by Atari, 1984
- Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008
- Kriss Kross by Simon Trew, 1992
  - Supports Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew
- Knight Quest by Simon Trew, 1991
  - Supports Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew
- Missile Command by Atari ([CTRL+T] for trackball mode)
- Missile Command+ by Paul Lee, 2005 ([CTRL+T] for trackball mode)
- Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew for New Atari User #42 1990
- Othello by Simon Trew, 1991
  - Supports Multi-Mouse Trakball Driver by Simon Trew
- Slime by Steve Hales for Synapse, 1982 (press [T] for trackball mode)
- See also AtariMania list of games that use CX22 trackball mode:
  atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-trak-ball_control_23_8_G.html
- See also Fandal site search for games that use the CX22 trackball mode:
  http://atari.fandal.cz/search.php?search=trak-ball&butt_details_x=x

Programs that use the Atari ST Mouse or the trackball mode of the later-
production CX80 Trak-Ball:
- 8Bit-Mouse (PD by BPAUG)
- AMC calculator
- Artprog (PD)
- Black Magic Composer by Sven Tegethoff for Ulf Petersen, 1991
- Bomb Down by The Roemer/U.N.O.
- BOSS-X by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, 2003
- The Brundles by KE-Soft, 1993
- The Brundles Editor by KE-Soft, 1994
- CardStax 2.1 by David A. Paterson, 1993
- Catch 88 by Simon Trew, 1991
  - Supports Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew
- Celebrity Cookbook by U.S.A. Media
- Centipede 5200 by Atari with trak-ball support by Peter Meyer, 2009
  ([CTRL+T] for trackball mode)
- Click! by Chris Martin, 2008
- Copy F'n'F by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, requires BOSS-X
- Datenbank by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, requires BOSS-X
- Diamond GOS by Reeve Software
- Diamond Develop by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Diamond News Station by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Diamond Paint by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Diamond Write by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Enigmatix! by Stephen A. Firth for Page 6, 1993
- Faecher Patience by Kemal Ezcan for Zong mag, 1993
- Final Legacy by Atari, 1984
- FireBall (a Breakout game, requires SAM)
- GOE by Total Control Systems (PD)
- Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008
- Hong Kong by KE-Soft / Kemal Ezcan (ZONG mag.)
- KE-Mouse drivers by KE-Soft
- Kriss Kross by Simon Trew, 1992
  - Supports Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew
- Knight Quest by Simon Trew, 1991
  - Supports Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew
- Macao XL by KE-Soft (ZONG mag.)
- Mau Mau X by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, requires BOSS-X
- Minesweeper by Harald Schoenfeld for PPP, 1992
- Mine Sweeper by Raindorf Soft
- Mine Sweeper 3 (PD)
- Missile Command by Atari ([CTRL+T] for trackball mode)
- M.O.S. (from Abbuc mag.)
- Mouse-DOS by KE-Soft (ZONG mag.)
- MS-Copy 1.1 by Mirko Sobe / MS Software, requires BOSS-X
- Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew for New Atari User #42 1990
- Multi-Player by Madteam
- Multi-DOS (PD)
- Othello by Simon Trew, 1991
  - Supports Multi-Mouse ST Mouse Driver by Simon Trew
- Pad 1.2 (Padnoid) by Nelson Ramirez / New Age, 1995
- P-Graph(s) by ??? (PD)
- QUICK Ed Character Editor by PPP
- SAM (Screen Aided Management) by Power Per Post & Raindorf Soft (a GUI!)
- SAM Budget (80 column spreadsheet program, requires SAM)
- SAM Convert (text files to/from the SAM Texter format, requires SAM)
- SAM Creator (SAM Painter files to/from Micro-Painter format, requires SAM)
- SAM Designer (drawing and design / desktop publishing, requires SAM) 
- SAM Memobox (card filing program, requires SAM)
- SAM Monitor (view and change memory, requires SAM)
- SAM Painter (128 color paint program, requires SAM)
- SAM Texter (80 column word processor, requires SAM)
- Samurai's Game by Krysal Software, 1992
- Shanghai by Activision
- Special Forces by Mirage Software, 1993
- Sprint XL (from Abbuc)
- TRS Desktop by Tristesse, 2006
- UPN calculator (PD)
- Vanish by KE-Soft (ZONG mag.)
- Vier gewinnt (PD)
- See also Fandal site search for games that use the Atari ST mouse or the
  trackball mode of the later-production CX80 Trak-Ball:
  http://atari.fandal.cz/search.php?search=mouse&butt_details_x=x
- See also AtariMania lists of programs using the Atari ST mouse or the
  trackball mode of the later-production CX80 Trak-Ball:
  www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-mouse_control_4_8_G.html
  www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-mouse_control_4_8_U.html

Programs that use The Rat or the SuperRAT (both by Zobian Controls):
- Accu-Draw by Zobian Controls
- Artist Unleashed by MTS Software
- AtariArtist (Atari cartridge version of Micro Illustrator;
               Distributed with the Atari Touch Tablet)
- Business Manager by Reeve Software
- Control by Zobian Controls
- Master Disk Directory II by Zobian Controls
- RAMbrandt by Bard Ermentrout for Antic, 1985
- RAOS (Rat Actuated Operating System) by Zobian Controls
- Super 3-D Plotter II by Elfin Magic
- Z-DOS by Zobian Controls (requires RAOS)

Programs that use the Amiga mouse:
- Black Magic Composer by Sven Tegethoff for Ulf Petersen, 1991
- Bomb Down by The Roemer/U.N.O.
- Global War by P.M.M. Elfinger & D.J. Garbowski for L.K. Avalon, 1993
- Multi-Player by MadTeam (PD)
- Najemnik - Powrot by LK APM for Krysal Software
- Operation Blood by Pawel Bulkowski & Pawel Kalinowski for Mirage, 1992
- Samurai's Game by Rafaell Soft for Krysal Software, 1992
- TRS Desktop by Tristesse, 2006
- See also Fandal site search for games that use the Amiga mouse:
  http://atari.fandal.cz/search.php?search=amiga+mouse&butt_details_x=x

Programs that use the Commodore 1351 mouse (mouse for Commodore 64/128):
- Klony by ArSoft, 2006

------------------------------

Subject: 8.7) What programs use paddle controllers?

- AE (Jun Wada & Makoto Horai for Broderbund)
- Arkanoid (Taito)(Mike Hutchinson for Imagine, 1987; for The Hit Squad, 1987)
- Arkanoid II (Prof Soft Amsterdam, 1987)
- Asteraxis 2k (Waldemar Pawlaszek & Remigiusz Zukowski, 2001)
- Avalanche (Dennis Knoble for APX, 1980)
- Balloon Game (Kelly Jones & Bill Williams, 1984)
- Balloon Pop (White Bag Software, 1986)
- Bird-Man-3D demo (AMC-Verlag)
- Blazing Paddles (Baudville, 1986)
- Block Buster (Bradshaw & Griesemer for APX, 1981; Quality Software, 1981)
- Body Parts (Dominick A. Scalzo for PartlySoft Software, 1983) 
- Breakout / Breakout!!! / brkwall.bas (public domain, author unknown)
- Burgers! (Douglas Crockford, 1983)
- Bust Out (Dennis Debro, 1989)
- Cascade (F. Neil Simms for ANALOG #28, March 1985)
- Castle Crisis (Bryan Edewaard, 2004)
- Checkers (David Slate for Odesta, 1982)
- Chess 7.0 (Larry Atkin for Odesta, 1982)
- Chicken (Mike Potter for Synapse, 1982)
- Chiseler (public domain, author unknown)
- Clowns and Balloons (Frank Cohen for Datasoft, 1982)
- Comment Compter ("Counter" by Al P. Casper for Atari France)
- Computer Quarterback (Dan Bunten for SSI, 1983)
- Counter (Al P. Casper for APX, 1982)
- David's Midnight Magic (David Snider for Broderbund, 1982)
- Descente a Ski ("Downhill" by Mark Reid for Atari France)
- Diamond Drop (Matthias M. Giwer for Compute!, 1983)
- Downhill (Mark Reid for APX)
- Dragonriders of Pern (Jim W. Connelley for Epyx, 1983)
- Etch-1 (public domain, author unknown)
- Frog (Stan Ockers 5/82 for A.C.E. Newsletter, July 1982)
- Frog (Stan Ockers 6/82 for Antic, Oct/Nov 1982)
- Golden Oldies Volume 1 v2.2 (Mike Fitch for Software Country, 1985)
- Golden Oldies Volume 1 v2.3 (Mike Fitch, The Software Toolworks, 1987 c1985)
- Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008
- Horse of a Different Color V1.0 (Gus Makreas, 3/1/81)
- Insomnia (Bob Fraser for APX, 1981)
- IQ by David S. Maynard for CRL, 1987
- Kaboom! (Larry Kaplan & Paul Willson for Activision, 1983)
- JunkYard Racing (Tim Gearin, 1999)
- Landing Simulator (by Jake Jacobs for Creative Computing magazine,
                     written for Apple, Atari translation by Bruce Jordan)
- Laser Game (public domain, author unknown)
- Laser Wars (Mike Potter for Crystalware, 1981)
- Lie Detector (Michael Krueger for Antic, 1986)
- Livewire (Tom Hudson - ANALOG #12)
- Livewire 2 (Tom Hudson - ANALOG #12 - Modified by Wolf)
- Lunar Lander (Wes Newell)
- Midnight Strip (M. L. Clayton, 1982)
- M.U.L.E. (Ozark Softscape for Electronic Arts, 1983; for Ariolasoft, 1985)
- Night Driver (Dudek, Szpilowski, Ziembik, 2008)
- Nineball (Jay M. Ford for ZiMAG, 1982)
- One on One! (Chris York for Compute!, 1983) 
- Paratroop Attack (David Plotkin for Compute!'s Second Book of Atari, 1982)
- "Perfected Pong" see: Pong! ("Perfected Pong") below
- Personal Fitness Program (Dave Getreu for APX, 1981)
- Pinball Construction Set (Electronic Arts)
  - all pinball games created with Pinball Construction Set
- PlatterMania (Michael Farren for Epyx, 1982)
- Pong ("Super Pong")(Gary Domrow/Summit Software Group, ANALOG #39 Feb.1986)
- [Pong] ("Pong 2", pong2.com, public domain, author unknown)
- Pong! ("Perfected Pong") (Bob Ayik for Antic, May 1988)
- Pool 1.5 (Howard De St. Germain for IDSI, 1981)
- Popcorn! (Cathy Sloatman, Mark Sloatman)
- Prisonball (John Scarborough for Compute!, 1986)
- Probe One - The Transmitter (Lloyd Ollmann for Synergistic Software, 1982)
- Safe Cracker (Mike Starnes)
- Space Arena (Fandal, 2009)
- Space Bombs (John Y. Hsu, 1984)
- Space Eggs (Dan Thompson for Sirius, 1981)
- Speedblaster (Pinball Construction Set Game by MR Datentechnik)
- Spy's Demise (Robert Hardy & Alan Zeldin for Penguin Software, 1983)
- Stardust (MR Datentechnik)
- Starshot (Matthias M. Giwer for Compute!, 1983)
- States and Capitals (David J. Bohlke for SoftSide, 1980)
- Stereo 3-D Graphics Package (Clyde Spencer for APX, 1982)
- Super Ball (Compyshop mag.)
- Super Ball 2 (Compyshop mag.)
- Super Ball 3 (Compyshop mag.)
- Super Ball 4 (Compyshop mag.)
- Super Breakout by Larry Kaplan for Atari, 1979
- "Super Pong" see: Pong ("Super Pong") above
- Stretch (public domain Gr. 15 pict. stretcher, author unknown)
- Superski (AMC, 1994 - patch for paddles by HOMESOFT)
- Tilter (public domain, author unknown)
- Uranium Core (Martin Stiby for Computer & Video Games mag, 1982/11)
- Warlords (The Webbed Sphere BBS)
- Wavy Navy (Rodney McAuley for Sirius, 1983)
- Wayout (Paul Allen Edelstein for Sirius, 1982)
- WildWest (Stan Ockers for ACE Newsletter, 1983)
- Word Radar (Jerry Chaffin & Bill Maxwell & Barbara Thompson for DLM, 1984)
- Worms? by David S. Maynard for Electronic Arts, 1983
- See also AtariMania lists of games & utilities that use paddle controllers:
  www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-paddles_control_2_8_G.html
  www.atarimania.com/list_games_atari-400-800-xl-xe-paddles_control_2_8_U.html
- See also Fandal site search for games that use paddle controllers:
  http://atari.fandal.cz/search.php?search=paddle&butt_details_x=x

Note that the Atari Touch Tablet, the KoalaPad Touch Tablet and the Suncom
Animation Station are read by the computer in the same way that the computer
receives data from paddle controllers, making software designed for these 
graphics tablets at least somewhat usable with paddles as well.  See a
separate section in this FAQ list for a list of programs supporting these
graphics tablets.

------------------------------

Subject: 8.8) What programs have a CX85 Numerical Keypad mode?

This section started by Andreas Koch.

- Bomb Down by The Roemer/U.N.O.
- The Bookkeeper (Atari); 
- Ball Harbour (Zong 8/1992); 
- The Big Quest (Zong 7/1992); 
- Blob (Zong 2/1992); 
- Bomber Jack (KE-Soft); 
- The Brundles by KE-Soft, 1993
- The Brundles Editor by KE-Soft, 1994
- UPN calculator (PD);
- Catch (Zong 6/1992); 
- Click! (Chris Martin 2008);
- Code table (Zong 11+12/1993); 
- CX-85-Driver (Zong 7+8/1994); 
- CX-85-Keycode-driver (Zong 7+8/1995); 
- Donald (by KE-Soft); 
- Drag (by KE-Soft); 
- Dragon Fire (Zong 1/1993);
- FlickerTerm 80 v.0.51 by LonerSoft (Clay Halliwell)
- Gravitar (Zong 4/1992); 
- Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008
- Hungry Goblin (Zong 5/1992); 
- Invaders (Zong 5+6/1993); 
- Joshi (Zong 3+4/1993); 
- Lasermaze (by KE-Soft); 
- Lost in the Antarctic (Zong 2/1992); 
- Mampfman (Zong 8/1992); 
- Minipac (Zong 3/1992); 
- Minipac 2 (Zong 6/1992); 
- Money Raider (Zong 2/1992); 
- Monster Tracking (Zong 9/1992); 
- Numerical Keypad Handler Master Program Diskette CX8139 (Atari, 1982)
- Oblitroid (by KE-Soft)
- Pac-Man (Zong 11/1992); 
- Schlumpf/Smurf (Zong 5/1992); 
- Slurp (Zong 3/1992); 
- Super ReeveKey (Reeve Software);
- Techno Ninja (by KE-Soft)
- Transsylvania (Zong 3+4/1993); 
- Viro-Mania (Zong 2/1993); 
- Zador XL (by KE-Soft)
- Zador II (by KE-Soft)
- many more games from KE-Soft and Powersoft; 
  (forgot their names, help needed!) 

------------------------------

Subject: 8.9) What programs use: Touch Tablet or KoalaPad/Animation Station?

Thanks to Andreas Koch for the initial version of this section, and for 
providing copies of some of the rare programs listed here.

The Atari Touch Tablet and the KoalaPad/Animation Station tablets, while very
similar, are slightly incompatible with each other in that y-position values
are reversed.

The following programs use the Atari Touch Tablet:

- AtariArtist (Atari cartridge version of Micro Illustrator;
               Distributed with the Atari Touch Tablet)
- CardStax 2.1 by David A. Paterson, 1993
- Catch 88 by Simon Trew, 1991
  - Supports Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew
- Click! (Chris Martin, 2008)
- Desktop Performance Studio (Virtuoso)
- Diamond GOS by Reeve Software
- Diamond Develop by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Diamond News Station by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Diamond Paint by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Diamond Write by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008
- Knight Quest by Simon Trew, 1991
  - Supports Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew
- Koala Cursor Demonstration Program by Karl E. Wiegers for Antic, Jan. 1985
  (article name: "Touch Tablet Cursor" ; original filename: KOALA.BAS)
- Kriss Kross by Simon Trew, 1992
  - Supports Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew
- Macro Edit by John Oakley
- Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew for New Atari User #42 1990
- Othello by Simon Trew, 1991
  - Supports Multi-Mouse Touch Tablet Driver by Simon Trew
- Pixel Artist Deluxe version 1.3 by Art Horan, 1988
- The Print Shop (Broderbund)
- The Print Shop Companion (Broderbund)
- QUICK Ed Character Editor by PPP
- RAMbrandt by Bard Ermentrout for Antic, 1985
- Rubber Stamp (XLEnt)
- Typesetter (XLEnt)
- See also AtariMania lists of games & utilities using the Atari Touch Tablet:
  http://www.atarimania.com
  /list_utilities_atari-400-800-xl-xe-touch-tablet_control_21_8_G.html
  http://www.atarimania.com
  /list_utilities_atari-400-800-xl-xe-touch-tablet_control_21_8_U.html

The following programs use the KoalaPad or the Animation Station:

- Alphabet Contruction Set (Playground Software) by Futurehouse
- Animal Crackers (Playground Software) by Futurehouse
- Blazing Paddles (Baudville)
- The Brundles by KE-Soft, 1993
- The Brundles Editor by KE-Soft, 1994
- Click! (Chris Martin, 2008)
- Computer Crayons (Playground Software) by Futurehouse
- Desktop Performance Studio (Virtuoso)
- DesignLab (Suncom version of Blazing Paddles;
             Distributed with the Suncom Animation Station)
- Diamond GOS by Reeve Software
- Diamond Develop by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Diamond News Station by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Diamond Paint by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Diamond Write by Reeve Software, requires Diamond GOS
- Edmac
- Hardwaretester/Peripheral Test 2.0 by Florian Dingler, 2008
- Hong Kong by KE-Soft / Kemal Ezcan (ZONG mag.)
- Koala Cursor Demonstration Program by Karl E. Wiegers for Antic, Jan. 1985
  (article name: "Touch Tablet Cursor" ; original filename: KOALA.BAS)
- KoalaPainter, 1983 (Koala Technologies version of Micro Illustrator;
  distributed with most KoalaPads)
- Koala Sketch by Charles F. Johnson
- Little Red Riding Hood (Playground Software) by Futurehouse
- Macro Edit by John Oakley
- Micro Illustrator by Steven Dompier & Robert Leyland for Island Graphics,
  1983 (distributed with early KoalaPads)
- News Station (Reeve Software)
- Pixel Artist Deluxe version 1.3 by Art Horan, 1988
- Planetary Defense (Charles Bachand and Tom Hudson for ANALOG #17 March 1984)
- The Print Shop (Broderbund)
- The Print Shop Companion (Broderbund)
- RAMbrandt by Bard Ermentrout for Antic, 1985
- Reader Rabbit (The Learning Company)
- Rubber Stamp (XLEnt)
- Trails!
- Typesetter (XLEnt)
- See also AtariMania lists of programs using the KoalaPad/Animation Station:
  http://www.atarimania.com
  /list_utilities_atari-400-800-xl-xe-koala-pad_control_12_8_G.html
  http://www.atarimania.com
  /list_utilities_atari-400-800-xl-xe-koala-pad_control_12_8_U.html

The following are reported to use either the KoalaPad/Animation Station, the
Atari Touch Tablet, or both (TO BE VERIFIED):

- Hit the Mole by C. Strotmann
- Musorqua (Analog computing) 
- Picture Enhancer (PD)
- TTCalib.BAS (PD)
- UPN calculator (PD)
- Word Search.BAS (PD)

Note that the Atari Touch Tablet, the KoalaPad Touch Tablet and the Suncom
Animation Station are read by the computer in the same way that the computer
receives data from paddle controllers, making software designed for paddles at
least somewhat usable with these graphics tablets as well.  See a separate
section in this FAQ list for a list of programs that use paddle controllers.

------------------------------

Subject: 8.10) What kinds of extra RAM and RAMdisks can be installed?

This section by Andreas Koch -- Version 3.6 from June 2008
 
A) Atari 400/800 RAMdisks:  
  
- Size:  64k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 3  (total memory = 96k RAM)  
  Types: Axlon (=Atari) and compatibles;  
  
- Size:  128k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 7  (total memory = 160k RAM)  
  Types: Axlon (= Atari) and compatibles;  
  
- Size:  256k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 15  (total memory = 288k RAM)  
  Types: D. Byrd and other self-made / Axlon-compatible RDs;  
  
- Size:  512k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 31  (total memory = 544k RAM)  
  Types: self-made / Axlon-compatible RAMdisks;  
  
- Size:  1024k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 63  (total memory = 1056k RAM)  
  Types: self-made / Axlon-compatible RAMdisks;  
  
- Size:  2048k XRAM (+ 32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 127  (total memory = 2080k RAM)  
  Types: self-made / Axlon-compatible RAMdisks;  
  
- Size:  4096k XRAM (+32k RAM)  
  Banks: 0 thru 255  (total memory = 4128k RAM)  
  Types: self-made / Axlon-compatible RAMdisks;  
  
=> Note that all so-called Axlon "compatible" (256k-4096k) RAMdisks  
   normally do not homebank when RESET is pressed (a fix should be  
   available somewhere), whereas original Axlon RAMdisks do homebank  
   properly !!  (Special thanks to Lee Barnes for this note !!)  

Axlon supporting software includes: MyDOS, TopDOS, Synfile +,
Syncalc +, and more (I cannot test it, alas)

- Size:  64k for 48k RAM and 4 banks of 4k XRAM
  Banks: 4x 4k banks (bankswitching via $C000-CFFF)
  Types: one Mosaic 64k "RAM-Select" board

- Size:  128k for 48k RAM and 20 banks of 4k XRAM
  Banks: 20x 4k banks (bankswitching via $C000-CFFF)
  Types: two Mosaic 64k "RAM-Select" boards

- Size:  192k for 48k RAM and 36 banks of 4k XRAM
  Banks: 36x 4k banks (bankswitching via $C000-CFFF)
  Types: three Mosaic 64k "RAM-Select" boards

Mosaic supporting software includes: Mosaic`s Super Drive (a kind of
virtual DOS), Visicalc, TopDOS, and more (again, I cannot test this!)
For the XL/XE Ataris there are some translator disks, that enable this
mode (e.g. the Ultra-Translator) with 48k + 4k RAM...

B) XL/XE - 64k base RAM plus XRAM:  
  
- Size:   64k (total = 128k RAM, 4 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F  
- Blocks: E, = 1 block * 4 banks 
- Types:  130XE RAMdisk, Turbo-Freezer-XL + 64k, self-made RAMdisks...  
  
- Size:   128k (total = 192k RAM, 8 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F   
- Blocks: AE, = 2 blocks * 4 banks  
- Types:  Compy-Shop 600XL with 192k, Turbo-Freezer-XL + 128k,   
          self-made RAMdisks...  
  
- Size:   256k / 26AE (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F  
- Blocks: 26AE, = 4 blocks * 4 banks  
- Types:  Compy-Shop 800XL RD., Compy-Shop 130XE RD.,   
          Peters/David Megaram 1, Peters/David Megaram 2,   
          Peters/David Megaram 3 with 256k, self-made RDs...  
  
- Size:   256k / 8ACE (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F  
- Blocks: 8ACE, = 4 blocks * 4 banks  
- Types:  Newell, Rambo-XL, Scott Peterson, Atari Magazin,   
          TOMS, self-made RDs...  
  
- Size:   512k / 26AE (total = 576k RAM, 32 banks)  
- Banks:  1, 3, 5, 7, 9, B, D, F  
- Blocks: 26AE, = 4 blocks * 8 banks  
- Types:  none (that I know of) at the moment - but possible!  
  
- Size:   512k / 8ACE (total = 576k RAM, 32 banks)  
- Banks:  1, 3, 5, 7, 9, B, D, F  
- Blocks: 8ACE, = 4 blocks * 8 banks  
- Types:  Scott Peterson, TOMS, self-made RDs...  
  
- Size:   512k / 02468ACE (total = 576k RAM, 32 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F
- Blocks: 02468ACE = 8 blocks * 4 banks  
- Types:  1) upgrade / combination of 26AE and 8ACE RAMdisk   
          types to 512k RAM or into *one* 02468ACE RAMdisk;   
          idea by me, built by Bernhard Pahl
          2) Upgrade of the Rambo XL to 512k by Dan Schmid   
          (see Pooldisk Too, Subdir ACE/ Acec202a.ATR and   
          Acec202b.ATR) and of course 3) self-made RAMdisks...  
          3) 512k SRAM upgrade by Bernd Herale, available  
          from mega-hz, Wolfram Fischer: www.

- Size:   1024k / 02468ACE (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks:  1, 3, 5, 7, 9, B, D, F
- Blocks: 02468ACE, = 8 blocks * 8 banks  
- Types:  Newell, Scott Peterson, TOMS, Satantronic`s 1MB-  
          PC-SIMM-RD, self-made RDs...  
  
- Size:   1024k / 26AE (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks:  0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F
- Blocks: 26AE, = 4 blocks * 16 banks  
- Types:  Mathy van Nisselroy`s 1024k XEGS-PC-SIMM-Upgrade!  
          (with some changes probably also usable for XL and XE,  
          see also: http://www.mathyvannisselroy.nl/) 
  
- Size:   1024k / 8ACE (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks:  0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F
- Blocks: 8ACE, = 4 blocks * 16 banks  
- Types:  none (that I know of) at the moment - but possible!  
  
- Size:   1024k / 0123456789ABCDEF (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F
- Blocks: 0123456789ABCDEF, = 16 blocks * 4 banks  
- Types:  luckily, none at the moment...  
  
- Size:   1024k / ??? (max. memory = 1088k, 64 banks)  
- Port-Bits / Control-Bits: $D301 = 2,3,6,7   
                            $D600 = 0,1 (or switches);  
- Banks:  $D301: 3, 7, B, F, $D600: ???
- Blocks: $D301: 26AE, $D600: ???
- Types:  David/Peters Megaram 3 with 1024k RAM (and the switches   
          positioned to 1 x 1024k)  
  
- Size:   2048k / 02468ACE (total = 2112k, 128 banks)  
- Banks:  0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F
- Blocks: 02468ACE, = 8 blocks * 16 banks  
- Types:  self-made RAMdisks...  
  
- Size:   2048k / 0123456789ABCDEF (total = 2112k, 128 banks)  
- Banks:  1, 3, 5, 7, 9, B, D, F
- Blocks: 0123456789ABCDEF, = 16 blocks * 8 banks  
- Types:  self-made RAMdisks...  
  
- Size:   4096k / 0123456789ABCDEF (total = 4160k, 256 banks)  
- Banks:  0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F
- Blocks: 0123456789ABCDEF, = 16 blocks * 16 banks  
- Types:  Newell, FTE, self-made RAMdisks...  
  
Well, I will not go into details with the disadvantages and possible   
software-problems with RAMdisks beyond 512k RAM (possible problems
might be the unavailability of the Self Test, XL/XE Basic, RAM under the 
OS, separate Antic access, etc. depending on the type of RD/XRAM)...
  
C) XL/XE - XRAM minus 64k Base-RAM:  
  
- Size:   192k / 8AE (total = 256k RAM, usable = 12 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F   
- Blocks: 8AE, = 3 blocks * 4 banks  
- Types:  older Newell RAMdisks (replace 64k by 256k);  
  
- Size:   192k / ACE (total = 256k RAM, usable = 12 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F   
- Blocks: ACE, = 3 blocks * 4 banks  
- Types:  newer Newell RDs, newer Buchholz-RDs, Rambo-XL,   
          self-made RAMdisks (replace 64k by 256k)...  
  
- Size:   448k / 2468ACE (total = 512k, usable = 28 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F
- Blocks: 2468ACE, = 7 blocks * 4 banks  
- Types:  self-made RDs (replace 64k by 512k)...  
  
- Size:   896k? / 0248ACE (total = 1024k, usable = 56 banks)  
- Banks:  1, 3, 5, 7, 9, B, D, F
- Blocks: 0248ACE = 7 blocks * 8 banks  
- Types:  Bob Woolley`s 1200XL 1MB Upgrade, self-made RDs   
          (replace 64k by 1024k)...  
  
Although these RAM upgrades are relatively easy to build  
(and to install into the computer), they make problems with  
quite some software. Some programs tend to use the base RAM  
as extra RAM / RAMdisk with these upgrades, which will most  
often result in a crash of the computer. Next, most extra RAM   
testers will show more extra RAM (or a bigger RAMdisk) than   
there is really available (e.g. with a 256k upgrade you will  
see 240k extra RAM, but there is only 64k base RAM + 192k  
extra RAM). Alas, this is a typical hardware problem for these  
upgrades and it cannot be solved or avoided with software...  
  
D) XL/XE: Parallel-Bus-Devices:  
(600XL/800XL = Parallel Bus, XE = Cart.-Port + ECI)  
  
- Size:   64k / E (total = 128k RAM, 4 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F  
- Blocks: E, = 1 block * 4 banks
- Types: Turbo-Freezer-XL by Bernhard Engl with 64k XRAM 
 
- Size:   128k / AE (total = 192k RAM, 8 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F  
- Blocks: AE, = 2 blocks * 4 banks
- Types:  Turbo-Freezer-XL by Bernhard Engl with 128k XRAM  
  
- Size:   256k / 9ABE (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks:  3, 7, B, F  
- Blocks: 9ABE, = 4 blocks * 4 banks  
- Types:  Turbo-Freezer-XL by Bernhard Engl with 256k XRAM  
  
- Size:   256k / ??? (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks:  unknown !!  
- Blocks: unknown !!
- Types:  Yorky-XL by Richard Gore / Derek Fern (from   
          GB/UK) with 256k XRAM  
  
- Size:   256k / ??? (total = 320k RAM, 16 banks)  
- Banks:  unknown !!  
- Blocks: unknown !!
- Types:  Multi-Input-Output-Hard disk-Interface (MIO) with 256k   
          XRAM by ICD and its re-release by MetalGuy  
  
- Size:   1024k / ??? (total = 1088k RAM, 64 banks)  
- Banks:  unknown !!  
- Blocks: unknown !!
- Types:  Multi-Input-Output-Hard disk-Interface (MIO) with 1024k   
          XRAM by ICD and its re-release by MetalGuy  
  
E) XL/XE: RAM/Flash-ROM/... Cartridges:  
  
- Rambox II with 256k RAM by JRC (Czech Republic; with special   
  RAMdisk drivers for TT-DOS and Bewe-DOS!)  
- Ramcart 64k by LK Avalon (Poland) 
- Ramcart 128k by LK Avalon (Poland; binaries of the EPROM and GAL 
  chips of this cart can be found on ABBUC magazine 64) 
- Ramcart 256k by Zenon/Dial (Poland) 
- Ramcart 512k by Zenon/Dial (Poland) 
- Ramcart 1024k by Zenon/Dial (Poland) 
  (for some hints and pics see: www2.asw.cz/~kubecj/acarts.htm)  
- Flash-ROM cart 128k / 1Mbit "Atarimax" by Stephen Tucker  
  (although they are not usable as extra RAM / RAMdisk at the moment,  
  I am quite sure that it is possible to write some drivers and thus  
  use the Atarimax Flash-ROM carts as extremely fast floppy drives!)  
- Flash-ROM cart 1024k / 8Mbit "Atarimax" by Stephen Tucker  
  (for information and complete documentation plus software see:  
  www.atarimax.com/flashcart/documentation/index.html )  
- and many others I do not know and I do not have any info about;  
  
Even cartridges can be used as RAMdisks (= fast floppy drives),  
especially RAM-carts or Flash-RAM carts. But they function like  
most other Super- or Mega-Carts, meaning the bank-switching  
techniques are also used there. Since the subject carts and  
bank-switching carts is quite enormous, I will not discuss it or  
present any information here. Just try to find a large description  
by John K. Picken ("RAM/ROM Control on an XL/XE") if interested in that  
subject (e.g. at Jindrich Kubec`s homepage: www2.asw.cz/kubecj/... ).  
  
Finally thanks and credits for this subject and lots of (used /   
borrowed) information therefore go to: Lee Barnes, Russ Gilbert,   
Mathy van Nisselroy, Erhard Puetz, Mathias Reichl, Ron Hamilton,   
Wes Newell, Guy Ferrante, XI of Satantronic, Bernhard Pahl, Walter  
Lojek and Voy/Dial. Also thanks to John K. Picken who wrote an  
excellent article about A8 extra RAM / RAMdisks and A8 cartridges and  
their technique of bank-switching. I know this list has still some
errors and is missing some information, alas, without your help I am 
unable to correct the errors or to fill in the missing information... 
Andreas Koch

------------------------------

Subject: 8.11) What programs support more than 64K RAM?

This section by Andreas Koch -- Version 3.6 from June 2008 
 
The following Atari 8Bit programs support more than 64k RAM, but still 
work alright (with multiple loads / disk-swaps) on standard 64k machines:   
 
a) "TOOLS" that support more than 64k RAM: 
 
A-Base                   (???, 64k RAMdisk, block E),  
Alphasys-Sample Software (Mirage/ANG, 64k XRAM, block E),  
A-Text                   (???, 64k RAMdisk, block E),  
Atari Writer 80          (Atari, 64k RAMdisk, block E),  
Atari Writer Plus        (Atari, 64k RAMdisk, block E),  
BASIC XE                 (OSS/ICD/FTE, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Bewe-DOS 1.x             (Bewesoft, up to 1024k RD, all banks),  
Bibo-DOS 5.x             (Compy-Shop, up to 256k RD, E/AE/26AE/8ACE),  
Bibo-DOS 6.x             (Compy-Shop, up to 256k RD, E/AE/26AE/8ACE),  
Datei 4.x                (N. Schlia, up to 256k XRAM, E/AE/26AE),  
Desktop Atari            (HBSF, 64k RAMdisk, block E),  
Diskworker               (Petsoft, 64k RAMdisk, block E),  
Diskcommunicator 3.x     (Robert "Bob" Puff, if there is more than 64k  
RAM, answer the startup question with "Y" to use it as XRAM or with "N"  
to use it as RAMdisk; up to 256k XRAM: E/AE/ACE/8ACE; RD = DOS depend.),  
DOS 2.5                  (Atari, original driver = 64k RD, block E; other  
                          drivers: up to 2x 128k RAMdisks, E/AE/8ACE),  
DOS II+D Version 6.x     (S. D., up to 2x 128k RDs, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),  
DOS XE 1.x               (Atari, 64k RAMdisk, block E),  
Extended Atari Basic     (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Extended Turbo Basic     (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Fampy 2.3                (Wolfgang Freitag, up to 128k XRAM, E/AE),  
Fampy 6.1                (Wolfgang Freitag, up to 128k XRAM, E/AE),  
Howfen DOS 3.x           (???, up to 128k XRAM, E/AE),  
Howfen Tape to Disk      (???, up to 128k XRAM, E/AE),  
Inertia 2.x              (MadTeam, up to 256k XRAM, E/AE/8ACE),  
Inertia 3.x              (MadTeam, up to 256k XRAM, E/AE/(ACE)
Inertia 4.x              (MadTeam, up to 1024k XRAM, all combinations !)
Midi Mate II             (Hybrid Arts, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Pattern Editor      (Raster, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Player              (I. Kuczek, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Recorder            (I. Kuczek, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Sequencer           (M. Sygit, 64k XRAM, block E),  
MSC-IDE-Software         (M. Belitz + S. Birrmanns, 64k XRAM, block E),  
My-DOS 3.x               (Wordmark, up to ???k RAMdisk),  
My-DOS 4.x               (Wordmark, up to 1024k RAMdisk, all banks),  
Paperclip II             (Batteries Included, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Super DOS 2.x            (P. Nichols, up to 2x 128k RDs, E/AE/ACE/8ACE),  
Super DOS 5.x            (P. Nichols, up to 256k RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),   
The [Sparta DOS] Browser (Tom Hunt, up to 1024k RAMdisk, RD-driver dep.),  
The Sound Utility        (Tom Hunt, up to 1024k XRAM?, bug-free only under 
Sparta/Bewe-DOS, one can choose between 64k/128k/256k/576k/1088k RAM, alas
all setups with more than 64k RAM produced some strange sound noises on
my 576k XL when playing waves or samples...),  
Theta Music Composer 2.x (Jaskier, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Turbo DOS 1.x            (Reitershan, up to 256k RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),  
Turbo-DOS 2.x            (Reitershan, up to 256k RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),  
Top-DOS 1.x              (R.K. Bennett, 64k RAMdisk, block E),  
Top DOS Plus             (R.K. Bennett, up to ???k RAMdisk),  
Top DOS Prof.            (R.K. Bennett, up to ???k RAMdisk),  
Typesetter               (XLent, 64k XRAM, block E),  
X-DOS 2.x                (S. D., up to 256k RD, E/AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),   
X-RAM 0.21               (Satantronic, tests up to 4 MB!, all banks!) 
and most Text-Editors (e.g. Speedscript, Antic Writer, T-Edit, Page 6
Writer, Compy-Shop Editor, Textpro, etc.) as long as they are running 
under a DOS 2.x (meaning a DOS 2 derivative) or Sparta / Bewe DOS and the 
appropriate RAMdisk driver...; 
 
b) "Games" that support more than 64k RAM: 
 
Adalmar                  (Falk Buettner, 64k RAMdisk, block E),
A.R. - The Dungeon       (Philipp Price, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Bop N'Wrestle            (Mindscape, 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Brundles             (KE-Soft, up to 256k XRAM, E/AE/26AE),  
Human Torch & the Thing  (Questprobe, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Johnny`s Problem         (ANG, 64k XRAM, block E),
Megablast 1              (Thorsten Karwoth, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Mental Age               (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Problem Jasia            (Mirage, 64k XRAM, block E),
[The Amazing] Spiderman  (Questprobe, 64k XRAM, block E); 
 
c) "Demos" that support more than 64k RAM: 
 
ABBUC Magazine Intro 52  (Heaven, 64k XRAM, block E),  
ABBUC Magazine Intro 55  (Heaven, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Anime 4ever              (Sente Software Group, 256k XRAM, 8ACE),  
Grafik + Sound Demo      (Peter Sabath, 64k XRAM, block E),  
I. K. Plus Demo          (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Sweet Fantasy            (Tight, 64k XRAM, block  E),  
The Top 3 Demo           (WFMH, "Veronika Part", 64k XRAM, block E); 
 
 
Thanks and credits for this subject go to: Bernhard Pahl, Russ Gilbert,  
Ron Hamilton, Mathy van Nisselroy and Miker for sharing some information 
with me. - Andreas Koch 

------------------------------

Subject: 8.12) What programs require more than 64K RAM?

This section by Andreas Koch -- version 3.6 from June 2008 
 
The following Atari 8Bit programs require more than 64k RAM, and thus 
do not work at all (or not alright/bug-free) on standard 64k machines:   
 
a) "Tools" that require more than 64k RAM: 
 
128k Memory Testers      (quite many programs, 64k XRAM, block E),  
130XE Bank/Mem.-Testers  (quite many programs, 64k XRAM, block E),   
130XE Sectorcopiers      (quite many programs, 64k XRAM, block E), 
130XE Utilities          (HAPS PD 0031, 64k XRAM, block E),  
192k Memory Testers      (some PD programs, 128k XRAM, blocks AE),  
256k Memory Testers      (Newell, ICD, etc., 192k XRAM, blocks ACE),  
320k Mem. Testers 8ACE   (Atari Mag., TOMS, etc., 256k XRAM, blocks 8ACE), 
320k Mem. Testers 26AE   (Compy-Shop, etc., 256k XRAM, blocks 26AE),  
576k Memory Testers      (Peterson, TOMS, etc., 512k XRAM, blocks 8ACE),  
1088k Memory Testers     (Newell, TOMS, etc., 1MB XRAM, blocks 02468ACE),  
4160k Memory Tester      (Newell, 4MB XRAM, blocks 0123456789ABCDEF), 
APC Archiver 1.x         (LBS/APC, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),   
APC Packer 1.x           (LBS/APC, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),  
A. W. P. Super Menu      (Ken Siders, min. 64k XRAM, block E), 
A. W. P. XE Super Menu   (Ken Siders, min. 192k XRAM, blocks ACE),   
Audio/Studio Master      (Mirage/ANG, 256k XRAM, 26AE only?),  
Boot Majster             (Electron, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Boss X [Vers. 10.x]      (M. Sobe, with any DOS min. 64k RAMdisk, block E; 
with MyDOS 4.x it supports up to 1MB RD, subdirs and up to 16MB HD part.),  
Boss XE [Vers. 8.x]      (M. Sobe, with any DOS min. 64k RAMdisk, block E; 
with Turbo-DOS or MyDOS 4.5x it supports bigger RAMdisks, but no subdirs!), 
CAD XE                   (HAPS PD 0350, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Diskettenverwaltung XE   (ABBUC PD 86, 64k XRAM, block E), 
Draw XE                  (ABBUC PD 387, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Dream Vision             (ABBUC PD 480, 192k XRAM, blocks ACE?),  
Fraktale & Colorprint    (P. Woetzel, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Grafik Zeilen Editor     (HAPS PD 0296, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Hires Dump               (ABBUC PD 113, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Inertia 3.x              (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up to 
                          256k XRAM, AE/ACE/26AE/8ACE with almost any DOS), 
Inertia 4.x              (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up to 
                          1024k XRAM - all possible bank combinations!),  
Macro Assembler XE       (T. Karwoth, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Macro Assembler XE+      (T. Karwoth, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up 
                          to 1024k XRAM - all possible bank combinations!),  
Masher XE                (???, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up to  
                          256k XRAM: AE/ACE/8ACE),  
Menu 130                 (Les Howarth, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Midi Mate III            (Hybrid Arts, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Monitors, Debuggers, ... (HAPS PD 0109, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Multi DOS 130            (Kuchera/Excellent, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Multi DOS 320            (Kuchera/Excellent, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),  
Multi Tasking OS         (???, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
MTOS 256                 (Tom Hunt, 192k XRAM, blocks ACE),  
MTOS XE                  (Tom Hunt, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Neo-Tracker 1.x          (Epi, min. 64k XRAM, block E; under MyDOS 4.5x  
or Sparta DOS X cart. it supports up to 1MB XRAM, all bank combinations!)  
Newspaper Editor         (HAPS PD 0294, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Protracker 1.5           (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up to  
                          256k XRAM: AE/ACE/8ACE/26AE),  
Rechnen fuer Kinder      (ABBUC PD 85, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Rund um die RAMdisk      (ABBUC PD 383, HAPS PD 1084, contains info texts  
and pgms. for upgrading the 800 or XL/XE and testing its XRAM up to 1 MB;  
the docs use English language and provide detailed information for Axlon  
compatible 800 XRAM and Newell/Buchholz/Peterson compatible XL/XE XRAM),  
Sample Art XE            (Mozart/WSL, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up  
to 1024k XRAM, all bank combinations, alas the program is faulty/buggy!),  
Shrink XE                (P. Fitzsimmons, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Snapshot                 (???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Tape RAMdisk Drivers     (Pokey, SAG, etc., 64k XRAM, block E),  
Text 130                 (B. Russmann, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Textpro "+" [e.g. 4.54+] (Ronnie Riche, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Textpro 5.x              (Ronnie Riche, 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Code Cruncher 2.x    (Soused Teat, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Code Cruncher 3.x    (Soused Teat, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Cruncher 5.x         (MSL/Magnus, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
The Small Printery       (W. Lojek, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up  
                          to 1024k XRAM, all bank combinations!),  
The [Sparta DOS] Wedge   (Ed Bachmann, 64k XRAM, block E, sep. Antic!),  
The Works                (Tom Hunt, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
Wuerttemberger Disk      (ABBUC PD 361, HAPS PD 1050, 64k XRAM, block E;  
mainly/only because side 2 contains the XE version of Gizmo's castle),  
XL-2                     (J.K. Picken, min. 64k XRAM, block E; under MyDOS 
                          or Sparta DOS it supports up to 1024k XRAM !),  
Zeitungsredakteur        (ABBUC PD 121, 64k XRAM, block E); 
 
b) "Games" that require more than 64k RAM:  
 
Castle of Blackthorne    (T. Graef, 64k RD, block E),  
Cavepack XE              (XE-version by K. Ezcan, 64k RD, block E),  
Computer Baseball        (D. Blackwell, 64k XRAM, block E), 
Der Neffe                (XE-version by ???, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Gizmo's Castle           (XE-version by M. Kugler, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Kaiser II                (128k version by C. S., 64k XRAM, block E), 
Kaiser II                (320k version by C. S., 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE),  
Minesweeper 1-4          (4 versions by J.R. Chicko, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Mister X                 (S. Soelbrandt, 64k RD, block E),  
Oelbaron                 (XE-version by ???, 64k RD, block E),  
Space Harrier            (C. Hutt, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Strategy Baseball        (HAPS PD 0302, 64k XRAM, block E),  
T-34 the Battle          (ANG, 64k XRAM, block E),
Yie Ar Kung Fu           (???, 256k XRAM, blocks ???, get the latest
versions from Fandal`s or Homesoft`s homepage...),  
Zargon XE                (ABBUC PD 611, HAPS PD 0485, 64k XRAM, block E),  
 
Please note, that hackers, crackers and pirates also made file versions  
of (most of) the XE / XEGS 64k and 128k carts available. Due to cart. 
bankswitching, a 64k XL/XE was enough for these super-carts; not so with 
the file versions, they do (mostly) require more than 64k memory... 

Next, there are also "un-official" (pirated, hacked, cracked, patched)  
cart. versions of former disk-based games, that require XRAM, which they  
originally did not (example: Conan, the multi-stage disk-version by  
Datasoft requires 64k RAM, whereas the single-stage version of the  
Sunmark multicart. req. 128k RAM). It is quite likely, that more games 
will occur in the Atari scene with the same behavior... 
 
c) "Demos" that require more than 64k RAM:  
 
130XE Artshow            (HAPS PD 0013, 64k XRAM, block E),  
130XE Autoshow           (HAPS PD 0637, ABBUC PD 191, 64k XRAM, block E),  
130XE Demo               (S.A.G., 64k XRAM, block E),  
130XE Impossible Demo    (R. Haegemann, 64k XRAM, block E),   
3D Scroll                (Jaskier/TQA, 64k XRAM, block E),  
American Natives         (Fox-1, 192k RD, RAMdisk = DOS dependant), 
Amiga Boink XE           (B. Armour, 64k XRAM, block E),   
Animkom. meet B. V.      (Animkomials + B.V., 64k XRAM, block E),  
(The) Asskicker          (Shadows, 64k XRAM, block E; hold Select!), 
Back to Life 2           (Jaskier/TQA, 256k XRAM, auto-setup!),  
Base 33                  (AIDS, 256k XRAM, hold SHIFT for setup!),  
Bill Pie Demo            (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E; supports up  
                          to 256k XRAM: AE/8ACE with more frames),  
BMW Animation            (Mirko Sobe, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Brull                    (Pin/Trs, 1MB XRAM for a sample demo), 
CES XE Demo              (full 580 sectors version by XANTH, 64k XRAM,  
block E; includes the Swan-, Fuji-Boink- and Robot-Demo all in one file!), 
Cogito Demo              (AIDS, uses blocks 8C, thus 8ACE only!),  
Critical Sounddemo       (Innovative, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Danielle (Gr.9) Ani      (B. Kendrick, 64k XRAM, block E),  
DoXEpin                  (AIDS, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Edelweiss Demo           (A.R.+C.S.S.+S.V.L., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Ergo Bibamus             (Quasimodos, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Extract Slideshow        (Replay/Bit Busters, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Fat Bottomed Girls       (???, 64k XRAM block E for a Queen sample), 
Forever 1ktro            (New Generation, 64k XRAM block E for a 1k demo), 
Forsaken Love            (New Generation, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE; simply 
delete "BANKS.DAT", reboot and create a new one for your kind of XRAM!), 
Glasshead Demo           (A.R.+C.S.S., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Halle 1994: The Wormhole (Magic Arts, 256k XRAM, 26AE only!), 
Hardware Demo            (A.R.+C.S.S., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Igor Demo (Side A)       (MadTeam, 64k XRAM, block E - use 128k.BAT), 
Igor Demo (Side B)       (MadTeam, 128k XRAM, blocks AE - use 192k.BAT),  
Igor Demo (Side A+B)     (MadTeam, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only - use 320k.BAT),   
Imperial Sounddemo       (Innovative, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE),  
Impossible but Real      (MacGyver, 192k XRAM, auto-setup!),  
Incredible               (Excellent, 64k XRAM, block E), 
Inside Out               (Taquart, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Isolation Demo           (M.E.C., 64k XRAM, block E),  
Journey Demo             (Boot version by Polynomials, min. 64k XRAM,  
                          block E; supports up to 256k XRAM: AE/8ACE),   
Journey Demo             (File version by MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block  
                          E; supports up to 192k XRAM: AE/ACE),  
Journey into Sound       (DGS / D. Garaghty, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Khai Et                  (AIDS, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, SHIFT for Setup!), 
Killer Whales Ani        (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E, supports up 
                          to 256k XRAM: AE/8ACE with more frames!),   
Landscape-XE Demo        (Karl Pelzer, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Manga Ani                (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E), 
Megablast Sounddemo      (DGS / D. Garaghty, 64k XRAM, block E),  
MTV's Danielle           = Danielle (Gr.9) Ani,  
Nascar Ani               (M. Sobe, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Nonjm Demo               (Tight, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Numen Demo               (Taquart, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, auto-setup!),  
Ogluszacz Sounddemo      (AIDS, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Owca Demo                (Animkomials, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Owca 2 Demo              (Animkomials, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Pacem in Terris          (Quasimodos, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, auto-setup),  
Parrot XMAS Demo         (A. Ramos, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Pedrokko Sounddemos      (a collection of 10 disks / 20 sides by Pedrokko,  
                          the player program assumes a 64k RD, block E),  
Raytracing Ani/128k      (K. Pelzer, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Raytracing 320k          (Elsni / S. Elsner, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),  
Raytracing 1088k         (Solocoder of A.C.E., 1024k XRAM, works only on  
K.P. 1MB Megaram III, 8 bootdisks, loading time approx. 17 minutes !!),  
Reditus Demo             (Zelax, 192k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE, auto-setup),   
Render Ani               (MadTeam, min. 64k XRAM, block E),  
Revenge of Hacker        (Rasero Team, 128k XRAM, blocks AE),  
Running Cow ASCII Ani    (MadTeam, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Sheol Demo               (Bit Busters, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only!),  
Shiny Bubbles            (XE version by B. Paul, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Stash 98 Demo            (Rasero Team, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE via a buggy 
setup: 1) for 8ACE XRAM press A in the 1st or 2nd menu, 2) for 26AE press 
B in the 1st menu and C in the 2nd menu; don't use the CS auto-setup!), 
Starwars Demo            (A.R.+C.S.S., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
The Wormhole             (Magic Arts, 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Timekeep(er)             (New Generation, 256k XRAM, 8ACE only! wait!),  
Tit Demo                 (Mad Team, 192k XRAM, auto-setup!),  
Too Hard 3 Demo          (Animkomials, 128k XRAM, blocks AE),  
Too Hard 4 Demo          (Animkomials, 256k XRAM, auto-setup!),  
Total Dazed              (Tight, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Trabant Demo             (A.R.+C.S.S., 256k XRAM, 26AE only!),  
Trip 6                   (Shadows, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Turtles Demo             (Ultra Software, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Ultra Demo               (Taquart, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Ultra 2 Preview          (Taquart, 64k XRAM, block E, unfinished!),  
Vengeance                (Excellent, 64k XRAM, block E),  
Vent XE                  (Exc.+Pentagram, 64k XRAM, block E),  
WAF-Demo                 (W.A.F., diskside B = 64k XRAM, block E),  
Worms Demo               (Datri, 256k XRAM, 8ACE otherwise buggy!),  
X-Demo                   (MadTeam, 256k XRAM, 26AE),  
X-Files Ani              (MadTeam, 64k XRAM, block E),  
X-Files 2 (TV-Ani)       (MadTeam, 256k XRAM, 26AE & 8ACE),  
Xyberscape XE            (XE version by Bill Le Masurier, 64k XRAM, E), 
Zero Demo                (New Generation, 64k XRAM, block E); 
 
 
Thanks and credits for this subject go to Russ Gilbert, Bernhard Pahl,  
Ron Hamilton, Mathy van Nisselroy, Stephan Pollok and Miker for sharing 
their information with me. Any corrections and/or updates are welcome...  
-Andreas Koch 

------------------------------

Subject: 8.13) What voice/sound synthesis software is there for the Atari?

This section by Andreas Koch.

- S.A.M. - the Software Automated Mouth by Don't Ask Software (a 
  software package; you can find it at Don`s / the author's homepage:
  http://www.retrobits.net)
- Softsynth (a PD program, that creates sounds and sound effects via
  modulation of the tv/monitor speaker; available from the ABBUC library);
- MOD-Sounds (sound-MODulation, although I do not know any software to
  create such sounds on an A8, some programs to edit (Protracker) and
  playback (Inertia, Modplayer, Neotracker, etc.) these sounds do exist);

------------------------------

Subject: 8.14) What programs support stereo and upgraded sound?

This section by Andreas Koch.
(POPS info updated 8/15/06 by mdc thanks to Lee Brilliant)

There is already a lot of stereo software for the upgraded Atari computers
available, of course most of these programs are limited to certain/special
upgrades and merely perform their stereo effects on these items (with
otherwise upgraded or non-upgraded Ataris, the sounds or programs will
only play in mono):

a) software for the various stereo-upgrades:

- 3 channels with one Pokey (POPS-software): As far as I know for this kind
  of upgrade, there merely exists a patched version of the Pokey player
  program, I am not sure if there is anything else for it; anyway, refer to
  ANALOG #66, November 1988, pages 54-60;

- stereo with two computers (thus two Pokeys): As far as I know for this
  simple trick there merely exist two programs, they are "Perestroyka" and
  "Sky Network" by T.Liebich. In order to achieve the stereo effect, you
  have to boot/load one of these demos on two computers (connected to
  different TVs or monitors, there is no need to connect the computers to 
  each other!). When done, press 1-5 on the first computer while pressing
  Shift-1-5 on the second computer. Meaning, if you want to hear the first 
  sound in stereo then press 1 on computer 1 and press Shift-1 on 
  computer 2 simultaneously (that`s a little tricky, I know). If you want
  to hear sound 5 in stereo, then press 5 on computer 1 and Shift-5 on
  computer 2 simultaneously. Tricky at first, but sooner or later you will
  get the hang of it. Of course you can also connect the two Ataris to
  a hifi-system, using the sound output of one Atari for the left channel
  and the sound output of the other Atari for the right channel...

- stereo-sound with Stereo-Blaster Pro (Portronic/AMC): As far as I know
  there was at least one demo disk (early version was single-sided only,
  later versions were double-sided), that contained some demo-software,
  namely the simple "Stereo-demos" (by AMC, side 1) and the
  "Stereoblaster-Demo" (by HU-Soft, side 2 if available). The Stereoblaster
  demo was written in Turbo-Basic and played back via Compiled-Turbo-Basic,
  it uses Chaos Music-Composer Sounds (*.CMC) and a few of these provide
  stereo effects, if equipped with a stereo-blaster-pro and a hifi-system.
  The simple stereo-demos included some programs written in Atari Basic,
  for example a (pong-like) bouncing ball and a flying helicopter. Equipped
  with a stereo-blaster-pro and a hifi-system, one could see the ball
  bouncing left and right and simultaneously hear the sound fx on the left
  or right channel. The helicopter started at the left side and produced a
  loud sound on the left channel, when it was flying to the right side, the 
  sound faded on the left channel and got louder on the right channel, 
  until the helicopter disappeared (and the sound completely faded away). 
  There were some more of these simple demos available, but I don`t 
  remember them anymore.

- Stereo with two Pokeys: There already exist dozens of sounds and demos,
  that support this upgrade, most of these programs were made in Poland,
  but a few sound-demos were also made in other countries. Anyway, the
  following programs support stereo via two Pokey chips:

  - Alf-Demo by the Unknown Base (Netherlands);
  - Alpha-Demo by GMG (Slovakia);
  - AMS-Stereo player by ??? (author unknown), USA;
    (there are at least two AMS-stereo-players, that let you play
     *.AMS sounds in true stereo or at least simulated stereo!);
  - Ballada sound by DJ V / BK (Poland);
  - Base 33 by AIDS (msx by Greg, Poland);
  - Chaos Music Composer version x.x patched by ??? , Poland;
    (=> the original version by Janusz Pelc / LK Avalon is only mono,
     but there is a stereo-patch available, as well as various patched 
     CMC stereo-versions on the internet);
  - (many) *.CMC sounds created by one of the many stereo-versions of 
    Chaos Music Composer;
  - Cogito-Demo by AIDS (Poland) 
  - Do you see the light? sound-demo by Roemer of UNO (Germany);  
  - Draconus, patched version by ANG and/or Micro Discount (NL/UK)
    (the original version by Zeppelin games is only mono!);
  - Dynakillers (Game) by GMG, Slovakia;
  - First of All (sound) by Raster, Czech Republic;
  - Impossible but Real Demo by MacGyver (Poland);
  - King of Aggregat by X-Ray / Slight (Poland); 
  - Megaplayer Versions 1.6 and 2.0 by MacGyver (Poland)
    (=> and thus all *.CMC, *.MPT, *.TMC, etc. sounds played with
     this sound-player tool can be heard in true or simulated stereo!);
  - Multi-Pro-Tracker 2.4s by Jaskier/Taquart, (original mono version
    by SoTE; thus *.MPT sounds can be generated in stereo!), Poland;
  - (many) *.MPT sounds created by the stereo-version of Multi Protracker;
  - Nazebany by DJ V / BK (Poland); 
  - Overload sound by X-Ray / Slight (Poland);
  - Raster Music Tracker 1.x by Raster, Radek Sterba (a PC program 
    that creates mono or stereo *.RMT sounds that can be played back 
    on the A8 or any Atari 800/XL/XE emulator);
  - *.RMT stereo-sounds created by Raster Music Tracker;
  - Stereo-Patch for Pokey Player by Chuck Steinman
    (=> thus all Pokey-Player / *.V sounds can be heard in stereo!);
  - Stereo-Patch for Softsynth by Freddy Offenga (Netherlands)
    (=> thus Softsynth will create stereo-sounds!);
  - Stereo Patch for World of Wonders by Freddy Offenga (Netherlands)
    (World of Wonders is a great Softsynth sound-demo!);
  - Still Alive (TMC-sound) by Greg, Poland;
  - Time sound by X-Ray / Slight (Poland);
  - Theta-Music-Composer version 1.x by Jaskier/Taquart
    (=> thus *.TMC sounds can be generated in stereo!);
  - Theta-Music-Composer version 2.x by Jaskier/Taquart
    (supports 1, 2 or even 4 Pokey sound-chips !)
  - (most) *.TMC sounds created by Theta Music Composer;
  - Vanity sound by Kuchara / Excellent (Poland) ;
  - Worms (320k-Demo) by Datri, Czech Republic;
  - Zybex, patched version by ANG and/or Micro Discount (NL/UK)
    (the original version by Zeppelin games is only mono!);
  - that's all what I found so far...

b) software for other sound enhancements:

- enhanced-sound with Covox: As far as I know this upgrade will playback
  digitized or sampled sound in 8Bit resolution rather than in 4Bit
  resolution. The following programs support the Covox-Upgrade:
  - Inertia 2.x, a MOD-player by MadTeam;
  - Inertia 3.x, a MOD-player by MadTeam
  - Inertia 4.5, a MOD player by MadTeam;
  - Protracker 1.5, a MOD-editor and player by MadTeam;
  - NeoTracker 1.x, a MOD+NEO+SMP player by EPI/Allegresse;
  - that's all I have found so far; 
note that all these programs will still work with pokey...

------------------------------

Subject: 8.15) What games support online action via modem?

This section by Andreas Koch.

- Modem Chess, a PD game in Basic by ???
- Modem-Battleships, a PD game in Basic by ???
- Tele-Chess, a PD game in Basic by ???
- Jelly Beans a ML game by Chris Martin
- "Battleships ST-XL" by Florian Dingler
  (German name: Schiffe versenken ST-XL)
- Midi Maze by XANTH (prototype)
- Commbat by Adventure International

(I have also seen an advert from GCP in ANALOG or Antic, that listed
 the following games: The City, Cybertank, Cybership, Bio-War, Lords
 of Space; I am not sure if they are all available for the Atari, A.K.)

To play these games online, one would not only require an Atari computer,
but also a modem, a modem-driver and/or a terminal program (like Kermit,
Bobterm, Teleterm, A-Term, Ice-T, BBS Express! Pro, etc.). See also the
sections 7.8, 10.1 and 10.2 which tell you more about modem/terminal
programs and modem hardware for the Atari. Emulator users have it a little
easier and can use the built-in modem emulation in Ape-DOS, Ape-Win,
Atari 800 DOS, Atari 800 Win, etc. 

------------------------------

Subject: 8.16) What programs support Atari computer networking?

This section by Andreas Koch.

There are two different hardware add-ons which provide a "computer- 
network" (two or more Ataris linked together). Thus, there is software 
that supports either one or the other hardware (namely Gamelink-1 or
Gamelink-2). The following software supports the networking hardware:

- Gamelink-1 (by Dataque): 
  - info-text about GL-1 and where to buy it, by Dataque;
  - Tic-Tac-Two by J.Potter/Dataque, a tic-tac-toe clone; 
  - Modem-Battleships, patched by Rick Detlefsen for Gamelink-1;

- Gamelink-2 / Multilink (by Dataque & Bewesoft):
  - Maze of Agdagon demo (1 player only) by Dataque;
  - Maze of Agdagon (full version, 2-8 players) by Dataque;
  - Multi-Dash (2-8 players, XL/XE only) by Bewesoft;
  - Multi-Race (2-16 players, XL/XE only) by Bewesoft;
  - Multi-Worms (2-8 or 2-16? players, XL/XE only) by Bewesoft;
  - "starter-kit" module to use in your own networking-games by Bewesoft
    (free use of this module is granted by Bewesoft/Jiri Bernasek);
  - Speed-Up by Radek Sterba
  - Speed-Up Gold by Radek Sterba

------------------------------

Subject: 9.1) How can I work with .arc files on my 8-bit Atari?

ARC.EXE for MS-DOS was released by System Enhancement Associates (SEA) around
1985.  It will compress and store groups of files as one file, making it
easier and quicker to download programs and support files at once. Because of
the ease of use and availability of this program, it quickly became the
de facto standard for file archives on Intel-based IBM machines.  Files
compressed and stored with ARC or a compatible utility are normally given the
filename extender ".arc".

The 8-bit Atari computers have several software utility options that are fully
compatible with ARC.EXE, the most important being:

Super UnArc 2.4 and Super Arc 2.4 - shareware by Bob Puff, released 01/31/89
Available: 
http://www.nleaudio.com/css/files/superarc.arc (complete package + docs)

Also, SpartaDOS X includes a fully compatible ARC command for both creating
and extracting .arc files.

------------------------------

Subject: 9.2) What file formats for entire disks/tapes/cartridges are there?

It is now common, especially when working on Windows PCs or Macs, to work with
Atari software as files or "images" containing the data from an entire disk,
data cassette, or cartridge as duplicated from the native media for the Atari.

Here is a list of file formats, arranged by their associated filename
extensions.  These are all filename extensions used to name files containing
entire 8-bit Atari floppy disk images, cassette tape images, or cartridge
images.

.ATR -Image format invented by Nick Kennedy, for his SIO2PC project.
      Very similar to .XFD but with an added 16 byte header.
      This is the most common image format, used with most 8-bit Atari
      emulators running on other computer platforms.
      SIO2PC is at http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm

.ATX -Image format invented by Jorge Cwik, for VAPI project.  Goal of Vapi is
      the preservation of Atari software in its original unmodified form,
      including custom format or copy protection.  http://vapi.fxatari.com/

.CAS -Cassette image format invented by Ernest R. Schreurs, for his 
      Digital Cassette Image system (includes CAS2SIO, WAV2CAS, and CAS2WAV
      MS-DOS utilities.  See: http://home.planet.nl/~ernest/ .
      The .CAS format was extended by Tomasz Krasuski (kr0tki), for his
      A8CAS system.  See: http://a8cas.sourceforge.net/
      
.DCM -Image format invented by Bob Puff for his Disk Communicator 3.2 utility.
      Used when working with native Atari hardware.  A compressed data format.
      DISKCOMM is at http://www.nleaudio.com/css/files/DISKCOM.ARC
      .DCM specs at: http://home.planet.nl/~ernest/diskcomm.zip

.DD  -Early filename extension used with double density disk images for use
      with the Xformer emulators.  Replaced by the .XFD extension.

.DI  -Image format invented by Kolja Koischwitz & Christian Krueger for
      800XL DJ, their 1050/XF551 disk drive emulator for the Atari
      ST/TT/Falcon.
      800XL Deejay: http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/Emulators/800xldj.lzh

.PRO -Proprietary image format invented by Steven Tucker, for his
      APE ProSystem device.  Used with APE, the Atari Peripheral Emulator.
      APE and APE ProSystem are at http://www.atarimax.com/

.SCP -SpartaDOS SCOPY image file.  SCOPY was a utility by ICD.  A compressed
      data format.

.SD  -Early filename extension used with single density disk images for use
      with the Xformer emulators.  Replaced by the .XFD extension.

.XFD -"Xformer Floppy Disk" image format invented by Emulators, Inc. (Darek
      Mihocka) for the Xformer emulators (ST, PC).  Known earlier, before
      support for arbitrary disk sizes was added, as .SD or .DD depending on
      the density of the imaged disk.  The format consists simply of a raw
      sector dump of a disk.  Used with ST Xformer, PC Xformer, and 
      Xformer 2000 emulators.
      Xformer emulators are at http://www.emulators.com/
      
See also:
Atari Disk Image FAQ  (Steve Tucker)
http://www.atarimax.com/ape/docs/DiskImageFAQ/

------------------------------

Subject: 9.3) How can I copy my copy-protected Atari software?

This section by Russ Gilbert.

Almost all commercial software for the A8 is/was copy protected.

For boot disks, this usually involved a large number of special formatting
that couldn't be copied using ordinary sector copiers.  Usually the boot
process involved checking to see if a certain sector error occurred, then
proceeding. If the error did not occur, the disk was a copy and would not
work.

Alphasys adds (2009.03):
  Some protection schemes involved special sector skewing, which involved
  special timing during loading, duplicate sector numbers with differing
  content, or tracks with more or less than the usual number of sectors.
  With duplicate sector numbers, I mean physical duplication, involving
  sector header code that is read by the drive only, not any part of the
  sector data transferred to the computer.

For carts, usually the method of protection was to write to the cart area of
memory and see if the value changed.  If the value changed, the cart program
was in RAM, not ROM and would fail to operate.

For tapes, again a fair number of schemes were used.  Some varied the speed at
which the tape loaded.  I'm not familiar with tape protection schemes.

With all software media (cart, tape, disk), there may be program encryption,
which must be decrypted before the program can run.  This to make more
difficult disassembly of the program.

There were/are a number of products to defeat copy protection/allow copying of
protected software for the A8.  The most common way to defeat copy protection
was to disassemble the software and revise sections of code so that the copy
protection was defeated.  A software with defeated copy protection is called a
'cracked' software.  The basic procedure is to understand how cart/tape/disk
software initializes, loads and runs.  Usually make a file out of the software
and 'follow the code', starting with loading of the program, to decryption to
the actual running of the program.  Today, it is unnecessary to copy original
commercial A8 software because it has already been defeated and may be found
at a few FTP sites. 

Besides 'cracking' software, there were/are hardware devices to copy
commercial protected software.  The Happy 1050 and the Archiver, and probably
other modifications to the 810, or 1050 allowed 'bit image' copying and
reproduction of the special formatting that copy protected disks had.  

  Alphasys (2009.03):
  For the Speedy, there is a special program called Speedy Backup, which can
  copy about 80% of the protected disks.

Using these archiving disk drives, a copy of the original disk, including all
special formatting and the original code is copied, thus making a copy
protected copy, not cracked, just like the original.

For carts, copying could involve cracking or again there were/are products to
reproduce the cart and simulate a ROM.  Or the cart might be copied and burned
on the correct type of EPROM, to make a plug in cart.  'The Impersonator', the
'Pill' are two cart copy schemes copy the cart to a file, then don't change
the code, but use a 'dummy cart' to fool the software into thinking there is a
ROM present.

Basic tools for copying, then cracking, carts and disks are a sector editor
and disassembler.  Carts are usually most easily dumped using a special OS,
like Omnimon, to interrupt the cart and dump memory to disk.  There are a few
pd cart copiers that have the user plug the cart in when the program is
running, I don't believe these pd cart copiers are very good or very wise to
use.

So, the basic answer to 'how do I make a copy of my copy protected commercial
software' is don't bother.  Find it on the net.

There is one exception, in that this 'solution' involves a minimum of effort
and is relatively safe.  I refer to 'Chipmunk' and 'Black Patch' software to
make cracked boot disk copy of commercial disks.  HOWEVER, even if you use
these two commercial archival tools, be sure you write protect your originals,
and be careful not to accidentally write to the original disk.

Finally, I'll mention a very modern (I mean 1997) product.  The APE ProSystem,
by Steven Tucker, in the registered version of this shareware allows making
disk images called 'Pro' images.  APE (Atari Peripheral Emulator) requires a
cable, called the SIO2PC cable, that connects the A8 13 pin serial port to a
serial port on the IBM PC clone.  To make 'Pro' images, a special adapter
cable is needed, not just the 'standard' SIO2PC cable.  The 'Pro' image can
'capture' the copy protection of an original commercial disk.  The 'Pro' image
can then be loaded into an A8 using the APE registered version software, thus
backing up your original disk software.  Note the 'Pro' image will only be of
use to person(s) owning registered APE software and 'Pro' adapter cable.

------------------------------

Subject: 10.1) What programs can log in to other computers via modem?

Here are some of the more popular PD/freeware/shareware terminal emulator and
related programs available.  Use one of these programs for accessing a dial-up
Bulletin Board System (BBS) with your Atari, or for accessing a dial-up "shell
account" with your Internet Service Provider (ISP).  Dial-up shell accounts
are no longer widely available here in the 21st century!  (There is no
general-purpose PPP capability for the 8-bit Atari that I am aware of.)

ATAR-Z-MODEM 1.2, 5/29/94, shareware by Larry Black
     Emulates: n/a
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0
     File Xfer: ZMODEM download
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: no
     Summary: Intended to be used as an external ZMODEM receive utility in
       conjunction with other terminal programs, especially BobTerm

BobTerm 1.23, 1993, shareware by Bob Puff
     Emulates: VT52
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80
     File Xfer: XMODEM, YMODEM, FMODEM
     Autodial: Yes
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: Yes
     Summary: Feature-filled; best for BBSing
     Available: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/ (version 1.21 complete package)
     http://www.mixinc.net/atari/download_a8/datacom/bobt123.lzh (ver. 1.23)

FlickerTerm 80 v.0.51, freeware by LonerSoft (Clay Halliwell)
     Emulates: VT100, IBM ANSI
     Text: 80 column via a special Graphics 0 screen (no hardware required)
     File Xfer: None
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: No
     Summary: Fast and complete VT100 emulation; readability a minus

Ice-T XE v2.72, (c)1997 by Itay Chamiel, February 12, 1997
  * Requires an XL/XE with at least 128K RAM
  * Complete VT-102 and ANSI-BBS emulation, including boldface/blink support
  * Takes advantage of XE/upgraded-XL banked RAM to provide many features
  * Supports up to 19,200 baud, with no data loss
  * Readable 80-columns, usable even with color TV
  * Fully menu driven
  * Xmodem-CRC, Xmodem-1K, Ymodem-batch, Ymodem-G, ZMODEM download protocols
  * ASCII upload, 16K capture buffer
  * 16K scrollback buffer
  * Auto-dialer, with a directory of up to 20 numbers
  * Text file viewer
  * Fine scroll
  * Print screen
  * Ice-T 800 v1.1 also available: 
    - Requires 48K RAM, runs on all machines including 400/800
    - Has a reduced feature set relative to Ice-T XE 2.72

Kermit-65 3.7, PD by John R. Dunning
     Emulates: VT100
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. in gr.8; 80 col. w/ XEP80 (sort of)
     File Xfer: Kermit
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: No
     Summary: Excellent VT100 emulation; rock-solid Kermit Xfers
     filenames:   k65v37.arc ; k65doc.arc - docs ; k65src.arc - source

OmniCom by CDY Consulting (David Young)
     Emulates: VT100
     Text: 80 columns in gr.8
     File Xfer: XMODEM, Kermit
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: No
     Summary: Only option combining VT100, XMODEM, Kermit
     filename: omnicom.arc

PabQwk 2.0, 1 Feb 1994, shareware by Low-Budget Productions (Pab Sungenis)
     Requires: 128K XL/XE
     Emulates: n/a
     File Xfer: QWK upload/download
     Summary: The Professional QWK reader for the Atari 8-bits.  (QWK is a
     packet format created in the IBM BBS community for reading mail
     offline.) 

Term80 1.6 (8.25.95), by CTH Enterprises (Tom Hunt)
     Requires: MIO or Black Box
     Emulates: ANSI
     Text: 80 columns in gr.8
     File Xfer: XMODEM receive, YMODEM send/receive     
     Autodial: Yes
     Brackscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: Yes
     Summary: Designed for calling IBM ANSI BBSs at the highest possible
        speeds supported by the MIO and Black Box (14.4 Kbps)

VT850 B1, shareware by Curtis Laser
     Emulates: VT100/VT102 (plus complete VT220 keymap)
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80
     File Xfer: None
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: Yes
     Summary: Only option for VT100 emulation on the XEP80; 1200bps top speed
     filename: vt850b1.arc

------------------------------

Subject: 10.2) What programs can I use to host a BBS on the Atari?

Contributors to this section include: Winston Smith, Steven Sturza, Chad
Hendrickson, Don Fanning, Matt Singer, Pete Davis, Jeff Williams, Rod Roark

"A BBS, plain and simple, is some hobbyist setting up their own computer to
answer incoming calls from other hobby computers.  The visiting person
leaves messages on this computer for other visitors, plays games while
visiting, sends and receives files, and all that." -- Greg Goodwin, 2005

The 8-bit Atari was particularly popular for hosting a dial-up Bulletin Board
System (BBS).  This section attempts to list all BBS programs for the Atari.

For most programs listed, a link is provided to the corresponding section at
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ which is a comprehensive collection
of BBS information, screenshots, and downloads collected by Jason Scott.

  o  AMIS BBS --  Atari Message & Information System
The "granddaddy" of BBS programs for the 8-bit Atari.
The AMIS BBS was written in BASIC.  It included designs for a ring-detector.
You needed a sector editor and had to allocate message space by hand, hex byte
by hex byte.
Several versions of AMIS, all released directly to the public domain:
     *  AMIS (Standard, original version; 04/17/83?)
        by Tom Giese (coding?) and Arlan R. Levitan (system designer?)
        for Hayes Smartmodem connected via 850 interface
        http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/AMIS/
     *  MACE AMIS
        Revisions by Larry Burdeno and Jim Steinbrecher
        http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/MACEAMIS/
     *  Carnival BBS
        Revisions by ???????
        - "essentially AMIS with an overlay to allow for private messages and
        passwords." --Antic v3n9Jan85
        - "demands a large amount of disk space and requires every bit of
          memory your system has." --Antic v3n9Jan85
        http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/CARNIVAL/
        http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n4/communications.html
        http://www.atarimagazines.com/v3n9/communications.html
     *  Fast AMIS
        Revisions by Stan Subeck & Susie Subeck (?????)
        According to Antic v3n9Jan85:
        - Built-in modem commands for a Hayes Smartmodem.
        - Requires some modification to run with an MPP, Signalman Mark 7 or 
          Mark 12 modem.
        - Requires a different method of auto-answer than other BBS programs,
          and demands a different setting of the modem's internal DIP
          switches.
        - Message files compact automatically. 
        http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/FASTAMIS/
     *  Comet AMIS 
        Revisions by Matt Pritchard and Tom Johnson
        "Comet was the finest Atari based system in its day, and deserves to
        be remembered." - Trent Condollone,
        http://bbslist.textfiles.com/704/oldschool.html
        - Early version by Matt Pritchard called MPP AMIS, for MPP modems only
     *  AMIS XM301 - Mike Olin and Mike Mitchell (Catspaw Software Systems)
     *  TODAMIS 1.0, for 1030/XM301, 1986, Trent Dudley

  o  ADCM BBS
- Version 1.00, (c) 1985 ADCM Systems
- jacobus writes (11/2010):
  "written exclusively for the ADCM Pocket Modem.  Features a command
  driven interface, private mail, public message board, upload and 
  downloads.  Handles up to 255 users up to 500 baud."
  "The author is Julius Oklamcak"
- Info & download: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/172034-adcm-bbs/

  o  ARMUDIC, by Frank Huband
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/ARMUDIC/
From the Atari club of Washington, D.C.
Greg Leslie writes "It was written (in BASIC with machine language
subroutines) by Frank Huband, and the name came from the numbers used to dial
the original BBS.

  o  ATABBS - Atari Bulletin Board System
     Rod Roark writes (3/12/03):
                This is really straining my memory -- don't recall exactly
                when I wrote the thing (maybe '80 or '81), but as far as I
                know ATABBS was the world's first BBS for the Atari 400/800.
                
                I ran it out of my condo in Atlanta on a 48K 400 with an 80K
                floppy drive and a 300 bps Hayes Smartmodem.  The 48K memory
                module was a third party add-on, not Atari's.
                
                It was written in Atari BASIC with a few bytes of machine
                language thrown in.
  
  o  AtariLink -- by Pab Sungenis.
From his blog at http://atari8programming.blogspot.com/ on 3/20/06:
In 1985-1986 I wrote and eventually released the AtariLink BBS software.  This
came out of necessity, since most Atari BBS programs at the time (especially
FoReM and its bastard children) didn't fully support the 1030 modem that I
used (or the XM301 that followed afterward).  I eventually adapted the program
to work with Atari's 1200 bps SX212 modem when that was released, and in the
process threw the program open to just about every modem out there.  AtariLink
floated in the wild, passed from BBS to BBS for a while, before an Atari
magazine (I forget which one) distributed the software as its disk of the
month.

  o  ATKeep --  An Atari 8-bit version of CITADEL BBS, by Brent Barrett
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/ATKEEP/
ATKeep is a Citadel-like BBS system for eight-bit Ataris.  ATKeep runs under
SpartaDOS and requires BASIC XE and 128K of RAM.  Originally "MBBBS (Message
Base Bulletin Board System) 1.0, March 24th, 1986" MBBBS was changed to Atari
Keep, or, ATKeep for short, around version the time version 4.0 was released
(June 15, 1986).

ATKeep 7.0 finally took the aide and cosysop commands out of a menu section
and put them into extended commands, where they belonged.  It also added a
SYSOP level command set.  Users were no longer "users" "aides" or "cosysops,"
they had become level "A" (SYSOP) through level "Z" (READ ONLY).  The system
had become extremely complex. Public, hidden OR password protected PRIVATE
rooms.  Each room now had its own access level (thus keeping people of lower
level from getting in EVEN if they knew the room name).  Each room was
assigned a RWRT (or Read WRiTe status), which determined who could enter
messages in it, and whether or not public or private messages, or both were to
be allowed.

Before version 7.0, ATKeep only worked with the Atari 1030 or XM301 modems.
ATKeep 7.0 was rewritten to accommodate the 850 or PRC interface allowing use
of any Hayes compatible modem.

ATKeep version 7.50 was released (1987), was version 8 released?

  o  BBCS -- Bulletin Board Construction Set, by Scott Brause/Antic, 1985
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/ABBCS/
A machine language program, developed as the Jersey Atari Computer Group
(JACG) BBS system.

BBCS was known for its great flexibility.  The sysop was offered easy
customization by the use of menus.  Many BBSes before it required that you had
to actually change the BASIC code in order to customize your BBS.

Unfortunately, it also suffered from a reputation for stability problems.

  o  BBS Express!  -- 1986-1989, Keith Ledbetter/Orion Micro Systems
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/BBSEXPRESS/
Written in compiled Action!.  835/1030/XM301 and 850 versions.

  o  BBS Express! Professional ("Pro!")--6.0b 1999, Lance Ringquist/Video 61
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/BBSEXPRESSPRO/
Originally released in 1988 by Keith Ledbetter and Chris King from Orion Micro
Systems.  bf2k+ wrote (May 2010) that version 2.1a was the last version
compiled by Keith Ledbetter before he sold it.

Version 5.0 Copyright 1995 by K-Products (Bob Klaas) credited to:
Stephen J. Carden, Keith Ledbetter, and Chris King

Currently owned by Lance Ringquist/Video 61.

Written in 100% machine language.
Requires XL/XE, SpartaDOS 3.2+, hard drive highly recommended, or at least a
large RAMdisk.  R-Time 8 is fully supported.

  o  Carina BBS, Jerry Horanoff
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/CARINA/

  o  Carina II BBS -- v2.7 (1995), David Hunt/Shadow Software
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/CARINA/
Originally developed by Jerry Horanoff; a complete re-write of Carina BBS.

Requires an XL or XE computer, at least 500K of storage capacity (including
RAMdisk and drives), and SpartaDOS version 2.3 or greater.
Recommended: 192K RAMdisk or greater, and an R-Time cartridge.
Fully supported: An MIO interface and a hard drive.

Pete Davis writes (15 Aug 2002):
Carina was a pretty powerful BBS system.  Though it was written in BASIC (with
a number of machine language routines), it was expandable and was able to load
new BASIC programs with the BBS running.  In fact, it was quite modular and
would load different sections of the BBS at runtime.  I actually used it when
I ran a BBS some time back.

  o  FoReM BBS --  Friends of Rick E. Moose BBS.  
Developed/sold by Matthew R. Singer.
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/FOREM/

Versions that operate with the Atari 850, the ATR 8000 CP/M interface, and
other configurations.  Written in Atari BASIC.

Matt Singer writes:
FoReM BBS derived from an early AMIS.  When multiple message areas were
added the name was extended to FoReM 26M.  Then, When OSS released BASIC
XL the program was rehacked and called FoReM XL... Bill Dorsey wrote most
of the Assembler routines (where is he now?).

  o  FoReM MPP BBS -- developed by Matt Singer, sold by MPP
FoReM BBS version for the MPP direct-connect modems.

  o  FoReM 26M BBS -- developed/sold by Matt Singer.
FoReM BBS updated to support multiple message area.

  o  FoReM XL BBS -- developed/sold by Matt Singer.
FoReM 26M updated to take advantage of BASIC XL from OSS.

  o  FoReM XE BBS -- developed by Matt Singer
This version of FOREM BBS requires the commercial BASIC XE cartridge in order
to run.  It is in the public domain and can import and export messages from
the Atari PRO! BBS EXPRESS-NET (7-bit text only, control ATASCII graphics are
reserved for message data-structure bytes). 

  o  FoReM XE Professional BBS / FoReM XEP BBS -- by Len Spencer
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/FOREMXE/
A re-write of FoReM XE BBS, last version was 5.4, Jan 5 1993.
FXEP requires an XL/XE computer with at least 128k of memory, the BASIC XE
cartridge from OSS/ICD, SpartaDOS 3.2 (this program will NOT work with any
other version), and at least 500K of storage.

FXEP is available at: http://www.lenardspencer.com/Lenspencer/fxep.html

  o  Marsh BBS -- written by Matt Arrington
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/MARSH/
Primarily written in machine language.
"very structured and very customizable at the same time" - Brian A. Diaz

  o  MBBBS (Message Base Bulletin Board System)
     -- early name for ATKeep, see above

  o  NITE-LITE BBS --  Paul Swanson's BBS with RAMdisk.
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/NITELITE/
Paul Swanson was a programmer from the Boston, Massachusetts, USA, area.

"1983: Nite-Lite B.B.S. goes on the air. (Was it running A.M.I.S. ?) It is
called "Nite-Lite" because the computer monitor casts an eerie glow about the
room.  1984: Paul Swanson writes his own BBS hosting software for the ATARI
6502 8-bit computer.  He names it "Nite-Lite".  The Nite-Lite BBS hosting
software goes on to be the most successful commercial BBS software ever
written for the ATARI 6502 8-bit computer.  1989: Nite-Lite BBS puts in a
second line. (MichTron boards eventually take the place of all of the ATARI
Nite-Lite boards.)" - Winston Smith

This BBS was the first to support a RAMdisk, which Paul Swanson called a "V:"
device for "virtual disk".  This BBS was written in Atari BASIC and required a
joystick hardware "dongle" device.  This was notable as being one of the first
Atari 8-BIT BBSs that could actually go for a week without having to be
rebooted.  Pointers to the message base were kept in an Atari "very long
string" (for which Atari BASIC is famous).  The BBS would only have problems
(for the most part) if this string became corrupted.

  o  OASIS (the commercial version) / OASIS Jr. (the pd version)
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/OASISIV/
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/OASISJR/
The original OASIS BBS System was written by Rich Renner and Ralph Walden with
tech support and input from Leo Newman.  It was first published by OASIS BBS
Systems (Renner/Walden/Newman) in 1986, and distributed by Leo Newman.  Later,
the rights were transferred to Glenda Stocks/Z INNOVATORS, then later (1991)
to Jeff Williams ("Alf").

All machine language.  OASIS is very crash-resistant and comes with a "dial
out" screen so that the Sysop can use the BBS as a terminal program to call
and fetch files without having to bring the BBS down and reload a terminal
program.  OASIS supports "Door programs" which it refers to as "OASIS PAL
modules".  An excellent message system, and a complex file system.  It
consists of "file libraries" with suites of "file types".  There is quite a
bit of overhead involved in performing a download (which may be a good thing,
as it discourages file hogs).  OASIS IV performs networking.  SpartaDOS 3.2x
recommended, but any DOS supported.  R-Time 8 clock cartridge supported.

Glenda Stocks writes at http://world.std.com/~snet/glenda.htm :
I purchased the source code rights to OASIS and began marketing the BBS
software to Atari 8-bit enthusiasts around the world.  I felt that I had the
superior BBS software because I had programmed in the ability to run external
programs, including online games and user surveys.  I also had added color
prompts for IBM clone users who called Atari boards running my OASIS software.
Sometime in 1991...I sold the rights to OASIS to a man in Canada..

Jeff Williams ("Alf") writes: (12/6/02)
OASIS was around prior to either PRO or BBS Express! IIRC. I don't know when
exactly it showed up, version 3.09 was the first one I remember seeing. What
made it nifty was it was very fast, being all assembler, and having some
different features that things like Forem & Carina didn't have. Compared to
something like Forem MPP at the time, it was kind of amazing.

Ralph Walden sold it to Glenda Stocks, who chopped it up into modules and sold
it as ver 4.7.  PRO was out by then, and was a much more complete offering
imo.  Glenda wrote some modules for 4.7, but it never really went anywhere
because the architecture was so cramped with her changes.

Eventually she gave up and sold me the source. I looked it over and realized
it was a mess and nothing was going to happen with it. I worked on a version 5
for a while, but never made much progress.

  o  Puff BBS --  by Robert (Bob) Puff
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/PUFFBBS/
"came with a hardware component to both provide ring detect for the Atari
(none existed in the modem) and to serve as a hardware key/dongle associated
with the software."

  o  SMART BBS --  by Marco Benton
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/SMARTBBS/
This program is written entirely in BASIC.  It expects to be running under a
SpartaDOS environment.  This BBS program uses a "modem clock string" rather
than an R-Time 8 cartridge in order to retrieve the current time.  It also
comes with an Atari BASIC game door called "Sabotage".

  o  TART-BOARD -- by Bob Alleger
Early Atari BBS.

  o  XeBBS+ -- by Jonathan Taylor
http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/ATARI/EIGHTBIT/XEBBS/
for the Atari 130XE / Expanded 800XL, required BASIC XE,
designed to work with the Supra 10 megabyte hard drive.
"used the Automatic Modem Processor (AMP) code from FoReM XE, but was
otherwise written from scratch."  - Jonathan Taylor

  o  835 & 1030 Modem Bulletin Board
-- by Gardner Computing (earlier) / Duplicating Technologies (DT)(later)
Auto answer, XMODEM upload/download, sold with ring detector.
Ads: ROM #9 Dec84/Jan85 p. 37; Antic v4n10 Feb 86 p. 44

------------------------------

Subject: 10.3) How can I read/write 8-bit Atari disks on an MS-DOS PC?

There are several programs that allow an MS-DOS system to work with an
Atari-format 5.25" diskette.  Most of these work with the Atari SS/DD 180K
format.

There is also a device, detailed below, that allows an external 5.25" floppy
disk drive to be connected to a modern PC via a USB port, and which supports
reading Atari DOS 2 SS/DD 90K floppy disks. 

Atari-Link PC (AtariDsk) V1.2 (c) 95-12-09
==========================================
  by HiassofT (Matthias Reichl)
  Ataridsk is a program for MSDOS-PCs that allows you to access Atari floppy
  disks in double density (180k).  All you need is a PC (XT or 286 should be
  sufficient) and a 5.25" floppy drive.  Features of this tool:
    * Menu driven user interface
    * read, write and format Atari disks on the PC
    * small size (only 35k)
  http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/

WriteAtr V0.92b
===============
  by HiassofT (Matthias Reichl)
  With WriteAtr you can write double density ATR-images to Atari floppy disks
  on your MSDOS-PC.  You can also create ATR-images of double density floppy
  disks!  All you need is a PC and a 5.25" and/or a 3.5" floppy drive.
  Version 0.92b added experimental support for the enhanced density (1040
  sectors/128 bytes per sector) format.  Please note: this format doesn't work
  with a lot of floppy controllers - use it at your own risk!
  http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/

MyUTIL
======
 - by Mark K Vallevand
 - Based on Charles Marslett's UTIL.
 - http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/myutil.zip
 - Includes SpartaDOS disk utility v0.1e to access 180K SpartaDOS disks

ATARIO
======
 - by Dave Brandman w/ Kevin White
 - Reads SS/DD 180K Atari disks.
 - www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Unverified/Diskutils-redist/atario21.arc

SpartaRead
==========
 - by Oscar Fowler
 - Reads SS/DD 180K SpartaDOS disks.
 - http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/sr.arc

UTIL
====
 - by Charles Marslett
 - Reads/Writes SS/DD 180K Atari disks.
  http://www.wordmark.org/

===============================================================
Here's some advice on using the above utilities from Hans Breitenlohner:

There are two technical obstacles to interchanging disks between
DD Atari drives and PC drives.

1. The Atari drive spins slightly slower (288 rpm instead of 300 rpm).
   If you format a disk on the Atari, then write sectors on the PC, it is
   possible that the header of the next physical sector will be overwritten,
   making that sector unreadable.  (The next physical sector is usually
   the current logical sector+2).  The solution to this is to format all
   disks on the PC.
       (Aside:  Does anybody know how this problem is handled on the
        XF551?  Is it also slowed down?)
     Konrad Kokoszkiewicz answers:
     "The XF551 disk drive is not slowed down - these drives are spinning
     300 rotations per minute. To prevent troubles with read/write disks
     formatted and written on normal Atari drives (288 rot/min), the main
     crystal frequency for the floppy disk controller is 8.333 MHz
     (not 8 MHz, as in 1050, for example)."

2. If the PC drive is a 1.2M drive there is the additional problem of the
   track width.
   The following is generally true in the PC world:
    - disks written on 360k drives can be read on either drive
    - blank disk formatted and written on 1.2M drives can be read on
      either kind
    - disks written on a 360k drive, and overwritten on a 1.2M drive,
      can be read reliably only on a 1.2M drive.
    - disks previously formatted on a 360k drive, or formatted as 1.2MB,
      and then reformatted on a 1.2M drive to 360k, can be read reliably
      only on a 1.2M drive.
    (all this assumes you are using DD media, not HD).

   Solution: Use a 360k drive if you can.  If not, format disks on the
   Atari for Atari to PC transfers, format truly blank disks on the PC
   for PC to Atari transfers.

Jon D. Melbo sums it up this way:
   So a basic rule of thumb when sharing 360KB floppies among 360KB &
   1.2MB drives is: Never do any writes with a 1.2MB drive to a disk that
   has been previously written to in a 360KB drive....UNLESS... you only
   plan on ever using that disk in the 1.2Mb drive from then on out. Of
   course a disk can be reformatted in a particular drive any time for use
   in that drive.   As long as you follow that rule, you can utilize the
   backwards compatible 360KB modes that most 1.2MB drives offer.

AnaDisk + DeAna
===============
While the above mentioned utilities work with SS/DD 180K Atari-format disks or
SS/DD 180K SpartaDOS disks, the following combination of utilities has been
used successfully to read SS/SD 90K Atari-format disks.  So if you only have
standard Atari 810 and/or Atari 1050 drives, you could look into:

AnaDisk -- now a product of New Technoligies Inc. (NTI)
See: http://www.forensics-intl.com/anadisk.html
The current version is "not made available to the general public" (!)
Previously a product of Chuck Guzis @ Sydex, http://www.sydex.com/
Older versions available: http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/
- Reads/Writes "any" 5.25" diskette

DeAna by Nate Monson
Available: http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/
- converts AnaDisk dump files from Atari format

See http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/ for tips on using this
combination of utilities.

Preston Crow writes:
  "As best as I can figure it out, if your PC drive happens to read
  FM disks (I'm not sure what the criteria for that is), then you
  can read single density disks on your PC by dumping the contents
  to a file with AnaDisk, and then using Deana.com to convert the
  dump file into a usable format.

  For enhanced density disks, Anadisk generally only reads the first
  portion of each sector, but it demonstrates that it is possible for
  a PC drive to read enhanced density disks."

FC5025 USB 5.25" floppy controller
==================================
 - by Device Side Data
 - Plugs into any computer's USB port and enables you to read data
   from an external 5.25" floppy drive. 
 - Sold as a controller board only without a drive mechanism.
   It has been tested to work well with the TEAC FD-55GFR drive and should
   also work with most other 5.25" drives.
 - The FC5025 is read-only.  It cannot write to floppies.
 - The FC5025 may be unable to read disks that are damaged or copy-protected.
 - The FC5025 is intended for 5.25" disks only, not 3.5" or 8" disks.
 - The FC5025 may be unable to read the second side of "flippy" disks,
   depending on the drive it is attached to.
 - The included software works on 32-bit Windows (not 64-bit Windows).
 - The included software supports reading Atari 810 disks.
 - Available: http://www.deviceside.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 10.4) How can I read/write MS-DOS PC disks on my Atari?

Several 3rd-party hardware upgrades add the capability of working with
MS-DOS diskettes to your Atari system:

Happy 1050 Enhancement upgrade for the Atari 1050
 -- read/write 180K 5.25" MS-DOS floppies with IBMXFR IBM Transfer Program

CSS XF Single Drive Upgrade for the Atari XF551
 -- replace the 5.25" mechanism with a 3.5" mech.
 -- read 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks
    see http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFsingdrup.htm

CSS XF Dual Drive Upgrade for the Atari XF551
 -- add 3.5" drive without losing the 5.25" drive
 -- read 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks
    see http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/XFdualdrup.htm

CSS Floppy Board, for the CSS Black Box
 -- adds support for PC 720K and 1.44MB 3.5" drives to your Atari system
 -- adds support for PC 1.2MB and 360K 5.25" drives to your Atari system
 -- read/write 5.25" and 3.5" MS-DOS disks in your PC drives with your Atari
    see: http://www.nleaudio.com/css/products/floppy.htm

------------------------------

Subject: 10.5) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable?

This section by Russ Gilbert.

Q:  How do I connect two computers using a null modem cable?

A:  You need a term program and RS-232 ports on both
    computers.  The RS-232 ports need to be connected
    together using a 'null modem cable'.

    For up to 4800 baud, no flow control lines need be
    connected.  Just cross the transmit and receive lines
    and join the grounds together.  Transmit is pin #2,
    receive is pin #3 and ground is pin #7 on the 25 pin
    port. 25 pin #2 goes to Atari #4 (XMT to RCV), 25 pin
    #3 goes to #3 on Atari (RCV to XMT) and #5 of 850 goes
    to #7 of 25 pin (GND to GND).

    The right hand pin on the 'long' side of a female 'D'
    connector is #1.  There are 13 holes on this 'long'
    side, 12 holes on the 'short' side.  The numbers go
    to the left 1 to 13 then #14 is under #1 and left again
    so that #25 is under #13.

    Most term programs allow a null connection, without a
    carrier detect.  Notably, '850 Express!' does not. I have
    only used 'Procomm 2.4.3' (the last shareware version of
    Procomm) on the PC and BobTerm on the Atari, but other
    term programs may work.

    To check your null modem connection, start both PC and
    Atari term programs, set baud to 2400 or 4800 on both
    computers. No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit on the PC.
    Be sure to use the correct COM port on the PC.  Go to
    'terminal' mode and you should now be able to type on
    either computer and see it on the other screen. To
    accomplish a file transfer, use Y-modem probably from
    BobTerm, rather than X-modem. X-modem will often append
    bytes to a file transfer, an undesirable event. There is
    also a very nice Z-modem receive program for the Atari,
    called ATAR-Z-MODEM by Larry Black for the Atari.

    A convenient way to make a null modem cable, up to about
    30 feet long, is to use two female DB25 connectors
    (Radio Shack) some three or more conductor cable. Using
    the two DB25 female connectors allows unplugging your
    modems and plugging in the null modem cable into the two
    modem cables.  This also avoids the confusion of
    variations in the computer ports. Most computers connect
    into the modem end via a standard RS-232 DB25 connection.
    With this both ends 25 pin cable, you would cross pins 2
    and 3 and connect the #7s together to make a null modem
    cable.

    The SIO port on the Atari cannot be used directly. An
    850, P:R: Connection, MIO, Black Box or similar device
    that provides an RS-232 port must be used.


    Following are pin assignments for a DB25 pin RS-232-C
    port.
1.  Protective Ground        12.  Select Alternate Rate
2.  Transmit Data            15.  Transmit Clock (sync)
3.  Receive Data             17.  Receive clock (sync)
4.  RTS (Request to Send)    20.  Data Terminal Ready
5.  CTS (Clear to Send)      22.  Ring indicator
6.  Data Set Ready           23.  Select Alternate Rate
7.  Signal Ground            24.  Transmit Clock
8.  Carrier Detect

   For higher speed connections, above 4800 or 9600, you
   need the flow control lines and Atari term software that
   has flow control built in. You also need an MIO or Black
   Box, which uses the PBI (parallel bus). A high speed
   cable would need not only XMT, RCV, and GND, but also
   flow control lines.  I suggest a commercial null modem
   from computer store to ensure correct lines.  A null
   modem is a small adapter with the correct lines already
   crossed. I don't know how to correctly connect the CTS,
   RTS, DTR, DSR, CRX lines for a high speed null modem.
   With a null modem, you just plug it into the 25 pin
   connectors of the two modem cables you might already
   have connected to your Atari and PC or Mac. You may need
   a straight thru 25 pin gender changer also.

   Following is in this FAQ elsewhere, but I summarize here:
   (Figure out or look for pin numbers on the ports.) Note
   that these are pin assignments, and NOT null modem
   connections with the XMT, RCV crossed and GND straight
   thru.

   Atari 8-bit  PC AT 25   PC AT 9 pin
   -------------------------------------
    1. DTR          20          4*
    2. CRX           8          1*
    3. XMT           2          3
    4. RCV           3          2*
    5. GND           7          5
    6. DSR           6          6
    7. RTS           4          7
    8. CTS           5          8
    9. No connect?   shield     RI
                  22 RI

Note: * above indicates the difference between an AT 9 pin
and a Atari 8-bit 9 pin cable connector. eg. If you check
continuity from pin 3 of 25 pin end and it goes to pin
4 of nine pin end, you have an Atari serial cable. If pin
3 of 25 pin goes to pin 2 of 9 pin end, you have a PC
serial cable.
(updated 3/1/99)
    (DTE = Data Terminal Equipment, i.e., your computer.
     DCE = Data Communications Equipment, i.e., your modem.)

------------------------------

Subject: 10.6) How can my PC utilize my Atari disk drive?

==> 1050-2-PC, by Nick Kennedy

1050-2-PC is a device used to allow the PC to communicate directly with an
Atari disk drive.  It requires hardware which is very similar to the SIO2PC
but configured differently.  It allows direct sector I/O with the Atari drive
and can be used to create disk images which will emulate copy protection
schemes when run on SIO2PC.

More 1050-2-PC information: http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/1050.txt
SIO2PC home page: http://pages.suddenlink.net/wa5bdu/sio2pc.htm


==> APE ProSystem, by Steve Tucker

The APE ProSystem goes beyond Steve Tucker's Atari Peripheral Emulator (APE).
The ProSystem has two components:

- The program PROSYS.EXE is used to create the protected and unprotected
disk images which are then used by APE.

- The ProSystem hardware is a cable designed to allow direct connection
of a stock 1050 disk drive directly to a PC's serial port for use by the
PROSYS.EXE software.

http://www.atarimax.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 10.7) What about interoperating with the Apple Macintosh?

Mark L. Simonson keeps a nice set of web pages which he calls "Mac/Atari
Fusion: Atari 8-bit Resources for Mac Users."  Please visit:

http://www2.bitstream.net/~marksim/atarimac/

Mark Grebe is the author of two modern solutions for Mac OS X:
 - Atari800MacX - Atari 8bit Computer Emulator
 - Sio2OSX - Atari 8Bit Peripheral Emulator
http://www.atarimac.com/

The FC5025 USB 5.25" floppy controller by Device Side Data plugs into a USB
port and enables a Mac to read data from an external 5.25" floppy drive. 
Included software supports reading Atari 810 disks.
Available: http://www.deviceside.com/

------------------------------

Subject: 10.8) Are there 8-bit Atari tools for the Commodore Amiga?

'551conv', freeware by Achim Hartel:
Converts a real Atari-800-disk, .xfd-image or .atr-image into a real
Atari-800-disk, .xfd-image, .atr-image or extracts the files of the
disk (-image). All 4 formats of the XF551-station supported: Single,
Medium, Double, Quad. Version 1.03.

------------------------------

Subject: 11.1) What is the history of Atari's 8-bit computers platform?

Information presented here has been collected by MC from public sources, such
as magazine and newspaper articles, press releases, corporate annual reports,
and SEC filings.  I have no special access to inside information.

For a broader Atari history may I suggest: http://mcurrent.name/atarihistory/

1973
With financial support from Atari, a group of engineers led by Larry Emmons
and Steve Mayer created the Cyan Engineering research and development group in
Grass Valley, CA.

1974
Winter: Atari started an exclusive relationship with Cyan Engineering, and the
facility became known as the "Grass Valley Think Tank."

1975
Summer: At Cyan Engineering, Ron Milner and Steve Mayer created the first
concept prototype of the home video game system that would become the Video
Computer System (VCS).  The hardware was built by Milner.

December: Joe Decuir was hired by Atari, initially to work with Ron Milner and
Steve Mayer at Cyan Engineering.  Decuir would help debug the existing concept
prototype of the VCS, and Decuir built the first gate-level prototype of the
VCS.

1976
March: As Atari VCS development continued, Joe Decuir moved to Los Gatos,
Calif. to apprentice for Jay Miner, who would become the lead chip designer
for the VCS.

The group who would turn out to be the key engineers of the Atari VCS had now
been assembled: Steve Mayer, Ron Milner, Joe Decuir, and Jay Miner.
Development work would continue into 1977.

Fall: Atari purchased Cyan Engineering outright, and the facility became more
formerly known as the Grass Valley Research Center.

1977
June: Atari introduced the Video Computer System (VCS) at the Summer CES in
Chicago.

Summer: Engineers Ron Milner, Steve Mayer, and Joe Decuir, veteran designers
of the VCS, began work on a next-generation home video game machine at Atari's
Grass Valley Research Center.  This project became known as "Oz" inside Atari.

December: "Several other new personal computers, in the PET/TRS-80 price range,
are coming soon...Atari (another video game manufacturer), and a European and
Japenese [sic] company are also expected to enter the competition."
(Micro #2 Dec77 p18; reprinted from "Northwest Computer Club News" Oct77)

1978
January: "Other manufacturers are also looking at TV games as the way to enter
the home-computing market.  Atari is said to be working on a programmable unit
featuring color graphics; it will use either custom chips or a 6502 micro."
(ROM v1n7 Jan78 p60)

March: Manny Gerard at Warner Communications arranged for Raymond E. Kassar,
who had recently departed from his executive vice president position at fabric
maker Burlington Industries, to work with Atari as a consultant.

Gerard then had Kassar installed as president of Atari's Consumer Division.

Ray Kassar, directed that the video game technology already under development
as the "Oz" project would now form the basis for the development of a personal
computer system.  The newly-redefined project became known as "Colleen" inside
Atari.

The overall engineering plans for "Colleen" were conceived by:
Steve Mayer, Joe Decuir, and Jay Miner

The "Colleen" computer project evolved into two specific computer models:

  o "Colleen" - the full machine - would be released as the Atari 800.
  o "Candy" - a reduced-feature version - would be released as the Atari 400.
    - One or more pre-production Atari 400 units carried the additional
      designation: Model No. C7000
      See: http://mcurrent.name/atariads/intro400.htm 

September: Atari VCS game programmers David Crane, Larry Kaplan, and Alan
Miller were assigned to create an Operating System and BASIC for the Atari
computer, after Jay Miner, manager of both custom chip and OS software
development for the computer, had determined that both the existing work-in-
progress OS and the work-in-progress port of Microsoft BASIC could not meet
the January 1979 CES deadline.

October 6: Freeing Crane/Kaplan/Miller to focus on developing the core OS,
Atari contracted with Shepardson Microsystems, Inc. (SMI, headed by Bob
Shepardson) to create both a version of BASIC and a File Management System
(FMS) for the upcoming Atari personal computers.  The contract called for
delivery by April 6, 1979.  Atari planned to take an early, 8K Microsoft BASIC
to the CES (in Las Vegas) in January, 1979, and then switch BASICs later.

November: At the Warner Communications annual budget meeting in New York,
Atari chairman Nolan Bushnell warned against launching an Atari computer
division unless Warner was prepared to absorb extensive short-term financial
losses in establishing the new product line.  Bushnell also predicted that a
properly-funded Atari computer line would ultimately be profitable.

December: Manny Gerard at Warner Communications appointed Ray Kassar President
and CEO of Atari, and Joe Keenan replaced company founder Nolan Bushnell as
Chairman.

December: SMI delivered working versions of BASIC and a disk FMS to Atari.

1979
January: Atari introduced the Atari 800 and Atari 400 Personal Computer
Systems at the Winter CES in Las Vegas.  The 800 would ship with 8K RAM (user-
expandable in 8K or 16K increments to 48K) and retail for US$1,000; the 400
would come standard with 8K RAM and retail for US$500.  The computers were
scheduled to ship in limited quantities in August 1979, with full availability
later in the fall.  Also introduced: the 410 program recorder, 810 disk drive,
and 820 printer.  Software introduced: Atari BASIC, Atari DOS.  Coverage of
the introduction of the Atari 400/800 from Creative Computing magazine:
http://mcurrent.name/atari1979/

"Atari, by introducing its line of personal computers, is the first major
consumer electronics manufacturer to demonstrate a commitment to the three
paramount needs of both the consumer and retailer: Effective hardware,
effective software and effective peripheral components." -- Michael Shea,
Atari marketing vice president, quoted in Merchandising magazine January 1979.

January: Atari ran an advertisement for the 400/800 on pp. 54-55 of
Merchandising, vol. 4, no. 1, January 1979.  See:
http://mcurrent.name/atariads/gallery.htm for these and other early Atari
computer print ads from 1979-1981.

April: Crane/Kaplan/Miller finished their work on the Operating System for
the Atari 400/800 computers.

May 11-13: At the 4th West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco Atari again
showed the Atari 400/800 computer systems, which were expected to ship within
months.

June: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari again showed the Atari 400/800
computers, which were expected to ship within weeks.  The retail price for the
400 system would be US$550 (up from US$500).  Also introduced: the Atari
Talk & Teach Educational System, including the Master Cartridge and 17
cassette packs in the Cassette Courseware series (4 tapes per pack; 4 lessons
per tape; developed by Dorsett Educational Systems for Atari).  More software
titles introduced: Basketball, Super Breakout, Computer Chess.
Peter N. Rosenthal was Director of Marketing, Personal Computer Systems.

Summer: Atari received FCC approval for the 400/800 computers.

August:
  "The first official small shipment of the 400/800 was on August 29th 1979.
  These were hand-built pilot run units to Sears that needed to be in stock by
  Sept. 1 so they could be placed in the big fall catalog.  The units were
  placed in the Sears warehouse and then immediately returned to Atari after
  the "in stock" requirement had been met."  --Jerry Jessop

September 4: The New York Times reported on p. D7, "Atari Inc., the maker of
home video games, will introduce two new personal computer systems in the
fall.  The inaugural ad campaign, created by Doyle Dane Bernbach, will break
in October in 12 national publications.  TV commercials will also be aired in
Los Angeles in November and December."

October: "Atari's production lines were stalled for about a week in October
due to yield problems at one of its chip suppliers, Synertek.  The low yields
at the semiconductor manufacturer resulted in significantly reduced delivery
of the MPU to Atari, resulting in about a 3-week delay in getting the
computers into the marketplace."  Electronic News, December 10, 1979, p. 83.

November:
  "The first "real" consumer units were shipped in Nov. of '79 and were 400s
  to Sears followed very shortly by 800s."  --Jerry Jessop

November: Michael J. Moone became president of the Consumer Division at Atari
(home video games and computers).

November/December: The initial Atari 400 personal computer package consisted
of the 400 computer (8K RAM), 400 Operator's Manual, power supply, TV switch
box, CXL4002 Atari BASIC (cartridge), Atari BASIC: A Self-Teaching Guide
(book, see http://www.atariarchives.org/basic/), 3-ring binder.  Package
retail: US$549.99.

November/December: The initial Atari 800 personal computer package consisted
of the 800 computer with 8K RAM module, 800 Operator's Manual, power supply,
TV switch box, 410 program recorder, CXL4001 Educational System Master
Cartridge, CXL4002 Atari BASIC (cartridge), CX-4101 An Invitation to
Programming 1: Fundamentals of Programming (cassette), Atari BASIC: A Self-
Teaching Guide (book, see http://www.atariarchives.org/basic/), 3-ring binder.
Package retail: US$999.99.

November/December: In addition to the $549.99 Atari 400 package, the Sears
catalog also listed the 410 program recorder for $85.00, the Educational
System Master Cartridge for $34.99, Basketball, Super Breakout, and Life
(released as Video Easel) for $49.99 each, Music Composer for $69.99,
Joystick pair for $19.99, Paddles pair for $19.99, and these 9 cassette titles
for use with the Educational System Master Cartridge for $39.99 each: 
Basic Sociology, Basic Psychology, Spelling, History of Western World, 
Great Classics of Eng Lit, Principles of Economics, U.S. History,
Principles of Accounting, Business Communications

December: "Atari is funneling large quantities of its 400 and 800 personal
computers and software to Sears, Roebuck, while retail computer stores have
been faced with late hardware deliveries and received very little, if any,
software.  Sears is offering the Atari 400, priced at $549.99, through its
catalog, and is spot-marketing the machine in its retail stores throughout
California and the Chicago area.  In addition, the firm is selling the Atari
800, priced at $999.99, in its California stores, but not through the catalog,
a Sears spokesman said."  Electronic News, December 10, 1979, p. 83.

1980
January: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari introduced the 825 printer,
830 modem, and 850 interface.  Software titles introduced: Video Easel
(previously: Life), Music Composer, Assembler Editor, 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe,
Star Raiders.  Also, list prices for the 400 and 800 packages increased to
US$630 and US$1,080 (up from US$550 and US$1,000).

Winter: Atari shipped the 810 disk drive (with DOS I) and the 820 printer
(US$449.95).

March: Atari shipped Star Raiders.

June 15: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari introduced the: 815 dual disk
drive with DOS 2.0D (never shipped in quantity), 822 printer, and CX70 light
pen (never shipped in quantity).  Atari also introduced 34 new software
packages, including: TeleLink 1, the Atari Accountant series (by Arthur Young
& Co.)--General Accounting System; Accounts Receivable System; Inventory
Control Program, the Investment Analysis series (by Control Data)--Bond
Analysis; Stock Analysis; Stock Charting; Mortgage & Loan Analysis,
Conversational French, Conversational German, Conversational Spanish, Space
Invaders (SoftSide Aug80)

Summer: Atari modified the 800 computer package.  The computer would now ship
with 16K RAM (up from 8K); the 410 program recorder and Educational System
Master Cartridge were removed from the package; the Atari BASIC Reference
Manual was added to the package.  The retail price remained US$1,080.

Summer/Fall: Atari shipped the 825 printer (US$999.95), 830 modem, and
850 interface (US$219.95).

October 21: Roger H. Badertscher was named president of the newly established
Computer Division at Atari.  He was previously vice president and general
manager of the microprocessor division of Signetics, an electronics
semiconductor manufacturer.

October: Visicorp introduced the Atari version of VisiCalc.

By the end of 1980, Atari had sold 35,000 computers.

1981
January 8-11: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari announced that the list
price for the 400 computer package with 8K RAM installed was reduced to
US$499.95 (previously: US$630), and that the list price for the 16K RAM
version of the 400 package would be US$630.  Also introduced: Asteroids,
Astrology (ultimately released via APX), Atari Word Processor,
An Invitation to Programming 2, An Invitation to Programming 3,
Missile Command, Personal Financial Management System,
Personal Fitness Program (ultimately released via APX), PILOT, 
SCRAM (A Nuclear Reactor Simulation)(by Chris Crawford)

Winter: Atari shipped the 822 printer, and released DOS II version 2.0S.

February 25: The source code to Atari BASIC, the FMS component of Atari DOS
2.0S (DOS.SYS), and the Atari Assembler Editor were purchased from Shepardson
Microsystems, Inc. (SMI) by Optimized Systems Software (OSS), headed by former
SMI employees Bill Wilkinson and Mike Peters.

Spring: First issue of The Atari Connection, the glossy magazine published by
the Atari Computer Division in support of the 400/800.

April 3-5: Atari Software Acquisition Program (ASAP) staff attended the 6th
West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco, offering a grand prize of
US$25,000 in cash and US$75,000 in Atari products to runners-up for Atari
computer software authors.  In order to qualify for the awards, programs would
have to be accepted and sold through the soon-to-be-launched Atari Program
Exchange.

April 3-5: Also at the West Coast Computer Faire, Optimized Systems Software
(OSS) introduced BASIC A+, CP/A (would ship as: OS/A+), and EASMD (enhanced,
disk-based versions of Atari BASIC, Atari DOS 2.0S and Atari Assembler Editor,
respectively).

May 4-7: At the National Computer Conference in Chicago, Atari announced that
the 8K Atari 400 was being discontinued and that the price on the 16K version
was being reduced to US$399 (was US$630); also, the 400 would no longer be
sold with the Atari BASIC cartridge and the Atari BASIC: A Self-Teaching Guide
book.  Other price reductions: CX852 8K RAM module now US$49.95 (was
US$124.95), CX853 16K RAM module now US$99.95 (was US$199.95), 820 printer now
US$299.95 (was US$449.95).  Also introduced: Dow Jones Investment Evaluator,
Atari Microsoft BASIC, Macro Assembler and Program-Text Editor

May: Atari launched the Atari Program Exchange (APX), a user-written software
distribution unit within the Atari Computer Division.  The APX concept had
been the brain-child of Dale Yocam, and APX was guided by Fred Thorlin since
its inception in February 1981.  See http://www.atariarchives.org/APX/

Summer?: Atari created the Atari Institute for Educational Action Research,
which began awarding major grants of Atari home computer products, cash
stipends, and/or consulting services to selected individuals and non-profit
institutions or organizations interested in developing new educational uses
for computers in schools, community programs, or in the home.  Founded and
directed by Dr. Ted M. Kahn, Ph.D.  More than US$250,000 would be awarded in
the program's first year.

Summer: The Atari 400/800 arrived in the UK. (Maplin News, June/Aug 1981)

August 26: Date of the internal Atari document "Z800 Product Specification,
Revision 1" reflecting Operating System work for the SWEET16 project to create
a new series of computers to replace the 400/800.  See:
http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/1200xl/1200xl.html

September 10-12: Maplin Electronic Supplies exhibited the Atari 400/800 at the
Personal Computer World Show at the Cunard Hotel, Hammersmith, London.

October: Atari 810 disk drives began shipping with the Data Separator Board.
The enhancement "improves the drive's ability to distinguish between data
pulses and clock pulses on the disk.  This is necessary in part because of the
variations in the characteristics of different diskettes.  The data separator
lowers the chance of a misread from the disk." (Antic Oct.82)

November: The Atari 400/800 would now all ship with the GTIA chip rather than
CTIA as in earlier machines, increasing the palette of simultaneously
displayable colors to 256 and adding 3 new graphics modes. (Antic Oct.82)

November: The Atari 400/800 began shipping with OS ROM version B, improving
peripheral I/O control routines. (Antic Oct.82)

November: Atari 810 disk drives began shipping with ROM C and with DOS II 
version 2.0S (replacing the original Atari DOS I).  "ROM C causes diskettes to
be formatted with an improved sector layout which is more efficient than that
used by earlier 810 control ROM's." (Antic Oct.82)

December 30: Atari said that it would cut the retail price for the 800 home
computer (with 16K RAM) to US$899 from US$1,080.

December: The book, De Re Atari was published by Atari, distributed by APX.
De Re Atari was written by the Atari Software Development Support Group.
Chris Crawford wrote Sections 1-6 and Appendices A & B.  Lane Winner wrote
Section 10 and Appendix D with assistance from Jim Cox.  Amy Chen wrote
Appendix C.  Jim Dunion wrote Sections 8-9.  Kathleen Pitta wrote
Appendex E.  Box Fraser wrote Section 7.  Gus Makreas prepared the Glossary.

1982
January 7-10: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari introduced Pac-Man
($44.95), Centipede ($44.95), The Bookkeeper, and The Home Filing Manager.
Space Invaders, previously released on cassette, was now re-released on
cartridge.  The APX title, Caverns of Mars would be the first APX title to be
transferred into Atari's standard product line ($39.95 disk).
Previewed at the show: the Atari Supergame System (would ship as the 5200).

January 6: Atari announced the publication, Atari Special Editions, a catalog
of more than 400 products for the Atari computers from 117 vendors.

January 16: At San Francisco's Maxwell's Plum restaurant in Ghiradelli
Square, Atari awarded the first annual Atari Star Award and US$25,000 to
Fernando Herrera for his APX title, My First Alphabet.

Winter: Ted Richards' name first appeared as editor of The Atari Connection
magazine.

March: Atari began producing 810 disk drives using the revised "Analog"
(later, "810M") design, including new Analog Board, new Power Supply board,
and new 10 pin flat cable connecting the two.  The 3 components were also
offered together as the CB101128 "Grass Valley Analog Board Set" for
"Pre-Analog" 810 drives.

June 6-9: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari introduced Atari Speed Reading
(US$74.95), Music Tutor I (title never shipped. MC's speculation: this would
have been an Atari-branded re-release of the APX title, Musical Computer-The
Music Tutor), Juggles' House (by The Learning Co.), Juggles' Rainbow (by The
Learning Co.), TeleLink II (US$79.95), and the Communicator II kit (new 835
modem + Telelink II) (US$279.95).  The APX title, My First Alphabet would be
re-released as part of Atari's standard product line.  Atari also twice
announced new retail prices for the 400 computer: first US$349 (CC Oct82
p180), then US$299 (Merch Jul82 p43) (previously, US$399).  Keith Schaefer was
vice-president of sales for Atari's Home Computer division.

June 8: Atari announced the 5200 Home Entertainment System.  Later dubbed the
SuperSystem, the cartridge-based 5200 would be marketed alongside the ultra-
popular Atari VCS (soon to be known as the 2600).  While the 5200 required
unique game cartridges and controllers, the internal hardware and operating
system were nearly identical to that of the 400/800 computers.  Suggested
retail price: US$299.95.

June: Roger Badertscher resigned from his position as president of Atari's
Home Computer Division.

Summer: First year of Atari Computer Camps, held at 3 locations: The
University of San Diego (CA), The Asheville School (Asheville, NC), and East
Stroudsburg State College (PA).  (Camp was cancelled at the fourth announced
site of Lakeland College in Sheboygan WI.)  The camps were managed for Atari
by Specialty Camps, Inc.  Curriculum developed by Robert A. Kahn at Atari.
Program overseen by Linda Gordon, Atari vice president for special projects.

July 26: InfoWorld estimated between 250,000 and 300,000 Atari 400/800
computers had been sold to date.

Summer?: Atari established in New York City a new research laboratory
dedicated to the exploration of microprocessor-based products in electronic
publishing and transactional services for home computers.  Headed by Steven T.
Mayer, vice president of research and product development, the new lab would
be responsible for development of advanced products for Atari coin-operated
and home video games and home computers.  The lab would also function as a
focus for joint research prpoejcts with other subsidiaries of Warner
Communications. (Compute#30p252)

August 24: John C. Cavalier was named president of Atari's Home Computer
Division.  His most recent job was vice president and general manager of
American Can Company's Dixie and Dixie/Marathon unit, makers of consumer paper
products.

September: Steve Mayer resigned as senior vice president of engineering at
Atari to form, and serve as chairman and CEO of, WCI Labs, Inc.  The location
was previously known as the Atari NY Lab.  Like Atari, WCI Labs would be a
wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Communications.  With Gregg Squires as
project manager, WCI Labs would be responsible for the hardware engineering
for the Sweet-16 ("Elizabeth" or "Liz") computer project, which would lead to
the release of the 1200XL.

September 29: Date of the internal Atari document, "Sweet-16 Product
Specification".  As of this document, the Sweet-16 project had evolved into
two specific computer model designs, a 16K RAM version tentatively named
"1200" and a 64K RAM version tentatively named "1200X" (earlier: a 16K "600"
and a 64K "1200"), with both models now sharing the same case design.
However, also as of this document, plans called for manufacture of only the
64K version.  The project would soon lead to the release of the 1200XL.
http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8BITS/1200xl/1200xl.html

October: Atari shipped the 5200 SuperSystem.

Fall: The suggested retail price for the Atari 800 was US$679 with 48K RAM
standard (previously: US$899/16K).  The Atari 400 retail price was US$299
(previously, $349).

November: Atari began producing new 810 disk drives with the "center flip
door" drive mechanism by Tandon, instead of the "push button, sliding door"
mechanism by MPI used in the original design. (Antic May 83)  Technical
documentation would refer to the new design as the "810T".

December: Atari shipped Galaxian, Defender, and VisiCalc (by VisiCorp) in
time for the holiday shopping season.

December 13: Atari introduced the 1200XL home computer at a press conference
at the Plaza Hotel in New York City.  "We believe that the Atari 1200XL will
set the standard for a new generation in home computing and, once again,
positions Atari on the leading edge of electronic technology and creative
computing," Atari chairman Ray Kassar said.  The list price for the 1200XL
would be "well under $1,000."  The 1200XL resulted from the Sweet-16/
"Elizabeth"/"Liz" project inside Atari.  Peripherals introduced: the 1010
program recorder (US$99), 1020 printer/plotter (US$299), and 1025 printer
(US$549).

Atari sold 400,000 of its 400 and 800 computers in 1982, according to The
Yankee Group, a Boston-based computer consulting firm, accounting for 17
percent of all home computer sales.

1983
January 1: The retail price for the Atari 800 (with 48K RAM, without Atari
BASIC) was reduced from US$679 to US$499.  The retail price for the Atari 400
was reduced from US$299 to US$199.

Winter 82/83: First issue of I/O, later known as Input/Output, the magazine of
the Atari Home Computer Club (Atari International (U.K.)).

January 6-9: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari showed the 1200XL (and
announced the retail price of $899), 1010, 1020, and 1025, introduced revised
versions of the Programmer and Entertainer kits, introduced Qix, E.T. Phone
Home!, Dig Dug, Donkey Kong, Family Finances, Timewise, and AtariWriter,
showed the recently-released Galaxian and Defender, and also announced the
upcoming AtariMusic I and the first title in the Disney Educational Series,
Mickey in the Great Outdoors.  Caverns of Mars would be re-released on
cartrdige (previously: disk), and the APX title, Eastern Front (1941) (by
Chris Crawford) would be be re-released in the main Atari product line, on
cartridge.  The CX22 Trak-Ball was introduced, marketed for the 2600 but
compatible with the 400/800/1200XL.

January 15: At San Francisco's St. Francis Hotel, Atari awarded the second
annual Atari Star Award and US$25,000 to David Buehler for his APX title,
Typo Attack.

January: Atari began production of the 1200XL (made in the USA).

Winter: Atari shipped the AtariWriter cartridge.  AtariWriter was programmed
by William V. Robinson (author of DataSoft's Text Wizard) with Mark Rieley for
DataSoft, for product manager Gary Furr at Atari.

Winter/Spring: "Computers: Expressway to Tomorrow" was an Atari-produced
assembly program for junior and senior high schools in the U.S., offering both
entertainment and computer education using films, slides, music, and a live
host to explore the role of computers in society.  (MC's note: I remember that
this came to my school!)

March: Atari shipped the 1200XL, suggested retail price US$899.

March 18-20: At the 8th Annual West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco,
Atari announced the 1050 disk drive, and Atari Logo (developed by
Logo Computer Systems, Inc. (LCSI) for Atari).

April: Atari announced that Michael Moone would no longer serve as president
of the Consumer Electronics Division, as the division would be consolidated
with the Home Computer Division.

April/May: Production of the 1200XL shifted from the USA to Taiwan.

May: Production of Atari 400/800 computers and 810 disk drives ended.

May: The retail price for the Atari 400 was reduced from US$199 to US$99.

June 1: Atari consolidated the businesses of the Home Computer Division with
the Consumer Electronics (home video games) Division.  There would now be
three Divisions for both home computers and home video games:
  - Atari Products Company (development & marketing, John Cavalier, president)
  - Atari Sales and Distribution Company (Donald Kingsborough, president)
  - Atari Manufacturing Company (Paul Malloy, president)

June: Atari introduced the 600XL and 800XL home computers at the Summer CES in
Chicago.  Retail prices would be $199/600XL and $299/800XL.  The
400/800/1200XL would be discontinued.  (The 1400XL and 1450XLD computers were
also introduced, but these never made it into production.)  Peripherals
introduced: 1050 disk drive, 1027 printer, 1030 modem, Light Pen +
AtariGraphics, Touch Tablet + AtariArtist, Remote Control Wireless Joysticks,
CX80 Trak-Ball, CX60 Ultimate Super Joystick (eventually shipped as the CX24),
AtariLab Starter Set With Temperature Module, AtariLab Light Module (AtariLab
developed by Dickinson College).  Software introduced by Atari: DOS 3, Logo,
Microsoft BASIC II, Pole Position, Ms. Pac-Man, Donkey Kong Junior, Pengo,
Robotron: 2084, Joust, Football, Tennis, Paint, AtariMusic I, AtariMusic II.
Battlezone was announced. (Also introduced or announced but never shipped: the
1060 CP/M Add-On Module, the 1090 XL Expansion System, Superman III, Soccer,
Tempest, Xevious, Peter Pan's Daring Journey or Peter Pan's Daring Escape
(Disney; later renamed: Captain Hook's Revenge), The Mysteries of Wonderland
(Disney), Star Trux, and the AtariLab Modules: Timekeeper, Lie Detector,
Reaction Time, Heartbeat, Biofeedback, Mechanics)

The 600XL had been known as "Surely" and the 800XL had been known as
"Surely Plus" inside Atari.

June 11-Sept 10: Atari co-sponsored the Punta Cana Club Med/Atari Computer
vacation getaway on the island of Hispaniola in the Dominican Republic.

Summer: Second year of Atari Computer Camps, held at seven sites nationwide
(U.S.): Greenfield MA, Faribault MN, East Stroudsburg PA, Asheville NC,
Glencoe MD, Danville CA, and San Diego CA.

Summer: Atari released the Atari 400 Home Computer 48K RAM Expansion Kit,
compatible with both the 8K and 16K versions of the 400.  $130 installed at
Atari Regional Repair Centers, or $110 from APX.

July 7: Warner Communications announced that Atari chairman Ray Kassar had
resigned, to be replaced by James J. Morgan.  Morgan was previously executive
vice president of Philip Morris USA, handling the company's US$4.3 billion
cigarette operations.  Until Morgan's arrival, Emanuel Gerard would serve as
interim chairman and CEO.

July: Production of the Atari 1200XL computer ended.

August: Atari Chairman-to-be James Morgan instituted another major management
reorganization at Atari.  Atari Sales and Distribution Company and Atari
Manufacturing Company were both dissolved, their functions to be merged into
the Atari Products Company division (home computers and home video game
systems), with 5 divisions of its own:
  - Atari Products Company (no division head)
  - - Management (marketing) (John Cavalier, president)
  - - Sales (Donald Kingsborough, president)
  - - Manufacturing (Paul Malloy, president)
  - - Engineering (John Farrand, president)
  - - International (Anton Bruehl, president)
The presidents of all Atari Products Co. divisions would report directly to
Morgan.

Sept83-June84: The "Catch On to Computers" program, a joint effort between
Atari and General Foods' Post Cereals, offered Atari computers, equipment, and
educational software to schools for collecting Post cereal proof-of-purchase
points over the 1983-1984 school year.

September: Ted Kahn stepped down as executive director of the Atari Institute
for Educational Action Research.  More than US$1 million worth of computers,
software, and cash stipends had been awarded to over 100 nonprofit
organizations since the program's founding in 1981.

September: Atari International (U.K.) announced The Loan Raider.

September: The Atari 800 (with 48K RAM, without Atari BASIC) would now retail
for US$165 while supplies lasted.

Fall: Atari begin shipping the 1050 disk drive with DOS 3 (replacing DOS
2.0S).

Fall: The Atari 600XL/800XL both shipped, retail price US$199/$299.

Fall: Atari shipped the Communicator II package, containing the 835 modem.

October 7: John Cavalier departed from his position as president of the
Management (marketing) division of the Atari Products Company.

October: Atari launched Atari Learning Systems, a new division dedicated to
product development, sales, and support for K-12 educators in the U.S.
Directed by Linda Gordon.

October: Atari France launched the "L'Atarien" magazine, issue 0 (pilot ?),
the "magazine of the Atari Club".  In its first issues, the magazine was
mostly centered on the 2600 VCS and 400/800 computers, but the focus quickly
shifted to the XL computers in the next issues.  Officially the magazine was
issued by "Rive Ouest - Cato Johnson France" on behalf of "PECF Atari France"
(Issue #0, Page 3).  "PECF" was the nickname of the company "Productions et
Editions Cinematographiques Francaises", a company 100% owned by Warner
Communications.

October-December: "Catch on to Computers" computer literacy training programs
for children, adults, and teachers, sponsored by Atari and General Mills' Post
Cereals, ran in 10 cities across the U.S.

November: Atari announced that because of production snags in Hong Kong, it
would be able to fill only 60 per cent of its Christmas orders for the 600XL/
800XL.  Atari also said that the 1400XL and 1450XLD would not ship until 1984.

November: Atari opened the Atari Adventure center in St. Louis, MO.  The
concept combined a traditional video game arcade with a hands-on public
computer classroom/lab featuring Atari XL computers, along with a new
technology display area.

"Atari sold roughly 250,000 of its 800 series computers last year"
  - Time magazine, July 16, 1984

1984
January 1: Atari increased U.S. dealer prices for the Atari 600XL and 800XL
by US$40 each, to US$180 and US$280, respectively.

January 7-10: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari introduced: the 1064 Memory
Module (for the 600XL), The Atari Translator, Moon Patrol, Jungle Hunt,
Millipede, Sky Writer, SynFile+, SynCalc, SynTrend, The Legacy (shipped as
Final Legacy), Player Maker, Screen Maker.  The APX title, Typo Attack would
be re-released on cartridge as part of Atari's standard product line.
(Atari confirmed that the unshipped 1400XL computer was canceled.  Atari CEO
James Morgan said the unshipped Atari 1450XLD was "exhibited only as a
demonstration of the company's intent to market a high-end computer in 1984,
although the specifics of such a product are currently under review."
--Creative Computing May 1984.)
(Software introduced by Atari but never shipped: Atari Pascal 2.0,
Atari Super PILOT, Captain Hook's Revenge, Berserk, Pop'R Spell, Mario Bros.
(a completely rewritten Mario Bros. was ultimately released in 1989))

January 14: At San Francisco's St. Francis Hotel, Atari awarded the third
annual Atari Star Award and US$25,000 to Mark Reid for his APX title,
Getaway!.

January 23: Atari chairman and CEO James Morgan announced another management
reorganization at Atari.  John Farrand was promoted to president of Atari, and
would also now serve as president and COO of the Atari Products Company
(home computers, home video games, and now coin-operated arcade games).

February: Atari 5200 production ended.

March: Fred Thorlin, director of APX since its 1982 inception, left Atari.

March 22-25: At the 9th West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco Atari's
exhibit included the APX title, Equestrian. (ROM #6)

Spring: I/O Issue Five turned out to be the final issue of Input/Output, the
magazine of the Atari Home Computer Club (Atari International (U.K.)).

April: Atari shut down the APX operation.  Software rights were returned to
the original authors.

May 8: In an elaborate press event, Atari and Lucasfilm introduced Ballblazer
and Rescue on Fractalus!, developed by Lucasfilm, to be shipped by Atari on
cartridge for the 400/800 computers and the 5200 SuperSystem.  (The Atari
computer versions were finally shipped on disk by Epyx (USA) and Activision
(UK) in 1985.  The 5200 versions were finally released by Atari Corp. in
1986.)

May 21: Atari disclosed that the 5200 was no longer in production.  More than
1 million 5200s had been sold to date. (Washington Post, May 22, 1984, C3)

June 3-6: Atari motto at the Summer CES in Chicago: "June 3, 1984--The Day The
Future Began." (The previously announced then cancelled 1450XLD, or some new
model similar to it, was now to ship in time for Christmas 1984.  The 1090 XL
Expansion System was shown again, and Atari also offered specs for a new high-
end computer under development.  None of these shipped.)  Atari introduced:
Proofreader (for AtariWriter), Track and Field, Crystal Castles.  Atari also
introduced The Last Starfighter, which was ultimately re-worked and shipped as
Star Raiders II in 1986.  (Also introduced by Atari but never shipped:
MindLink hardware device, Jr. Pac-Man, Peek-A-Boo, Hobgoblin, This Is Ground
Control, Through the Starbridge, Find It!, Elevator Action, Yaacov Agam's
Interactive Painting, The ABC of CPR: First Aid, Wheeler-Dealer, Simulated
Computer, Telly Turtle, Word Tutor, Letter Tutor, Gremlins, Pole Position II)

June: Atari France announced the SECAM model of the 800XL.  (The SECAM 600XL
was also announced, but this never made it into production.)  List prices:
600XL PAL: 2200 FRF ; 600XL SECAM: 2500 FRF ; 800XL PAL: 3200 FRF ; 
800XL SECAM: 3500 FRF ; 1010: 890 FRF ; 1050: 3690 FRF ; 1020: 2590 FRF; 
1027: 3490 FRF ; Atari Touch Tablet: 890 FRF

Month?: Exidy released the Max-A-Flex coin-operated arcade conversion system,
along with four games for the system, all developed by First Star Software:
Astro Chase, Boulder Dash, Bristles, Flip and Flop.  The Exidy Max-A-Flex
utilized an embedded Atari 600XL system.  See:
http://www.myatari.co.uk/issues/jan2003/maxaflex.htm

July 1-August 25: Third and final year of Atari Computer Camps.  Camps were
held at two locations: "Camp Atari-Poconos" (East Stroudsburg State College)
in East Stroudsburg PA, and "Camp Atari-New England" (Stoneleigh-Burnham 
School) in Greenfield MA.  Patricia Tubbs was Project Manager at Atari.

July 1: Agreed on this date, effective June 30, the assets of the Atari home
computer and home video game businesses were sold by Warner Communications to
Tramel Technology Ltd., which had been formed on May 17, 1984 by its chairman
and CEO Jack Tramiel (pronounced truh-MELL), the founder and former president
of Commodore International.  The transaction included exclusive use of the
"Atari" name and "Fuji" logo in the home computer and home video game markets,
along with the intellectual property rights (patents, trademarks, and
copyrights) owned by Atari in conjunction with its home computer and home
video game businesses.  The home computer and home video game rights to Atari
coin-operated arcade games developed to date were included as well.

Tramel Technology adopted the new name, Atari Corporation.  Jack Tramiel would
continue as chairman and CEO, and (son) Sam Tramiel would serve as president.

July: The new Atari Corp. halted all manufacturing, and dismissed most of
its inherited Silicon Valley workforce, roughly 1,000 people.

Upon a review of the existing product lines and inventories, it was
determined to resume production of the 800XL computer and the 2600 VCS.
The 600XL was discontinued, and further work on prototype new XL computer
models was halted.  There would be no new game releases for the already-
discontinued 5200.  (Atari would go on to release three 5200 titles in 1986).
An unannounced new cost-reduced design for the 2600 was also shelved.
(This "2600jr" would finally be released in 1986.)
Atari Connection magazine was shut down.

July 13: Warner Communications announced the sale of 78% of its WCI Labs
subsidiary (internal co-developer of the Atari XL computers) to WCI Labs'
management.  As a result of the transaction, which was made effective
retroactive to June 1, 1984, a new privately held company, the Take One
Company, was formed, with Steven T. Mayer as chairman and chief executive.
Warner Communications initially retained 22% ownership of Take One.

August: Atari engineers completed the prototype "800XLF" motherboard design,
to be used in new-production 800XL computers.  The new 800XL machines would
include the new FREDDIE memory management chip (previously developed at
Atari, Inc.), the new Revision C of Atari BASIC, and a reinstated chrominance
video signal on the Monitor port (missing on the 1200XL/600XL/800XL produced
by Atari, Inc.).  The new 800XL machines would be produced in PAL and (for
the first time, France-specific) SECAM versions, but not the NTSC version due
to ample existing supply of NTSC 800XL machines.

August: Atari reduced the retail price for the 800XL from US$250 to US$179.

November 13: Atari held a press conference at company headquarters in
Sunnyvale, CA in which they outlined their basic marketing strategy for 1985.
The U.S. price for the 800XL was reduced from US$179 to US$119.

December 6: It was reported that Atari would make an immediate 23 per cent
reduction to DM 499 (US$160) in the price of its 800XL home computer in West
Germany and similar cuts in the UK and Italy.  Atari estimated the company's
share of the West German home computer market at 8%, compared with 2% in 1983.
In the UK, the 800XL price cut was from 169 to 129 pounds.

December: Atari France announced the new prices of the XL computers range:
600XL PAL: 1599 FRF ; 800XL PAL: 2199 FRF ; 800XL SECAM: 2499 FRF; 
1010: 449 FRF ; 1050: 2699 FRF ; 1020: 899 FRF ; 1027: 3399 FRF;
Atari Touch Tablet: 649 FRF

December: Atari France resumed L'Atarien magazine with issue #5.  (It had been
on hold since issue #4, June 1984.)

December: Atari engineers completed the prototype "900XLF" motherboard design,
to be used in the forthcoming 65XE computer.

"The 800XL has sold almost 500,000 units through 1984" --Atari's Sigmund
Hartmann, Atari Explorer magazine, Summer 1985, p. 33.

"By the end of 1984, the Atari 800XL will have sold more than 600,000 units
since its introduction more than a year ago, according to Kenneth Lim of
Dataquest, a market research firm in San Jose." InfoWorld January 7/14, 1985

1985
January 5-8: Atari introduced the 65XE and 130XE home computers at the Winter
CES in Las Vegas.  (The 65XEP and 65XEM computers were announced, but these
never made it into production.)  The 800XL would be discontinued.  XE
peripherals introduced: the XMM801 and XDM121 printers and the XM301 modem.
XE Software introduced: AtariWriter Plus, Silent Butler, Song Painter (later
renamed Music Painter), The Learning Phone (PLATO).  (Also introduced but
never shipped: the XTM201 and XTC201 printers, the XC1411 and XM128 monitors,
and the XF521 disk drive. XE Software: Infinity (integrated word processor/
spreadsheet/database/telecomm software, developed for Atari by Matrix
Software / Vincent Garafolo), Shopkeeper, Atari Tutorial).
Epyx introduced Ballblazer and Rescue on Fractalus for the Atari 8-bit
computers, both announced but not shipped by the old Atari, Inc.

Winter: Atari shipped the The Learning Phone cartridge, designed at Atari by
Vincent Wu.  Atari access software for the PLATO Service Network (Control
Data Corporation) had been in development at Atari since 1981.

February: First issue of Atari Explorer magazine, the glossy published by
Atari (U.S.) Corp. in support of the XE and ST computers.  Headed by Neil
Harris.

February: The new "L'Atarien" magazine was now issued by "Pressimages" on
behalf of "PECF Atari France" (Issue #6, Page 3).

February: Retail prices from Atari France: 800XL SECAM: 1700 FRF ;
1050: 2600 FRF ; 1027: 2600 FRF

March 5: At the San Leandro Computer Club Atari announced that they had
"postponed plans to produce an 8-bit portable computer, due to lack of
interest."  Also, "plans for an XEM 8-bit music computer have been postponed
indefinitely due to problems with finalizing the AMY sound chip."  (The AMY
chip had been developed at Atari, Inc.  Atari Corp. now owned the technology,
but had not retained the original design team.  Thus, the new plan to
integrate AMY into the XE system, as the announced 65XEM computer, turned out
to be prohibitively expensive.  Atari ultimately sold the AMY chip and
technologies to a Milwaukee based audio design house called Sight & Sound.
See: http://www.atarimuseum.com/computers/8bits/xe/xe_protos/65xem.html )
John Skruch was introduced as software product manager for the 8-bit XE line.
(CN, Apr85, p. 19)

April: Atari shipped the 130XE, retail price US$149.95.  (The 65XE was
temporarily held out of the U.S. market due to ample supply of the 800XL.)

April: Atari France announced the availability of the Atari 1029 printer.  The
price was not announced.

April/May: Atari began shipping the 1050 disk drive with DOS 2.5 (replacing
DOS 3).

June: At the Summer CES in Chicago Atari introduced Planetarium (prototypes
sometimes called Home Astronomer).  (Atari also introduced VIP Professional
and GEM Desktop for the XE, but these never shipped.)  DataSoft re-introduced
3 titles for the XE previously shipped by Atari: Pole Position, Pac-Man, and
Dig Dug.

June: Atari France retail price for the 130XE SECAM: 1990 FRF

Fall: Atari shipped the disk-based AtariWriter Plus.  Designed and
programmed from scratch by William Robinson (the core word processor),
Ron Rosen (Mail Merge module), and R. Stanley Kistler (Proofreader module) for
Micro Fantasy, for Atari.  Manual by Jeffrey D. Bass.  Package included a
version for 48K/64K Atari computers as well as a version supporting the 128K
RAM of the 130XE.

Fall: Atari shipped the XM301 modem.

November 15: Atari announced the creation of an electronic entertainment
division, to be headed by Michael V. Katz, formerly head of Epyx.

November: At the fall COMDEX in Las Vegas Atari again showed the XMM801,
The Silent Butler, and Atari Planetarium, each to ship by Christmas.

1986
January 9: At the Winter CES in Las Vegas Atari introduced Star Raiders II
for the XE, and also announced (but did not show) the XC11 program recorder.
A redesigned version of the 2600 (unofficially, "2600 Jr."; previously
designed by Atari, Inc.) was introduced.

February: Cover date of Issue #10, the final issue of L'Atarien magazine from
Atari France.

February: Atari France retail prices: 130XE SECAM: 1490 FRF ; 1010: 490 FRF ;
1050: 1490 FRF ; 1029: 1490 FRF

March: Database Exhibitions staged the first Atari User Show at the Novotel
in Hammersmith, London, UK.  (Atari User May 1988)

March: At the Hanover Fair, Germany, Atari introduced a working prototype of
what would ultimately ship as the XEP80 interface, and they also described a
new DOS, which was later named ADOS, and which ultimately shipped as DOS XE.
(Atari also introduced plans for a 3.5" disk drive (the XF351) but this never
shipped.)

Spring: Atari shipped the 65XE, retail price US$99.95.

April 28-May 1: Atari introduced a working prototype of what would ultimately
ship as the SX212 modem at the Spring COMDEX (Computer Dealer's Exhibition)
in Atlanta.  Atari also announced that the 80 Column Card would be out "late
this summer."  (Atari also reiterated plans for a 3.5" disk drive (the XF351)
but this never shipped.)

June 1: Atari announced that David H. Ahl was the new editor of Atari Explorer
magazine.

June 1-4: Atari introduced the XEP80 interface at the Summer CES in Chicago.
Also featured: Atari Planetarium, Star Raiders II, and the XMM801.

Summer: Bob Gleadow, previously of Commodore, became the new general manager
of Atari UK.  Max Bambridge, the outgoing head of Atari UK, was transferred
to the Far East to oversee Atari manufacturing. (Atari User May 1988)

Sept/Oct: First issue of Atari Explorer magazine produced by the new
subsidiary, Atari Explorer Publications Corp. of Mendham, NJ, headed by David
H. Ahl, founder and former editor of Creative Computing magazine.

1987
January 8: Atari previewed the XE game system at the Winter CES in Las Vegas.

February: Atari introduced the XE video game system at the American
International TOY FAIR in New York.

June: "Flying High" was Atari's motto at the Summer CES in Chicago.  Atari 
introduced the XF551 and ADOS (renamed DOS XE when shipped), AtariWriter 80,
and SX Express!.  Atari introduced the two pack-in games for the XE game
system, Bug Hunt (proto names had been Troubleshooter or Blast 'Em) and
Flight Simulator II.  Atari announced that they would be re-releasing many
of their own 400/800/XL/XE cartridge titles for the XE, including Battlezone,
Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr., and the former disk title, Star Raiders II.
Atari also announced many new Atari XE cartridge titles, including Crossbow,
Hardball!, Fight Night, One-On-One Basketball, Archon, Ballblazer,
Rescue on Fractalus, Lode Runner, Blue Max, David's Midnight Magic, Gato, and
Barnyard Blaster.

Summer: Atari shipped the XDM121 printer.

September: Atari shipped the XEP80 interface and the SX212 modem.  (The
SX Express! disk software package for use with the SX212 would be sold
separately, later.)

Fall: Atari shipped the XE game system in late September, and it reached most
dealer shelves by mid-October, retail price US$150.  Package included:
Missile Command and Atari BASIC on ROM, keyboard, Joystick, Light Gun,
Bug Hunt cartridge and Flight Simulator II cartridge.

December: Atari sold 100,000 XE Game Systems in the U.S. at Christmas and did
not meet demand (Antic magazine, May 1988, p. 39)

December 31: From the Atari Annual Report: "In Czechoslovakia, the German
Democratic Republic, and Poland the Atari 800XE and 65XE computers have gained
brand dominance and are among the most popular systems being sold in these
countries."

Atari game cartridges re-released by Atari in 1987:
Caverns of Mars, Centipede, Donkey Kong Jr., Eastern Front (1941),
Final Legacy, Football, Galaxian, Joust, Millipede, Moon Patrol, Ms. Pac-Man,
Pac-Man, Pole Position, Super Breakout, Tennis

1988
January: Optimized Systems Software (OSS) was merged into ICD.

Winter: Atari shipped 12 new XE game cartridges: Archon, Ballblazer,
Barnyard Blaster, BattleZone, Blue Max, David's Midnight Magic, Fight Night,
HardBall, Lode Runner, One-On-One Basketball, Rescue on Fractalus,
Star Raiders II 

April: Atari shipped the XF551 disk drive (with DOS 2.5).

May: Sam Tramiel became CEO of Atari (replacing father Jack Tramiel).  Sam
Tramiel would also continue as president.  Jack Tramiel remained chairman.

June: Atari promoted the XE game system at the Summer CES in Chicago, under
their "Winning Package" theme.

Summer: Atari shipped the new XE game cartridge, Gato.

Fall: Atari opened an office of the Entertainment Electronics Division in
Chicago, headed by Larry Siegel, vice president of software development.
Mike Katz, based in Sunnyvale, remained president of the Entertainment
Electronics Division.

Fall?: Atari shipped the new XE game cartridge, Necromancer.

October 1, 1988 through September 30, 1989: "Atari Advantage" promotion
program by Atari (U.S.) for the 2600, 7800, and XE.  Collect 5 cartridges for
a free Atari T-shirt; 15 cartridges for a free cartridge; or 25 cartridges for
a 7800 for $25 or for an XE system or XE disk drive for $50, and "enter an
essay writing contest to win an expense-paid 7-day/6-night trip for you and a
guest to California.  Visit some of California's top tourist attractions
including a day at Atari headquarters (near San Francisco) to see how video
games are designed."

November: Atari (U.S.) announced the availability of the XG-1 Light Gun/
Bug Hunt package.  (The package never did ship in the U.S.  The loose XES2001
XG-1 Light Gun without Bug Hunt did ship in the U.S. in 1989.)

November/December: Atari (U.S.) offered a $50 consumer rebate on the purchase
of the XE game system.

December 31: From the Atari Annual Report: "Our XE line of 8-bit computer
systems is extremely popular throughout Eastern Europe, and most recently, has
begun to appear on retail shelves in the Soviet Union."

Atari game cartridges re-released by Atari in 1988: 
Donkey Kong, Super Breakout.
Atari also re-released the AtariWriter cartridge in 1988.

1989
January: Atari shipped DOS XE, and also began shipping the XF551 disk drive
with DOS XE (replacing DOS 2.5).  Developed by Bill Wilkinson for Atari.

January: Atari shipped 6 new XE game cartridges: Ace of Aces, Desert Falcon,
Mario Bros., Crystal Castles, Thunderfox, Into the Eagle's Nest

February: Mike Katz departed from Atari as president of the Entertainment
Electronics division.

February: Atari shipped 3 new XE game cartridges: Crime Buster, Dark Chambers,
Choplifter

Spring: Atari shipped 5 new XE game cartridges: Food Fight, Karateka,
Crossbow, Airball, Summer Games

May/June: Premier issue of Atarian magazine, "the official magazine of the
Atarian Video Game Club sponsored by Atari (U.S.) Corp."  Published by Atari
Explorer Publications, David H. Ahl, Publisher/Editor.

Summer: Atari shipped AtariWriter 80, programmed by William Robinson and Ron
Rosen for Micro Fantasy.  The package included Proofreader (programmed by
R. Stanley Kistler) and Mail Merge modules, and required the XEP80 interface.
Like AtariWriter Plus, the package included a version for 48K/64K Atari
computers as well as a version supporting the 128K RAM of the 130XE.

October: Third and final issue of Atarian magazine.

December 31: From the Atari Annual Report: "sales of games products such as
the 2600 and 7800 game systems and the range of older XE 8 bit computers
decreased by 35% to $101.6 million, or 24% of total net sales for the year
ended December 31, 1989, from $155.5 million, or 34%, of total net sales in
1988."  From the Atari 10-K: "The Company's traditional video game offerings
include the 2600 VCS, the 7800 ProSystem, and the XE Game System."

1990
March 15: Atari Explorer Publications was shut down, and Atari Explorer
magazine went on hiatus.

May?: At the Atari shareholders meeting, Atari stated that last year, 250,000
XE computers were sold.  In Poland, the XE sold 70,000 units, making it the
most popular computer in Poland. (Atari Interface, June/July 1990, p. 6)

1991
Jan/Feb: Return of Atari Explorer magazine, now headed by John Jainschigg and
published in-house at Atari.

May: "Atari Canada's General Manager Geoff Earle announces a new trade up
program for owners of Atari 8-bit computers to a 520STFM for $250.  The 8-bit
computer line is admitted to be discontinued."  (AtariUser Jan'92, p. 20)

May 14: At the Atari shareholders meeting, Atari stated that the XE was still
in production, being sold in South America, Eastern Europe and the Middle
East. (Atari Interface magazine, June 1991, p. 10)

November 23-24: Chicago Computerfest by Atari / Lake County Atari Computer
Enthusiasts (LCACE), Ramada Hotel O'Hare, Rosemont, Illinois.  Atari (U.S.)
brought substantially all of their remaining inventory of 8-bit computer
products for clearance sales.

December: "..as of Christmas 1991, Atari decided to discontinue the XEGS,
2600, and 7800 systems." --Tim Duarte, AtariUser magazine, July 1992, p. 22.

December 28: From the Atari 10-K SEC filing: "Atari's XE series computers are
targeted for the price conscious markets.  The 65XE and 130XE have 64k and
128k of internal RAM, and generally retail for less than $100 and $150,
respectively.  Both are supported by a variety of peripheral equipment and a
variety of software titles including entertainment software.  This computer
line retains compatibility with the Company's previous generation 8-bit
computer systems, i.e., the 400 and 800XL computers."

1992
Atari announced that support for all 8-bit products was discontinued as of the
beginning of this year, according to Atari Classics magazine. (Dec. 1992, p.4)

June 2: At the Atari stockholders meeting, Atari stated that the XE line of
computers was still being made.  Though not available in the U.S. market, XE
systems were being made for sale in Mexico, South America, Eastern Europe and
Germany. (Atari Interface magazine, Fall 1992, p. 19)

December 31: For the first time, the XE was not mentioned in Atari's Annual
Report to Shareholders.

1993
Jan/Feb: Final issue of Atari Explorer magazine.

November?: Rights to ICD (including OSS) products for the 8-bit Atari were
purchased by Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe / Mike Hohman)

1994
January 1: From the Atari Annual Report: "The Company also has some inventory
of its older 16-bit computer products and 8-bit game products, namely ST and
TT series of computers, 2600 and 7800 video games systems and XE computer and
Portfolio products.  As a result of these inventories being technologically
obsolete and noncompetitive, the Company has written off these inventories.
The Company is expecting minimal sales from these products in the future."

1996
July 30: Atari Corp. merged with JT Storage, Inc. into a new company,
JTS Acquisition Corp.  The merged company immediately adopted the new name,
JTS Corp.  The prior business of Atari would now be conducted through the
Atari Division of JTS; however "the Atari Division was not expected to
represent a significant portion of JTS business," JTS said.

1998
February 23: JTS sold substantially all of the assets of its Atari Division,
consisting primarily of the Atari intellectual property rights and license
agreements, to HIAC XI Corp., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hasbro Interactive
(itself a unit of toy company Hasbro, Inc.), for US$5 million.  HIAC XI was
then renamed Atari Interactive, Inc.

2001
January 29: Infogrames Entertainment announced completion of its acquisition
of Hasbro Interactive from Hasbro, renaming the subsidiary Infogrames
Interactive, Inc.  Atari Interactive was included in the transaction.

2003
May 7: Infogrames Entertainment folded its Infogrames Interactive (the former
Hasbro Interactive) subsidiary into its Atari Interactive subsidiary.

2009
May 29: The name of Infogrames Entertainment was changed to Atari.

TODAY: The Atari copyrights/trademarks/patents associated with the
400/800/XL/XE 8-bit Atari computer line are owned by Atari Interactive, Inc.,
a subsidiary of Atari, SA of Lyon, France.  http://corporate.atari.com/

===================================================================
End of atari-8-bit/faq
===================================================================
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